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NOTE  TO  THE  READER 
FRAGILE 

THE  PAPER  IN  THIS  VOLUME  IS  BRIHI  E 

PLEASE  HANDLE  WITH  CARt 


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THE^ 


AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


AND 


By   I.  GARLAND  PENN, 

PRINCIPAL  IN  LYNCHBURG,  VA.,  SCHOOLS,  AND  EX-EDITOR  LYNCH- 
BURG, vAm  laborer,  with  contributions  by 

Hon.  Frederick  Douglass,  Hon.  John  R  Lynch,  Hon.  J.  T.  Settle,  Hon.  D.  A. 

Straker.  Hon.  Jere  A.  Brown,  Hon.  T.  Thomas  Fortune.  Hon.  John  Mercer 

LangBton.  Hon.  P.  B.  8.  Piuchback.  Prof.  W.  8.  Scarborouifh.  Prof. 

J.  H.  Lawson,  Prof.  Booker  T.  Washington,  Prof.  George  E. 

Stephens.  Pro/.  Frank  Trigg,  Bishop  B.  W.  Arnett, 

D.  D.,  Rev.  J.  C  Price,  D.  D.,  Rev.  T.  G.  Stewart, 

D.  D.,  Rev.  A.  A.  Burleigh.  Rev.  L.  J. 

Coppin.  D.  D..  James  T.  Still,  M.  D., 

William  H.  Johnson.  M.  D., 

and  Mrs.  N.  F.  Mossell. 


Souls  dwell  in  printer's  tyi)e.— Joseph  Amef. 

Ink  Is  the  blood  of  the  printing  Y^re&s.—MUton. 

Hostile  newspapers  are  more  to  be  feared  than  bayonets.— A^opoJ^on. 

I  am  myself  a  gentleman  of  the  press  and  need  no  other  escutcheon. 
—Beacon^fleld. 

In  the  long  fierce  struggle  for  freedom  the  press,  like  the  church, 
counted  its  martyrs  by  thousands.— Pr«^/ien/  Garfidd. 


SPBINGFIELDf    MASS. 

WILLEY  &  CO.,  Publishers. 
1891. 


T.< 


Entered  aooording  to  Act  of  CoDfp-eas  in  the  Offloe  of 
the  Librarian  of  Congr^a  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  in  the 
Tears  1890  and  1801,  by  I.  Garland  Penn. 

All  rights  reserved. 

Sold  only  by  subscription. 


OULRK  W.  BRTATC  *  CO.,  FRIIITBIIS, 
SPBINOriBLD.  MASS 
OBABLBS  VAN  VLACK,  BLECTROTTPBR. 


TO 

THK  UNCONQUERABLE  HOST  OF 

AFRO-AMERICANiD 

WHO  ARE  LAYING  THEIR  SACRIFICES 
UPON  THE  EDITORIAL  ALTAR 

FOR  THEIR   RACE, 

THIS  VOLUME   IS   RESPECTETJLLY 

DEDICATEE). 


INTRODUCTION. 


"  We  live  in  deeds,  not  years ;  in  thoughts,  not  breaths ; 
In  feelings,  not  in  figures  on  a  dial ; 
We  should  count  time  by  heart  throbs ;  he  most  lives 
Who  thinks  most,  feeb  the  noblest,  acts  the  best." 


Having  been  requested  by  Mr.  Penn  to  write  a  brief  introduc- 
tion to  his  book,  I  cheerfully  consented  to  do  so  from  several 
considerations.  In  the  first  place,  I  admire  the  manly  energy, 
venture,  and  intellectual  power  displayed  by  him  in  undertaking 
to  chronicle  facts  concerning  Colored  American  journalism. 
Then  again,  I  heartily  love  to  encourage  intellectual  and  moral 
efiForts  of  young  Colored  American  men  and  women.  For  the  last 
ten  years,  I  have  endeavored  to  do  this  as  a  teacher,  associate, 
and  friend.  Suidas  relates  that  Thucydides,  when  a  boy,  listened 
with  delight  to  Herodotus  as  he  recited  publicly  his  famous  history 
at  the  great  Olympic  festival,  and  that  he  was  so  deeply  moved 
that  he  shed  tears.  Thucydides  was  so  inspired  by  the  occasion 
that  he  finally  became  a  more  distinguished  historian  than 
Herodotus  himself.  It  is  possible  that  a  perusal  of  this  unpreten- 
tious sketch  may  so  energize  and  inspire  some  boy  or  girl,  young 
man  or  woman,  that  he  or  she  will  determine  to  perform  for  the 
race  a  greater  service  than  Mr.  Penn  has  rendered. 

I.     HIS  BIRTH  AND  EARLY  TRAINING. 

Irvine  Garland  Penn  was  born  in  the  year  1867,  in  New 
Glasgow,  a  small  village  in  Amherst  County,  Virginia.  His 
father  and  mother,  Isham  Penn  and  Mariah  Penn,  were  fully 
aware  of  the  superior  advantages  of  a  public  school  training  to 
their  children,  and  moved  to  the  city  of  Lynchburg  when  Irvine 
was  five  years  old.  He  passed  with  success  through  the  primary 
and  grammar  grades  of  the  schools,  and  in  1882  entered  the  junior 
class  of  the  high  school.  Circumstances,  over  which  he  had 
no  control,    prevented  him  from    attending    school  during  the 


INTRODUCTION. 

succeeding  school  year,  and,  in  consequence,  he  taught  a  school 
in  Bedford  County,  Virginia.  After  teaching  for  one  school  year, 
he  decided  to  re-<  nter  the  high  school,  from  which  he  graduated 
in  1886.  Before  he  graduated,  he  accepted  a  position  on  the 
editorial  stafiE  of  The  Lynchburg  Laborer, 

II.    AS  AN  EDUCATOR. 

The  subject  of  our  sketch  has  had  almost  five  years  experience 
as  a  teacher,  and  has  successfully  managed  county  and  city 
schools.  During  1883-4,  he  taught  with  credit  to  himself,  and 
satisfaction  to  his  superintendent  and  patrons,  a  school  in  Bedford 
County,  Virginia.  During  the  school  year  1886-7,  he  superin- 
tended a  school  in  Amherst  County,  Virginia.  In  1887  he  was 
elected  as  a  teacher  in  the  public  schools  of  Lynchburg,  and,  in  a 
short  time,  arose  to  the  position  of  principal.  Though  he  is 
young,  his  executive  ability  enables  him  to  discharge  well  the 
duties  of  his  responsible  post. 

Mr.  Penn  seeks  to  inform  himself  on  the  principles  and 
methods  of  education.  He  aims  to  keep  abreast  of  the  times  by 
purchasing  and  studying  the  works  of  leading  writers  on  educa- 
tional methods.  He  is  in  deep  sympathy  with  The  New  Educa- 
tion, which  has  so  materially  changed  in  the  last  eight  years  our 
educational  modes  and  systems.  Nor  is  he  insensible  to  the 
merits  and  excellencies  of  leading  Colored  American  educators, 
but  aims  to  learn  from  all  that  he  may  make  his  own  school  the 
more  excellent.  He  has  attended  several  institutes  for  teachers, 
and  exhibited  earnestness  and  industry  in  class  recitations.  As 
an  educator,  he  takes  as  his  motto — "Labor  et  perseverentia 
omnia  vincunt."    (Labor  and  persevarence  conquer  all  things.) 

III.  AS  AN  EDITOR  AND  WRITER. 
The  subject  of  our  sketch  accepted  a  position  upon  the  editorial 
staff  of  The  Lynchburg  Laborer  heiore  his  graduation.  In  1886 
Messrs.  Penn  and  Johnson  purchased  it,  and  Mr.  Penn  took 
control  of  the  editorial  department.  The  paper  was  not  properly 
supported,  and  its  publication  was  suspended.  As  editor  of  this 
paper,  Mr.  Penn  proved  himself  a  skilled  and  forcible  writer. 
Though  he  was  only  about  twenty  years  of  age,  he  evinced  a  good 
acquaintance  with  practical  life  and  the  needs  of  the  race.  He 
freely  and  frequently  discussed  questions  relating  to  the  material, 


INTRODUCTION. 

intellectual,  moral,  and  religious  welfare  of  his  people  and  state. 
The  unusual  ability  displayed- by  this  youthful  editor  won  for  him 
laudable  encomiums,  even  from  several  white  editors  in  Virginia. 
The  Spirit  of  the  Valley,  edited  by  D.  Sheffey  Lewis,  said :  *»  We 
have  received  The  Lynchburg  Virginia  Laborer,  edited  by  I. 
Garland  Penn.  It  is  edited  with  dignity  and  ability.  The  Lynch- 
burg Daily  Advance  gave  this  testimony:  "We  most  cheer- 
fully commend  The  Lynchburg  Virginia  Laborer  to  all  the  sons 
of  toil." 

Our  subject  ardently  loves  newspaper  work.  He  was  once  a 
pleasing  and  trenchant  writer  for  The  Richmond  Planet  and  The 
Virginia  Lancet,  He  is  at  present  a  correspondent  for  The 
Knoxville  Negro  World  and  The  New  York  Age,  He  seems  to 
observe  closely,  and  he  expresses  his  ideas  with  great  clearness 
and  strength.  No  one  needs  to  read  a  sentence  of  Addison  or 
Washington  Irving  twice  to  understand  it.  This  may  with  truth 
be  said  of  the  young  man  whose  life  we  are  now  considering. 

IV.  AS  A  SPEAKER. 
Mr.  Penn  is  an  easy,  fluent  speaker.  Though  he  has  on  several 
occasions  been  requested  to  make  political  speeches  in  the  Old 
Dominion,  he  prefers  to  confine  his  speech-making  to  educational 
subjects.  He  has  frequently  delivered  discourses  to  Sunday- 
Schools,  and  has  been,  in  several  instances,  invited  to  speak  on 
prominent  public  occasions.  At  the  annual  conference  of  the 
Colored  M.  E.  Church  which  met  in  Charlottesville  in  July,  1889, 
Mr.  Penn  delivered  a  convincing  address,  advocating  the  estab. 
lishment  of  a  Theological  and  Normal  School  within  Virginia. 

V.  HIS  REPUTATION. 
It  may  be  readily  affirmed  from  what  has  been  said,  that  Mr* 
Penn  is  one  of  the  few  young  men  of  our  state  who  enjoys  national 
recognition.  He  has  on  several  occasions  been  honored  by  some 
of  our  leading  men.  On  March  16,  1889,  a  fine  cut  and  well- 
written  sketch  of  him  appeared  in  The  Freeman  oi  Indianapolis. 
Creditable  sketches  of  him  have  also  adorned  the  brilliant 
columns  of  The  Cleveland  Gazette  and  The  Negro  World  of 
Knoxville.  His  publication  of  his  intention  to  write  a  history  of 
Colored  American  journalism  has  brought  him  into  closer  contact 
with  the  foremost  men  of  our  race,  and  caused  him  to  receive 
numerous  complimentary  notices. 


INTRODUCTION. 

He  has  been  repeatedly  honored,  too,  by  the  people  of  his  own 
state.  He  was  twice  appointed  commissioner  at  Lynchburg  for 
the  Petersburg  Industrial  Association.  He  is  Recording  Steward 
of  the  Jackson  Street  M.  £.  Church  and  Superintendent  of  the 
Sunday-School.  The  business  tact  of  our  subject  was  fully 
recognized  in  his  election  as  Secretary  of  the  Board  of  Directors 
of  the  Lynchburg  Real  Estate  Loan  and  Trust  Company. 

Mr.  Penn  is  a  member  of  the  Colored  M.  £.  Church,  and  a  man 
of  good  moral  character.  He  respects  himself,  and  is  respected 
by  his  friends  and  acquaintances. 

VL     HIS  PRESENT  WORK. 

The  work  for  which  this  introduction  is  prepared  will  be  of  no 
little  benefit  to  the  race.  It  will  serve  as  a  cyclopaedia  of  informa- 
tion on  a  power  which  has  exerted  an  untold  influence  on  our 
progress.  "  Afro-American  Journalism  and  its  editors"  must  of 
necessity  cover  a  broad  field.  Its  conception  is  grand,  and  the 
labor  and  culture  essential  to  its  accomplishment  are  great  and 
varied.  It  may  be  thought  by  some  that  Mr.  Penn  is  too  young 
for  the  undertaking.  The  fallacy  of  such  an  idea  is  apparent  from 
the  fact,  that  the  world's  literature  is  greatly  indebted  to  young 
men  and  women. 

Thomas  Sackville  wrote,  at  the  age  of  twenty-three,  *' A  Mirror 
for  Magistrates,"  and  *'  Rare  Ben  Johnson,"  at  the  same  age, 
produced  "Every  Man  in  his  Humor."  *'The  Fall  of  Robes- 
pierre" was  finished  by  Samuel  Taylor  Coleridge  before  he  was 
twenty-two,  and  "Hours  of  Idleness"  was  completed  by  Lord 
Byron,  at  the  age  of  twenty.  Amelie  Rives  conceived  and 
brought  forth  "The  Quick  and  the  Dead,"  before  she  was  twenty- 
one,  and  Phillis  Wheatley  issued  a  volume  of  poems  before  she 
was  twenty.  "  Pleasures  of  Hope,"  "  Essay  on  Criticism,"  "  As  a 
Man  and  Not  a  Man,"  were  produced,  respectively,  by  Thomas 
Campbell,  Alexander  Pope,  and  A.  A.  Whitman,  when  each  was 
about  twenty.  How  remarkable  it  is  that  Euripides  penned  a 
laudable  tragedy  and  William  Cullen  Bryant  wrote  "  Thanatopsis," 
when  they  were  each  eighteen;  that  Aristophanes,  at  the  age  of 
seventeen,  exhibited  his  first  comedy;  and  that  Robert  Burns  and 
Hannah  More  produced,  respectively,  "  Handsome  Nell"  and 
**The  Search   after  Happiness,"  when   each  was  about  sixteen. 


INTRODUCTION. 

And  what  shall  we  say  of  that  wonderful  instance  of  precocious 
mentality,  Thomas  Chatterton,  who,  at  the  age  of  eleven,  wrote 
excellent  verses,  and  who,  before  he  was  eighteen,  successfully 
forged  descriptions,  names,  and  poems  from  the  antiquated 
coffer  of  Canyt.ge,  in  the  church  at  Bristol? 

An  investigation  of  Colored  American  literature  reveals  the 
fact,  that  most  of  our  literature  was  produced  before  our  authors 
were  thirty-five  years  of  age.  This  is  certainly  true  of  the  works 
of  B.  T.  Tanner;  W.  S.  Scarborough;  R.  C.  O.  Benjamin;  Phillis 
Wheatley ;  A.  A.  Whitman;  T.  T.  Fortune  ;  E.  A.  Randolph ;  J.  J. 
Coles;  C.  W.  B.  Gordon;  and  others  whom  I  might  mention.  It 
may  not  be  inappropriate  for  me  to  state,  at  this  juncture,  that 
**The  Negro  Race,  a  Pioneer  in  Civilization,"  was  penned  when  I 
was  almost  twenty-two;  "The  Life  and  Times  of  Paul,"  at 
twenty-four;  "Science,  Art,  and  Methods  of  Teaching,"  at  twenty- 
six  ;  and  **  Freedom  and  Progress"  is  now  ready  for  press. 

In  the  light  of  these  historic  facts,  let  no  one  think  or  say  that 
Mr.  Penn  is  too  young  and  inexperienced  for  the  compilation  of 
his  valuable  work.  Let  us  be  thankful  that  among  us  are  young 
men  and  women  who  are  able  to  think  and  pen  thoughts  worthy 
of  themselves  and  race.  Let  us  encourage,  by  word  and  deedt 
every  intellectual  and  moral  effort  put  forth  by  our  young  men 
and  women  for  the  enlightenment  and  advancement  of  our  people* 

This  grand  work  should  illumine  with  its  light  every  home  of 
our  beloved  state,  and  every  fireside  of  the  Colored  Americans  of 
our  country.  Its  many  principles  and  precepts;  its  record  of 
struggles  and  conflicts,  born  of  contending  forces ;  its  narration  of 
the  lives  and  deeds  of  energetic,  intelligent  men  and  women  are 
well  calculated  to  impart  useful  knowledge,  beget  lofty  aspira- 
tions, and  direct  the  life  to  high,  manly,  womanly  achievements. 
Its  every  sentence  is  pregnant  with  wholesome  instruction,  and 
its  every  page  admonishes  us  to  exert  our  best  endeavors  to 
prevent  and  allay  racial  antagonism  and  estrangement,  and  to 
labor  for  the  time  when  white  and  colored  citizens  alike  will  vie 
with  each  other  in  making  Virginia  the  foremost  state  in  the 
Nation. 

Daniel  B.  Williams. 

Professor  of  Ancient  Languages,  and  Instructor  in  Methods  of 
Teaching  in  the  V.  N.  &  C.  I.,  Ettrick  P.  O.,  Va.,November  7,  1889. 


PREFACE. 


In  preparing  this  work  on  the  Afro-American  Press,  I  am  not 

unmlndfiii  of  the  fact,  that  while  I  pursue  somewhat  of  a  beaten  road  I 

deal  with  a  work  which  has  proven  a  power  in  the  promotion  of  truth, 

justice  and  equal  rights  for  an  oppressed  people.    The  reader  cannot 

iaii  to  recognize  some  achievement  won  by  that  people,  the  measure 

of  whose  rights  is  yet  being  questioned,  and  will  readily  see  that  the 

social,  moral,  political  and  educational  ills  of  the  Afro- American  have 

been  fittingly  championed  by  these  A  fro- American  journals  and  their 

editors.    Certainly,  the  importance  and  magnitude  of  the  work  done 

by  the  Afro-American    Press,  the  scope  of   its    influence,  and  the 

beneficent  results  accruing  from  its  labors,  cannot  fail  of  appreciation. 

In  seeking  the  information  contained  in  this  volume,  great  pains 

have  been    taken,  and  expense   incurred    to   insure   its    truth    and 

accuracy.    The  aid  of  those  of  experienced  years,  of  both  races,  has 

been  secured.    The  information  has  been  carefully  given  and  the  facts 

culled  and  put  together  with  the  utmost  care  and  thought. 

Believing  that  credit  is  at  all  times  due  those  who  merit  it,  I  am 
pleased  to  announce  the  names  of  some  friends  to  whom  I  shall  be  ever 
grateful,  and  for  whose  kindness  I  shall  always  be  ready  to  say  words 
expressive  of  my  thankfulness : 

Mr.  Jno.  J.  Ziiille,  an  Afro- American  printer  of  abolition  times; 
P.  W.  Ray,  M.  D. ;  Prof.  R.  T.  Greener;  Miss  Florence  Ray;  Mr. 
Robert  H.  Hamilton;  Editors:  A.  M.  Hodges,  T.  Thos.  Fortune; 
R.  H.  Hamilton ;  Dr.  Alex.  Crummell ;  Hon.  Frederick  Douglass; 
Dr.  William  H.  Johnson ;  Mr.  John  H.  Deyo ;  Prof.  Joseph  E. 
Jones,  D.  D. ;  Bishop  Benj.  W.  Arnett ;  Hon.  J.J.  Spellmun,  and 
others.  These  gentlemen  and  ladies  I  greatly  thank  for  the  loan  of 
books,  papers,  periodicals,  and  for  their  kindness  for  gratuitous 
information.  I  abo  remember  the  aid  of  Hon.  E.  E.  Copper,  editor  of 
TKe  Freeman^  for  the  loan  of  some  cuts,  and  the  New  South ^  at  Beaufort, 
8.  C,  and  other  papers,  for  gratuitous  editorial  mention.  Above  all,  I 
can  not  forget  the  aid  of  friendly  interest  as  well  as  the  great  honor  my 


PREFACR 

distinguished  friend  and  brother,  Prof.  D.  B.  WilliamSi  A.  M.,  of  the 
Virginia  Normal  and  Collegiate  Institute  does  me  in  the  association  of 
his  name  with  this  poor  effort.  As  the  reader  will  note.  Prof.  Williams 
has  written  the  introductory  sketch,  for  which  I  am  ander  great 
obligations  to  him. 

The  object  in  putting  forth  this  feeble  effort  is  not  for  the  praise  of 
men  or  for  the  reaping  of  money,  but  to  promote  the  future  welfare  ot 
Afro- American  journalism  by  telling;  to  its  constituents  the  story  of  its 
heroic  labors  in  their  behalf.  As  I  have  said  in  my  circular  to  editors, 
January  Ist,  1890,  so  say  I  now :  **  I  believe  that  the  greatest  reason 
why  our  papers  are  not  better  supported  is  because  the  Afro-Americans 
do  not  sufficiently  comprehend  the  responsibilities  and  magnitude  of 
the  work." 

If  the  eyes  of  my  people  shall  be  opened  to  see  the  Afro-American 
Press  as  it  is,  and  as  it  labors  with  the  greatest  sacrifice,  I  shall  feel 
that  Providence  has  blessed  my  work  and  that  I  have  been  amply 
rewarded.  This  volume  may  find  its  way  to  the  cottage  of  the  lowly 
and  humble,  the  home  of  the  scholar  and  the  hands  of  the  critic.  I 
would  invite  its  earnest  perusal  by  each  and  all,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
pray  your  most  lenient  criticism  of  its  make-up,  construction  and 
thought.  I  would  ask  you  to  speak  a  good  word  for  it,  not  in  the  hope 
of  placing  honor  upon  my  head  or  the  dime  in  my  pocket,  but  in  the 
hope  of  forming  a  favorable  sentiment  and  creating  an  able  and 
constant  support  for  the  Afro-American  editor  whose  labor  unites  with 
all  in  building  up  and  furthering  the  interest  of  our  common  country. 
Lynchburg,  Va.,  1890. 


P.  S.  To  the  hundreds  of  men  and  women  laboring  in  journalism, 
the  author  owes  an  apology  for  not  making  personal  mention  of  all  of 
our  papers  now  published,  and  their  editors;  also,  the  numerous  corre- 
spondents and  great  phalanx  of  our  brave  and  ambitious  women  who 
have  espoused  the  cause.  Many  of  you  are  able  and  efficient,  and  all 
of  you  deserve  particular  mention,  but  you  will  agree  that  it  would  take 
ten  volumes,  yea,  more,  to  make  satisfactory  personal  mention  in  this 
work  of  the  many  laboring  for  the  race  and  for  humanity. 


CONTENTS. 


PART   I. 


CHAPTER  I. 

FiBST  Afro-American  Newspapers — Freedom's  Jour- 
nal. AXi>  Rights  of  All — 1827-30,  New  York, 


25—31 


CHAPTER  II. 
Weekly  Advocate,  18.'i7,  New  York, 

CHAPTER  III. 
Colored  American,  1837-42,  New  York, 

CHAPTER  IV. 
Elevator,  1842,  Albany,  N.  Y., 


.    32—34 


.    35—47 


4S— 51 


CHAPTER  V. 


National  Watchman  and  The  Clarion,  1842-45,  Troy, 

N.  Y., \     52—54 


CHAPTER  VI. 

People's    Press     and    The    Mystery, 
York,  and  Pittsbur*;,  Pa., 

CHAPTER  VII. 
Genius  of  Freedom,  1845-47,  New  York, 

CHAPTER  VIII. 
Ram's  Horn,  1847-48,  New  York, 


184;3-47,     New 


.     55 — 57 


58—60 


61—65 


i6  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER  IX. 
North  Star,  1847-65,  Rochester,  N.  Y.,     .  .        .    66—70 

CHAPTER  X. 

CONTEMPOBABIES  OF  THE  NORTH  StAR,  1848-65,  SSTTSCUSe, 

N.  Y. ;    New  York;  Cleveland,  O. ;    San  Francisco, 

Cal.,  and  Philadelphia,  Pa., 71—81 

CHAPTER  XL 
The  Anolo-African,  1859-65,  New  York,  ....    83—88 

CHAPTER  XII. 

Contemporaries  of  the  Anglo- African,  1861-69,  Cin- 
cinnati, O.,  and  San  Francisco,  Cal.,      ....    90 — 99 

CHAPTER  XIII. 

The  Colored  American,  first  newspaper  published  in 

the  South,  1865-67,  Augusta,  Ga.,    .  100—104 

CHAPTER  XIV. 

Contemporaries  of  the  Colored  American,  1865-66, 

Baltimore,  Md. ;  ,  Tenn.,      ....         105—106  , 

CHAPTER  XV. 

A  General  View    of    Afro-American    Journalism, 

1870-90, 107—115 

CHAPTER  XVI. 

Afro-American  Magazines,  iaS8-90,  New  York;  Phila- 
delphia, Pa.;  Evanston,  111.;  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  and 
Salisbury,  N.  C 116—120 

CHAPTER  XVII, 

The  Daily  Afro-American  Journals,  1882-91,  Cairo, 
111.;  Baltimore,  Md.;  Columbus,  Ga.,  and  Knoxville, 
Tenn., 127—1:^ 


CONTENTS. 
PART    II. 


17 


CHAPTEK  XVIII. 
BKETCnKS  AXD  POBTRAITS  OF  AfKO-AmEBICAN  EDITORS,  133 — :332 

Timothy  Tuomas  Fortuxk,  editor  Xew  York  Age,         ,  133 

Col.  William  Mubrell,  editor  New  Jersey  Trumpet,  138 

Rev.  J.  Alrxakdeb  Holmf.h,  editor  Central  Methodist,   , 

Staunton,  Va., 140 

S.  N.  Hill  and  William  H.  Dewev,  editors  People's 

Advocate  and  Golden  Rule,  New  Berne,  N.  C,     .        .  141 

Rev.  G.  W.  Gayles,  editor  Baptist  Signal,  Natchez,  Miss.,         142 

Christopheu  J.  Perry,  editor  Tribune,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,         145 

Revs.  R.  C.  Ransom,  William  S.  Lowry,  Daniel  S. 
Bextley  and  William  F.  Brooks,  Afro-American 
Spokesman,  Pittslmrg,  Pa., 148 

Magnus  L.  Robinson,  editor  National  Leader.  Washing- 
ton, D.  C, 150 

John  Westley  CkomWkli-,   editor   People's  Advocate, 

Washington.  D.  C., 154 

William  H.  Anderson,  Ben.jamin  B  1'eliiam,  W.  II. 
Stoweks  and  Uoijekt  Peliiam  Jr..  Detroit  Plain- 
dealer,  Detroit,  Micli 158 

Prof.  J.  E.  Jones,  I).  I).,  editor  African  Missions,  Rich- 
mond, Va., 104 

Hon.  M.  M.  Lewey,  editor  Florida  Sentinel,  Gainesville, 

Fla., 170 

Col.  J.  T.  Wilson,  editor  Industrial  Day,  Richmond,  Va.,  174 

Hon.  J.  II.  WiLr.iAMSON,  editor  North  Carolina  Gazette, 

Raleigh,  N.  C, 180 

John  Mitchell,  Jr.,  editor  Planet.  Riclnnond,  Va.,         .  183 

Hon.  C.  n.  J.  Taylor,  Southern  Appeal,  Atlanta,  Ga.,    .  187 

Hon.  John  L.  Waller,  ex-editor  Western  Recorder  and 

American  Citizen,  Topeka,  Kan., 188 

Rev.  C.  B.  W.  Gordon,  editor  National  Pilot,  Peters- 
burg, Va., 194 

Hon.  John  C.  Dancy,  editor  Star  of  Zion,  Salisbury,  N.  C,  107 


i8  CONTENTS. 

William  E.  Kixo,  editor  Fair  Play,  Meridian,  Miss.,        .         200 

Rev.  W.  H.  Mixon,  ex-editor  Dallas  Post,  Selran,  Ala.,    .  201 

Thomas  T.  Henry,  ex-editor  Enterprise,  South  Boston, 

Va., 202 

Hox.  S.  J.  Bampfield,  G.   W.  Anderson  and  I.  Ran- 
dall Reid;  New  South,  Beaufort,  S.  C,      .        .        .  205 

Prof.  E.   H.  Lipscombe,  Mountain  Gleaner,  Asheville, 

N.  C, 210 

William  F.  Simpson  and  Abel  P.  Caldwell;  Monthly 

Echo,  Philadelphia,  Pa., 213 

Rev.  W.  J.  White,  editor  Georgia  Baptist,  Augusta,  Ga.,         216 

Levi  E.  Christy,  editor  Indianapolis  World,  Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., 222 

Rev.  a.  E.  P.  Albert,  D.  D.,  editor  Southwestern  Chris- 
tian Advocate,  New  Orleans,  La.,  ....  22.3 

Rev.  Marshall  W.  Taylor,  D.  D.,  ex-editor  Southwest- 
em  Christian  Advocate, 227 

R.    D.  Littlejohn  and   I).   A.    Williams,   New  Light, 

Columbus,  Miss., 228 

J.  Dallas  Bowser,  editor  Gate  City  Press,  Kansas  City, 

Mo., 230 

Hon.   James  J.   Spellman,   editor   Baptist    Messenger, 

Jackson,  Miss., 232 

Rev.   W.  B.   Johnson,  I).   I).,  editor  Wayland  Alumni 

Journal,  Washington,  1).  C, 235 

John  Q.  Adams,  editor  Western  Ai>peal,  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  237 

I'ROF.  J.  T.  Bailey,  editor  Little  Kock  Sun,  Little  Rock, 

Ark., 240 

David  C.  Carter,  ex-editor  Virginia  (.'ritic,  Staunton,  Va.,  245 

Wm.  Buford,  editor  Kansa.s  Dispatch,  Little  Rock,  Ark.,  215 

Rev.  W.  H.  Anderson,  ex-editor  Baptist  Watch  Tower, 

Evansville,  Ind , 246 

Rev.  C.  C.  Stumm,  D.  D.,  editor  Christian  Banner,  Pliila- 

delphia,Pa., 248 

Rev.  E.  W.  S.  Peck,  D.  D.,  ex-editor  Conference  Journal, 

Baltimore,  Md., 255 

S.  B.  Turner,  editor  State  Capital,  Si)ringtield,  111.,         .         250 


CONTENTS.  19 

Ret.  Joseph  A.  Booker,  A.  B.,  editor  Baptist  Vanguard, 

Little  Rock,  Ark., 258 

Rev.  R.  De  B  aptistk,  D.  D.,  ex-editor  Conservator,  Chicago.  262 

Rev.  T.  W.  Coffee,  editor  Vindicator,  Eufala,  Ala.,       .  266 

Rev.  S.  D.  Russell,  editor   Torchlight   Appeal,  Fort 

Worth,  Tex.,      ...  267 

W.  C.  Smffh,  editor  Charlotte  Messenger,  Charlotte,  N.  C,  270 

Hon.  Richabd  Nelson,  editor  Freeman's  Journal,  Gal- 
veston, Tex., 274 

Rev.  F.  M.  Hamilton,  editor  Christian  Index,  Nashville, 

Tenn., 278 

Hon.  H.  C.  Smith,  editor  Cleveland  Gazette,  Cleveland,  O.,  280 

Hon.  Chas.  Hbnbley,  editor  Gazette,  Huntsville,  Ala.,   .  28^ 

William  Calvin  Chase,  editor  Washington  Bee,  Wash- 
ington, D.  C, 287 

Augustus  M.  Hodoes,  Brooklyn  Sentinel,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  291 

R.  A.  J0XE8,  editor  Cleveland  Globe,  Cleveland,  O.,  ,  292 

J.  T.  Morris,  associate  editor  Cleveland  Globe,  Cleveland, 

O., 295 

Rev.  D.  J.  Sauxders,  editor  Afro-American  Presbyterian, 

Wilmington,  N.  C, 299 

Rev.  a  N.  McEwen,  editor  Baptist  Leader,  Montgomery, 

Ala., 300 

Rev.  Calvin  S.  Brown,  A.  B.,  editor  Baptist  Pilot,  Win- 
ton,  N.  C, 306 

Rev.  George  W.  Clinton,  A.  B.,  editor  Afro-American 

Spokesman,  Pittsburg,  Pa., 309 

William  B.  Townsend,  editor  Leavenworth  Advocate,    .  312 

Henry  Fitzbutler,  M.  D.,  editjr  Ohio  Falls  Express,     .  314 

R.  C.  O.  Benjamin,  editor  San  Francisco  Sentinel,     .        .  320 

Dr.  E.  a.  Williams,  editor  Journal  of  the  Lodge,      .        .  326 

Prof.  D.  W.  Davis,  editor  Young  Man's  Friend,        .        .  326 

Rev.  M.  W.  Clair,  editor  Methodist  Banner,        .        .        .  330 

CHAPTER  XIX. 
Illustrated  Afro-American  Journalism,    .       .        334 — 339 
Hon.  Edwabd  E.  Cooper,  editor  The  Freeman,  Indian- 
apolis, Ind., 334 


20 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER  XX. 

Pbominbxt  Afro-Ambbicax  Cobbesponb&vts,  Contbib- 

UT0B8  AND  Rbpobtbbs, 340—366 

Pbof.  Daniel  Babclay  Williams,  Petersbui'g,  Va.,      .  840 

J.  E.  Bbuce  (Bruce  Grit),  Washington,  D.  C,    .        .        .  344 

Rev.  W.  H.  Fbanklin,  Rogersville,  Tenn.,                 .        .  347 

John  (tOBDON  Stbeet,  Boston,  Mass.,         ....  352 

Rev.  Bp.  Henby  McNeal  Tubneb,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  At- 
lanta, Ga., 

Robebt  T.  Teamoh,  Boston,  Mass.,    . 

W.  Allison  Sweeney,  Indianapolis,  Ind  , 


Ala 


CHAPTER  XXI. 
Afbo-Amebican  Women  in^  Joubnalism,  . 
Pbof.  Maby  V.  Cook  (Grace  Ermine),  Louisville,  Ky., 
Mbs.  W.  E.  Matthews  (Victoria  Earle),  New  York, 
Lucy  W.  Smith,  Louisville,  Ky.,    . 
Lillian  A.  Lewis  (Bert  Islew),  Boston,  Mass , 
LucBETiA  N.  Coleman,  Minneapolis,  Minn., 
Geoboia  Mabel  De  Baptiste,  Galesburg,  111., 
Kate  D.  Chapman,  Yankton,  Dak., 
Mbs.  Josephine  T.  Washington,  Birmingham, 
Alice  E.  McEwen,  Montgomery,  Ala., 
Mbs.  C.  C.  Stumm,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,    . 
Miss  A.  L.  Tilohman,  Washington,  D.  C   . 
Mbs.  N.  F.  Mossell,  Philadelphia,  Pa , 
Ida  B.  Wells  (lola),  Memphis,  Tenn  , 
Ione  E.  Wood,  Louisville,  Ky., 
Lavinia  B.  Sneed,  Louisville,  Ky., 
Maby  E.  Bbitton,  Lexington,  Ky.. 
Meta  Pelham,  Detroit,  Mich., 
Mbs.  Fbances  E.  W.  Habpeb,  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
Mbs.  Amelia  E.  Johnson,  Baltimore,  Md., 


356 
360 
364 


367—427 
367 
375 
376 
381 
384 
386 
388 
393 
306 
400 
401 
405 
407 
410 
413 
415 
419 
420 
422 


CHAPTER  XXII. 

Opinions  of  Eminent  Men  on  the  Afbo-Amebican 

Pbess, 428—477 


CONTENTS.  21 

Author*  B  Introduction  to  Opinions,        ....  428 

Prof.  W.  S.  Scarborough,  LL.  D.,  Wilberforce  Univer- 
sity, O.,        431 

Hon.  John  Mercer  Lanoston,  LL.  D.,  Petersburg,  Va.,  434 

Hon.  John  R,  Lynch,  Washington,  D.  C,    .  438 

Dr.  William  H.  Johnson,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  .               .  439 

Prof.  Frank  Trigg,  Lynchburg,  Va.,         ....  442 

Hon.  D.  a.  Straker,  LL.  B.,  Detroit,  Mich.,       ...  444 

Prof.  Booker  T.  Washington,  Tuskeegee,  Ala.,     .  446 

Hon.  Frederick  Douglass,  Washington,  D.  C,       .       .  448 

Rev.  A.  A.  Burleigh,  Springfield,  III.,         ....  450 

James  T.  Still,  M.  D.,  Boston,  Mass.,          ....  452 

Hon.  p.  B.  S.  Pinchrack,  New  Orleans,  La.,       .        .        .  454 

Bishop  Benmamin  W.  Arnett,  D.  D.,  Wilberforce,  Ohio,  456 

Kkv.  J.  C.  Price,  D.  D.,  Salisbury,  N.  C,      .        .        .        .  4.59 

PuoF.  George  K.  Stephens,  Lynchburg,  Va.,    .        .        .  460 

Box.  JosiAH  T.  Settle,  LL.  B.,  Memphis,  Tenn.,      .        .  463 

Hon.  Jere  A.  Brown,  Cleveland,  O., 467 

Rev.  T.  G.  Stewart,  D.  D.,  Baltimore,  Md 471 

Pkof.  J.  H.  Lawson,  L.L.  B.,  Louisville,  Ky.,      .        .        .  475 


CHAPTER  XXIIL 

The  Afro-American  Epitor's  Mission,  by  Eminent 

Journalists, 478—491 

Author* s  Introduction, 478 

T.  Thomas  Fortune, 479 

Rev.  L.  J.  CoppiN,  D.  D., 483 

Mrs.  N.  F.  Mossell,  487 

CHAPTER  XXIV. 
The  Anglo-Saxon  and  the  Afro-American  Press,  492—513 


CHAPTER  XXY. 

Recoonition  of  the  Afro- American  as  a  Contrib- 
utor to  Anglo-Saxon  Journals,  514—518 


St  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER  XXVI. 
Thx  Pbxsdoh  of  thk  Press Bl 

CHAPTER  XXTII. 
Ths  Afbo-Amhlbican  Leaouic  .       .       .       .        S2 

CHAPTER  XXTUI. 
The   AssociiTBD    Cobhbspo.ndsnts   of   Race    News- 


JOHN  B.  ItUSSWUBM. 


CHAPTER   I. 


THE  FIRST  AFRO-AMERICAN  NEWSPAPERS. 


FROM  the  very  first  time  the  Afro- American  had  a  right  to 
exercise  his  freedom  in  this  country,  his  course  with  regard 
to  church,  state  and  society,  has  been  followed  with  more 
than  ordinary  zeal,  and  his  progress  in  the  various  })ursuits 
undertaken  by  him  have  been  noted  with  an  exacting  eye, 
characteristic  of  the  most  watchful.  Why  he  havS  been  watch- 
ed in  this  peculiar  way  is  not  hard  to  be  seen  when  tlie  cir- 
cumstances surrounding  his  life  has  been  taken  into  consider- 
ation. When  one  remembers  that  Ik?  was  brought  from 
Africa  only  two  centuries  ago,  an  uncivilized  and  barbarous 
creature,  and  settled  in  a  country  where  he  was  de})rived  the 
privileges  of  becoming  even  properly  civilized;  wlien  one 
remembers  that  during  this  aforesaid  period  lie  had  not  one 
iota  of  opportunity  to  understand  the  most  unpretentious 
business  act  in  state  or  church;  when  one  remembers  that  he 
was  not  allowod,  (if  he  desired,)  to  think  of  a  business  tran- 
8a<:tion  in  any  of  its  ramifications,  were  they  ever  so  small, 
when  it  is  remembered  that  the  whole  world  was  closed 
against  him  for  centuries,  save  that  of  labor  in  the  field  of 
his    owner;  and  when    it  is  remembered  that   he    faced  the 

25 


26  FIRST  AFRO-AMERICAN   NEWSPAPERS. 

world  as  freeman,  laborer,  mechanic,  student,  scholar,  lawyer, 
doctor,  engineer,  business  man,  journalist,  etc.,  under  the  most 
embarrassing  circumstances,  the  desire  of  mind  and  heart  for 
a  complete  knowledge  of  his  development  grows  into  a  moun- 
tain of  curiosity.  Thus  it  can  be  said  that  he  is  to-day  the 
cynosure  of  all  nations. 

If  the  above  be  true,  (which  every  one  in  fairness  will  ad- 
mit,) the  next  thought  that  would  likely  present  itself  is:  Has 
the  Afro- American  made  any  commendable  progress  amid  the 
multiplicity  of  disadvantages  which  have  beset  him?  We 
freely  assert  that  he  has;  and  it  is  with  this  thought  in  mind 
that  we  propose  to  deal  with  the  facts  of  his  journalistic  ca- 
reer of  sixty -three  years,  dating  from  the  first  paper  published 
in  New  York  City,  March  30,  1827,  to  the  present  auspicious 
year  of  1890.  And  from  our  observations  we  predict  that  the 
Nineteenth  Century  will  close  with  a  halo  of  journalistic  sun- 
shine about  his  head,  and  the  Twentieth  Century  open  with 
succeeding  new  events  indicative  of  his  triumphant  success. 
uBetween  the  years  of  1827  and  1830,  there  were  published 
in  New  York  City  by  an  Afro-American  two  papers  known 
as  Freedcyfris  Journal  and  Eights  of  AIL  These  two  papers 
were  both  edited  by  Mr.  John  B.  Russwurm.  They  both 
seem  to  have  been  one  and  the  same  paper,  only  during 
publication  the  names  were  changed ;  thus  the  two  names. 
There  is  some  conflict  of  opinion  among  those  few  who  now 
live  and  remember  anything  about  the  matter,  as  to  whether 
ITie  Freedom  8  Journal  or  The  Rights  of  All  was  the  name  of 
Mr.  Russwurm's  paper.  Be  this  as  it  may,  the  decision  of 
those  who  were  most  intimately  acquainted  with  Mr.  Rosso- 
worm,  and  upon  whose  breadth  of  intelligence  and  scope  of 
memory  we  feel  safely  secure,  is  that  The  Freedoms  Journal 
was  the  first  publication  by  Afro- Americans,  It  was  issued, 
Vol.  I,  No.  1,  March  30,  1827.  Of  course,  any  paper  estab- 
lished by  Afro- Americans  at  that  time  and  for  the  succeeding 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS.  27 

forty  years,  would  have  fought  absolutely  in  the  interest  of 
abolition  of  slavery.     As  a  matter  of  fact,  this  publication  by 
Mr.  Russwurm  met  with  more  and  greater  obstacles  than  did  j 
any  other  paper  ever  published  upon  the  continent.     Besides 
having  to  fight  for  a  cause  which  then  had  but  few  advocates,  ' 
it  could  see  in  the  popular  mind  no  indication  of  support.         / 

The  Afro- Americans  in  the  North  that  would  patronize  the 
journal  were  few,  while  the  Abolitionists  numbered  no  great 
throng  at  that  time. 

The  Journal  was  a  medium-sized  weekly,  presenting  a  very  \ 
neat  appearance,  while  the  composition  was  as  good  as  some ' 
journals  of  to-day.  Mr.  Russwurm  had  a  most  excellent  es- 
timate as  to  how  an  Afro- American  journal  should  be  con- 
ducted, particularly  at  that  time,  and  for  the  people  in  whose 
interests  it  was  published.  There  are  few  men  who  have 
Uved  who  knew  more  about  the  business,  or  whose  editorial 
pen  could  battle  with  such  force  against  a  volcano  of  sin  and 
oppression,  like  unto  that  of  American  slavery.  It  devolved 
upon  him  and  his  journal  to  create  sentiment,  and  to  prove 
the  interest  which  the  free  Afro- American  of  the  North  had 
in  his  oppressed  brethren  in  the  South. 

At  this  time  there  appeared  a  mighty  question  involving  life, 
the  chaiitity  of  our  women,  the  property,  homo  and  happiness 
of  the  freedmen  of  the  South,  to  which  the  best  eflbrts  of  Afro- 
American  journalism  must  be  directed  yet  it  was  not  half  so  great 
as  that  of  American  slavery.  Now  the  journalist  contends  for 
our  rights  as  citizens;  then  he  contended  for  our  freedom  from 
bondage,  or  our  deliverance  from  a  human  curse  which  then 
seemed  riveted  about  us  with  a  most  tenacious  grip.  It  was 
for  this,  Mr.  Russwurm  caused  TA<?  Journalio  open  its  way  and 
contend  through  discouragement  and  embarrassment  for  rights. 

He  was  a  man  of  positive  journalistic  ability,  singleness  of 
purpose  and  strong  character.  It  is  said  he  entered  the  fo- 
rum of  debate  for  the  Abolition  cause  doing  what  he  could  with 


28  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

a  heartiness  and  zeal  only  equalled  by  the  martyrs  of  abolition. 
The  North  had  not  fully  waked  up  to  the  abolition  cause. 
Many,  who  hated  the  Afro- American,  published  papers  attack- 
ing the  free  Afro-American  as  well  as  the  ppor  slave.  It 
was  on  this  account,  too,  that  the  leading  Afro-Americans  of 
New  York  City  met,  formulated  plans  and  encouraged,  to  the 
best  of  their  ability,  the  eiforts  of  Mr.  Ruaswurm. 

There  was  a  local  paper  published  in  New  York  City  in 
1827  and  1828  by  an  Afro- American-hating  Jew,  which  made 
the  vilest  attacks  upon  the  Afro- Americans.  It  encouraged 
slavery  and  deplored  the  thought  of  freedom  for  the  slave. 
It  seems  to  have  been  a  power  in  that  direction.  Against 
this  The  Journal  was  directed,  and  it  did  heavy  cannonading 
against  this  perpetrator  of  evil, 

Mr.  Russwurm  had  associated  with  him  in  the  publication 
of  llic  Journal  Rev.  Samuel  E.  Cornish,  and  possibly  others 
whose  names  are  not  editorially  mentioned,  since  the  inception 
of  Tfie  Journal  was  the  result  of  a  meeting  of  Messrs.  Russ- 
wurm, Cornish  and  others  at  the  house  of  M.  Bostin  Crummell 
(Rev.  Dr.  Crummell's  lather,)  in  New  York,  called  to  consider 
the  attacks  of  the  local  paper  mentioned  above. 

Rev.  Cornish  also  did  editorial  work  upon  The  Journal. 
He  was  a  man  of  wonderful  intellectual  parts,  having  keen 
perception  and  a  mind  full  of  thought  and  judgment.  He 
was  very  probably  the  most  thoughtful  and  reliable,  certainly 
the  most  popular  and  conversant,  editor  of  his  time.  This  is 
seen  in  the  fact  that  in  all  his  succeeding  journalistic  efforts, 
ranging  through  a  course  of  twenty  years,  he  was  actively 
connected  with  some  paper  as  editor  or  associate  editor.  A 
gentleman  writing  to  the  author  says:  "He  was  a  most 
successful  journalist."  Another,  writing  about  Rev*  Cornish, 
says :  **  He  was  an  old  and  indefatigable  journalist."  An- 
other says :  *'  Undoubtedly  he  was  the  greatest  wielder  of  the 
pen  in  a  quarter  of  a  century  of  Afro- American  journalism." 


THE  FIRST  AFRO-AMERICAN  NEWSPAPERS.    29 

The  following  editorial  which  appeared  in  the  Colored 
American^  a  paper  since  edited  by  him,  will  serve,  we*  are 
sure,  to  justify  the  reader  in  accepting  the  above  comments. 

THE  IMPORTANCE  OF  AGRICULTURAL  PURSUITS. 

America  io  many  respects  is  a  clorious  country.  She  rivals  boasted 
England  in  the  excellence  of  her  a^ciilture.  The  whole  length  and 
breadth  of  her  land  might,  by  proper  culture,  be  converted  into  one 
anlTersal  and  fertile  garden,  poaring  forth  her  riches  in  exulx^rant 
abundance.  Thus,  blessed  by  the  smiles,  and  watered  by  the  showers 
of  a  bountiful  Heaven,  she  may  well  and  justly  call  forth  loud  and 
hearty  praises  of  her  sons.  In  a  land  then,  like  this,  characterized  by 
its  geniality  of  climate,  and  great  fertility  of  soil,  many  are  the  induce- 
ments held  out  to  the  sober  and  industrious;  and  morally  culpable  is 
he  who  can  **eat  the  bread  of  idleness,*'  or  who  can,  with  health  and 
strength,  sit  down  surrounded  by  pinching  misery  and  want. 

On  the  subject  of  agricultural  pursuits,  our  people  are  too  indiffer- 
ent. It  is  a  subject,  however,  of  immense  importance  to  colored  inter- 
est, both  individual  and  general,  and  cannot  be  treated  of  too  fre- 
quently or  earnestly,  by  journals  which  advocate  our  cause. 

If  we  would  have  more  men  among  us  in  comfortable  circumstauceH* 
we  must  turn  our  attention  to  farming.  If  we  would  have  men  who 
might  exert  a  powerful  influence  in  different  communities,  we  must 
have  the  sturdy  cultivators  of  the  soil. 

It  is  beyond  a  doubt,  that  the  influence  which  our  farmers  exert  is 
great  and  extensive;  and  it  is  evident,  that  wherever  there  may  be  lo- 
cated respectable,  intelligent,  and  wealthy  colored  agriculturists,  there 
they  will  be  respected,  and  soon  rise  into  power  and  intluence. 

Want  of  necessary  capital  may  be  urged  by  many,  as  the  great 
difficulty  in  the  way  of  our  people  on  this  sulgect.  Cue  might  venture 
to  say  that  the  great  portion  of  our  most  able  farmers  commenced  their 
labors  with  far  less  capital  than  many  of  our  colored  citizens  cau  lay 
claim  t-o.  Many  have  risen  to  their  present  affluence,  who  had  at  first 
scarcely  as  much  money  as  would  enable  them  to  till  a  garden  of 
cabbages.  They  struggled  with  difficulties  apparently  insuperable;  but 
by  their  fixed  determination  and  firm  resolves,  they  removeil  all  bar- 
riers, overcame  all  obstacles,  conquered  the  soil,  and  finally  became 
the  independent  masters  of  it.  If  we  would  be  the  "lords  of  the  soil'* 
we  must  go  and  do  likewise. 

There  is  too  great  a  disposition  among  our  men  of  capital  to  congre 
gate  in  large  cities,  where  their  influence  is,  in  a  measure,  entirely  lost. 
To  be  sure,  the  advantages  accruing  to  some,  from  a  city  settlement, 
are  infinitely  greater  than  a  country  one;  but  in  many  cases  the  indi- 
vidual, and  the  community  at  large,  would  be  vastly  benefited  by  the 
residence  of  our  capitalists  in  different  parts  of  our  country. 


30  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

It  is  hif^hly  important,  therefore,  I  conceive,  that  this  sahject  be  dalj 
and  attentively  considered  by  oar  people  generally.  We  most  gain 
some  inflaence  in  oar  own  coantry.  At  present,  we  have  none.  In 
oar  large  cities,  we  are  passed  by  as  not  at  all  incorporated  in  the  body 
politic.  Let  us  then  resort  to  those  measures,  and  pursue  that  course, 
which  will  be  of  the  most  advantage  to  us  and  will  canse  a  colored 
American's  influence  to  be  weighed  and  valued. 

Rev.  Cornish  retired  from  the  publication  of  The  Freedoms 
Journal,  Mr.  Russwurm  assuming  sole  editorial  control, 
with  the  issue  of  September  4,  1827,  Vol.  I,  No.  27.  The 
Journal  was  continued  the  year  out.  With  the  issue  of 
March  21,  1828,  the  name  of  the  paper  was  changed  to 
Rights  of  All,  Mr.  Russwurm  continued  to  follow,  with 
unabating  interest,  the  line  of  policy  prescribed  by  The 
Freedmns  Journal,  It  fought  for  Afro-American  freedom 
and  Afro-American  citizenship.  Mr.  Russwurm's  two  pub- 
lications were  made  more  powerful,  and  the  sentiment  of  the 
two  more  respected,  because  of  its  large  list  of  agents  and 
contributors,  who  were  remarkable  men,  either  for  their 
work  in  behalf  of  the  Afro- American  or  as  the  fathers  of 
public-spirited  descendants. 

The  following  are  some  of  them  as  found  upon  the  paper : 

David  Walker,  (Author  of  Walker's  Appeal)  Reuben , 

Portland,  Me;  Rev.  Thomas  Paul,  Boston;  Francis  Webb, 
Boston ;  Stephen  Smith,  Columbia,  Penn. ;  John  Lemond,  Salem, 
Mass. ;  Hezekiah  Grice,  Baltimore,  Md. ;  Rev.  Nathaniel  Paul, 
Albany,  N.  Y. ;  Rev.  Theodore  S.  Wright,  Princeton,  N.  Y. ; 
M.  De  Baptist,  Fredericksburg,  Va. ;  B.  F.  Hughes,  Newark, 
N.  J. ;  John  W.  Print,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  Austin  Stewart, 
Rochester,  N.  Y. ;  Rev.  R.  Vaughn,  Richmond,  Va. ;  George 
De  Grave,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. ;  Seth  Henhaws,  Post-Master,  New 
Salem;  John  C.  Stanley,  New  Berne;  Lewis  Sheridan,  Eliza- 
bethtown,  N.  C. ;  Joseph  Hughes,  Richmond,  Va. ;  and  others. 

The  Rights  of  All  suspended  publication  in  1830,  it  having 
been  conducted  under  more  opposing  circumstances  than  The 
Freedcmis  Journal,  owing,  possibly,  to  the  great  amount  of 


THE  FIRST  AFRO-AMERICAN  NEWSPAPERS.  31 

good  it  wafi  doing  for  the  cauBe  of  Abolition.     The  exact  date 
of  its  suBpension  it  seems  impossible  to  ascertain. 

Mr.  Russwurm's  career  as  an  Afro- American  journalist, 
was  soon  cut  short  after  the  suspension  of  his  paper.  He  was 
captured  by  the  Colonization  Society  and  sent  to  Africa. 
Many  notices  and  comments  on  Mr.  Russwurm's  work  and 
upon  him  as  a  man,  appeared  in  The  Oohnizatum  Journal  of 
1839.   "^ 


CHAPTER  II. 


THE  WEEKLY  ADVOCATE. 


AFRO-AMERICANS  North  began  now  to  feel  the  need 
of  an  exponent  of  Bentiment  and   thought.     The  road 
had   been  opened,  if  any  one  by  dint  of  sacrifice  and 
strength  of  eflfort  would  lay  all  on  the  altar  in  the  publica- 
tion of  another  journal. 

Phillip  A.  Bell,  the  Nestor  of  Afro- American  journalism, 
came  forward  and  put  upon  the  uncertain  wings  of  journal- 
istic time  a  paper,  which  battled  with  unrelenting  vigor  for 
the  right. 

In  January,  1837,  appeared  the  first  issue  of  the  second  \ 
journal  edited  by  Afro-Americans  under  the  name  of  The 
Weekly  Advocate,  the  editor  being  Rev.  Samuel  E.  Cornish, 
and  the  proprietor  Mr.  Phillip  A.  Bell.  It  was  published  by 
Mr.  Robert  Sears,  of  Toronto,  Canada,  a  warm  friend  to  the 
race.  "After  two  months  it  was  thought  best,"  so  informs 
Mr.  Sears,  to  change  the  name  of  this  paper  to  the  Colored 
American]  therefore  March  4,  1837,  it  appeared  under  the 
last  mentioned  name. 

The  means  to  aid  in  its  publication  were  largely  contri- 

32 


THE  FIRST  AFRO-AMERICAN  NEWSPAPERS.    33 


buted  by  Anti-Slavery  Advocates,  prominent  among  whom 
must  be  noticed  that  fearless  and  generous  defender,  Mr. Tap- 
pan.  In  "The  Life  of  Mr.  Tappan"  occurs  this  passage:"  The 
paper  was  intended  to  be  the  organ  of  the  colored  Americans." 
Its  columns  were  filled  with  excellently  selected  and  original ! 
matter  It  ably  advocated  the  emancipation  of  the  enslaved 
and  the  elevation  of  the  free  colored  people;  and  to  this  end 
it  urged  on  the  whites  the  abolition  of  caste  and  on  their  own 
people  a  thorough  education. 

Gifted  men  among  the  people  of  New  York  and  elsewhere, 
(and  there  were  not  a  few  of  them,)  had  an  opportunity  that 
was  well  worth  improving  of  addressing  their  people  and  the 
public  at  large,  through  the  columns  of  this  excellent  paper. 

The  proprietor,  Mr.  Bell,  was  known  and  respected  for  the 
work  he  did  for  the  race  in  the  newspaper  field.  He  was 
one  of  those  men  who  not  only  gave  his  literary  ability  to  the 
cause  but  his  money  also,  and  died  in  destitute  circumstances, 
after  fifty  years  of  earnest  and  persistent  work  for  his  race. 

At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  more  experienced,  older, 
and  abler,  than  any  of  his  associates.  He  longed  to  see 
Afro- American  journalism  a  fixed  thing  in  this  country,  and 
he  did  not  die  without  the  sight. 

Wm.  Welles  Brown,  in  his  "Rising  Sun,"  says,  "  Mr.  Bell's 
enthusiastic  admirers  regarded  him  as  the  Napoleon  of  the 
Afro- American  Press.  The  person  of  Mr.  Bell,  as  described 
by  Mr.  Brown  in  his  volume,  is  as  follows:  "  He  is  medium  in 
size,  dark  complexion,  pleasing  countenance,  and  very  gentle- 
manly in  his  manners." 

After  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Cornish,  Mr.  Bell  had  as  co- 
editor,  Dr.  James  McCune  Smith,  of  whom  much  has  been  said 
as  a  writer  and  contributor.  Wm.  Welles  Brown,  in  chroni- 
cling the  success  of  Dr.  Smith  as  a  writer,  says:  "The  Doctor 
has  contributed  many  papers  to  different  journals  published 
by  colored  men  in  the  last  quarter  of  the  century.     The  New 

a 


34 


THE  WEEKLY  ADVOCATE. 


York  dailies  have  also  received  aid  from  him  during  the  same 
period.  History,  antiquity,  biography,  translation,  criticism, 
political  economy,  statistics,  and  almost  every  department  of 
knowledge,  received  attention  from  his  able,  ready,  versatile 
and  unwearied  pen. 

The  emancipator  of  the  slave,  and  of  the  elevation  of  the 
free  colored  people,  has  been  the  greatest  slave  of  his  time 
as  a  writer. 

Dr.  Smith  was  born  and  raised  in  New  York  City,  but 
educated  at  Edinburgh.  During  the  years  1838-49,  he  had 
some  memorable  newspaper  controversies;  prominent  among 
them  was  the  fight  with  Bishop  Hughes  and,  later  on,  with 
one  Grant. 

A  lecture  of  his  on  the  "Destiny  of  the  People  of  Color," 
delivered  before  the  Philomathean  Society  and  the  Hamilton 
Society  in  January,  1841,  and  published  by  request,  received 
flattering  comments.  He  was  one  of  the  most  logical  and 
scientific  writers  the  world  ever  knew. 

Besides  this  eminent  gentleman,  Mr.  Bell  had  an  able  corps 
of  correspondents,  which  made  The  Colored  American  felt  as  a 
power  in  the  land.  Mr.  Bell  severed  his  connection  with  The 
American  in  1839 ;  but  did  not  leave  the  work,  for  which 
it  seems  the  Maker  had  intended  him.  We  shall  have  cause 
to  notice  him  later  on  in  this  volume. 


CHAPTER  III. 


IHE  COLORED  AMERICAN. 


IN  April,  1837,  while  Mr.  Bell  wa«  yet  proprietor  and 
editorial  writer  of  the  A?ncfican,  Mr.  Cliarle.s  Bennett 
Ray  became  associated  vviiii  IVce  Colored  American,  as 
general  agent.  In  this  capacity,  he  travelled  extensively, 
writing  letters  to  the  paper  which  embodied  the  result  of  his 
labors  and  reflections  on  the  progress  of  the  race  in  different 
parts  of  the  country.  He  also  lectured  successfully  in  many 
cities,  East  and  West,  to  bring  before  the  people  the  interests 
of  the  paper  and  the  noble  aims  to  which  it  was  devoted, 
never  neglecting,  meanwhile,  to  speak  in  behalf  of  the  slave, 
who.se  welfare  lay  always  near  his  heart. 

In  1838,  he  became  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  paper ; 
and  in  1839,  on  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Bell,  he  a»ssumed  the 
po.sition  of  editor.  Under  his  charge,  as  before,  27ie  Colored 
Ainericaji  continued  to  be  ably  conducted,  and  strong  in  its 
advocacy  of  the  principles  underlying  humanity  and  justice. 
He   retained   the   editorial   management   until    1842,    when 

35 


36  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

education  was  received  at  the  schools  and  academy  of  his 
native  town.  His  theological  training  was  obtained  at  the 
Wesleyan  Academy  at  Wilbraham,  Mass.  Later  on,  he 
studied  at  the  Wesleyan  University,  Middletown,  Conn. 

In  addition  to  his  life  as  a  useful  journalist,  should  be 
recorded  his  life  as  a  minister.  He  served  as  pastor  of  the 
Bethesda  Congregational  church  in  New  York,  and  was  its 
faithful  shepherd  for  twenty  years  or  more. 

During  the  greater  part  of  Mr.  Ray's  activity,  slavery  was 
at  its  highest  state  of  agitation.  The  times  were  perilous, 
great  deeds  being  enacted  everywhere  by  noble  champions  of 
freedom,  roused  to  action  by  an  unquenchable  love  of  justice 
and  the  resolve  that  all  men  should  be  free.  He  entered 
with  eager  earnestness  into  the  contest  to  secure  freedom  for 
a  down-trodden  race,  and  proved  his  fidelity  to  the  sacred 
cause  of  liberty,  and  his  zeal  in  furthering  the  overthrow  of 
slavery,  by  rendering  practical  aid.  It  often  became  neces- 
sary, therefore,  to  interest  those  whose  hearts  not  only  beat 
in  unison  with  the  movement  but  whose  means  could  be  made 
available.  In  co-operation  with  Lewis  Tappan,  and  others 
whose  purse-strings  were  wont  to  be  loosed  at  the  call  of 
humanity,  he  assisted  in  enabling  many  a  slave  to  see  the 
light  of  freedom. 

Mr.  Ray  always  manifested  a  keen  interest  in  the  affairs  of 
the  government,  and  was  a  staunch  republican,  entering 
heartily  into  all  things  affecting  the  welfare  of  the  govern- 
ment. When  the  great  right  of  suffrage  was  accorded  to  his 
race,  none  rejoiced  more  than  he  that  now  the  A  fro- American 
citizen  was  truly  a  man,  under  the  law ;  and,  thenceforth,  he 
uniformly  endeavored  to  impart  the  knowledge  of  an  intelli- 
gent use  of  the  franchise  to  those  whose  limited  experience  in 
such  matters  might  cause  them  to  err  in  judgment. 

He  never  ceased  to  give  earnest  support  to  any  great 
measure  designed  to  elevate  his  race;  and  not  only  in  this 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN.  37 

way  did  he  serve  the  people,  bat  private  matters  were  often 
brought  to  him  for  adjustment, — his  natural  grasp  of  the 
legal  points  of  the  subject  enabling  him  to  reach  the  solution 
of  many  a  seemingly  entangled  situation. 

He  lived  to  see  his  race  enjoying  the  blessings  of  that 
freedom  to  which  he  had  consecrated  his  best  days,  and 
passed  to  the  blessed  fulfillment  of  a  better  world,  on  Sunday 
morning,  August  15,  1886. 

A  general  idea  of  The  Cblored  American,  which  was  Mr. 
Ray's  greatest  work  for  the  race,  issued,  as  it  was,  a  half  a 
century  ago,  in  the  interests  of  the  Afro- American,  under  the 
editorial  management  of  one  of  the  race,  will  be  obtained 
through  the  following  extracts,  embodying  the  plan  and  scope 
of  the  paper,  and  showing  the  rank  it  held  among  the  leading 
journalH  of  that  time.  It  cannot  fail  of  proper  interest. 
They  are  taken  from  *'  In  Memoriam,"  compiled  by  the  family 
of  the  late  Rev.  Chas.  B.  Ray,  March  7,  1840. 
"  Terms  of  the  paper : 

The  Cblored  American  is  published  weekly  by  Charles  B. 
Ray,  at  No.  9  Spruce  Street,  New  York,  at  two  dollars  per 
annum,  in  advance,  excepting  where  a  local  agent  will  be 
responsible  to  collect  the  balance,  when  one-half  may  be 
received  in  advance. 

No  subscription  received  for  a  less  term  than  six  months. 
No  paper  will  be  considered  discontinued  until  arrearages 
are  paid,  except  at  the  discretion  of  the  publisher. 

Four  copies  will  be  sent  to  one  address  for  six  dollars, — 
t.  c.  a  person  wishing  the  paper,  by  obtaining  three  sub- 
scribers, with  the  money  in  full,  shall  have  his  own  paper. 

Local  agents  shall  be  allowed  one-fourth,  in  all  cases,  on  all 
money  raised  from  subscribers. 

Traveling  agents  shall  be  allowed  one- third  on  all  new 
subscribers,  and  one-fourth  for  collecting  from  old  ones. 

Postmasters,  and  all  ministers  of  the  gospel,  friendly  to  our 


38  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

object,  are  requested  to  act  as  agents  for  us ;  also,  students  in 
seminaries. 

Addresses,  in  all  cases,  (post  paid),  on  all  business  pertain- 
ing to  the  paper:  "Charles  B.  Ray,  Publisher  of  The 
Colored  American.'' 

Philadelphia  depositories,  where  this  paper  can  be  had: 
136  Lombard  Sreet,  and  No.  2  Acorn  Alley.  S.  H.  Glouces- 
ter and  J.  J.  G.  Bias,  Agents. 

Prospectus  of  ITie  Colored  American,  Volume  II : 

The  Second  Volume,  New  Series,  of  The  Colored  American^ 
will  be  issued  on  the  first  Saturday  in  March,  1841. 

This  is  the  only  paper  in  the  United  States,  published  and 
edited  by  a  colored  man,  and  expressly  for  the  colored  people. 

Its  objects  are,  more  directly,  the  moral,  social  and  political 

elevation  and  improvement  of  the  free  colored  people ;  and 

the  peaceful  emancipation  of  the  enslaved. 

It  will,  therefore,  advocate  all   lawful,  as  well  as  moral 

measures,  to  accomplish  those  objects. 

The  editor  being  a  colored  man,  necessarily  feels  an  interest 
in  the  welfare  of  the  colored  people,  wherever  found. 

The  paper,  therefore,  will  not  be  regardless  of  the  welfare 
of  the  colored  people  of  other  countries. 

The  editor,  also  being  a  Man,  "  whatever  interests  man,, 
interests  him."  The  paper,  therefore,  will  not  pass  by,  in 
silence,  the  reforms  of  the  age,  and  whatever  relates  to  our 
common  humanity. 

As  the  paper  is  devoted  primarily  to  the  interests  of  the 
colored  population,  and  ought  to  bu  in  every  family,  the 
editor  intends  to  make  it  a  first-rate  family  paper,  devoting  a 
column  to  the  instruction  of  children,  giving  the  general  news 
of  the  day,  as  far  as  practicable,  etc. ;  and  nothing  of  an 
immoral  tendency  can  find  a  place  in  its  columns. 

The  paper  ought  to  be  patronized  by  the  white  community^ 
to  aid  them  in  becoming  better  acquainted  with  the  condition 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN.  39 

and  claims  of  their  fellow-citizens,  and  on  account  of  the 
influence  it  will  exert  among  the  latter,  and  in  their  behalf. 

The  colored  population  ought  to  patronize  it,  because  it 
belongs  to  them,  and  for  the  sake  of  its  success. 

Price,  Two  Dollars  per  annum,  always  in  advance.  No 
subscription  received  for  a  less  term  than  six  months. 

Charles  B.  Ray,  Editor  and  Proprietor,  No.  9  Spruce 
Street,  New  York. 

The  sentiments  of  the  press  are  here  given  concerning  the 
re-appearance  of  The  Colored  American,  after  a  short  term  of 
suspension.  Says  The  American, — "  We  insert,  once  for  all, 
the  sentiments  of  the  press  in  relation  to  our  re-appearance 
among  them;  and  our  readers  must  not  attribute  to  us 
motives  of  vanity  in  doing  so, — for  better  things  move  us 
than  a  vain  show.  We  intend  to  keep  self  where  it  should 
be,  out  of  sight. 

In  combating  the  prejudices  of  the  strong,  on  the  one 
hand,  and  in  defending  the  character  of  the  weak,  on  the 
other;  in  advocating  an  unpopular  cause,  and  coming  in 
contact  with  such  a  variety  of  mind  and  of  taste,  and  in 
bearing  up  under  our  present  duties  and  responsibilities,  in 
such  times  as  these,  such  sentiments  from  an  enlightened  and 
judicious  corps-editorial  are  encouraging,  and  furnish  us  with 
additional  testimony  that  we  are  not  ill-timed  and  out  of 
place  but  needful,  and  deserve  a  place  among  the  mouth- 
pieces of  different  sects,  parties  and  clasFes  now  existing. 

We  presume  our  readers,  who  do  not  see  these  expressions 
of  opinion  as  we  do,  will  be  glad  to  know  what  the  press  has 
friid  about  us;  and  we  think  such  sentiments  will  both 
encourage  and  stimulate  them  to  be  vigilant  in  giving  us  aid 
as  they  incite  us  to  labor  to  show  ourselves  worthy  to  be 
sustained." 

•*  The  Colored  American,  we  are  glad  to  see,  has  re-appeared 
in    the    field,    under   the    conduct   of  our   enterprising   and 


40  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

talented  Brother  Ray.  It  will  maintain  a  very  handsome 
rank  among  the  anti-slavery  periodicals,  and  we  hope  will  be 
well  sustained  and  kept  up  by  both  colored  and  uncolored 
patronage. 

It  must  be  a  matter  of  pride  to  our  colored  friends,  as  it  is 
to  us,  that  they  are  already  able  to  vindicate  the  claims  our 
enterprise  has  always  made  in  their  behalf, — to  an  equal 
intellectual  rank  in  this  heterogeneous,  (but  "  homogeneous") 
community. 

It  is  no  longer  necessary  for  abolitionists  to  contend  against 
the  blunder  of  pro-slavery, — that  the  colored  people  are 
inferior  to  the  whites ;  for  these  people  are  practically  demon- 
strating its  falseness.  They  have  men  enough  in  action  now, 
to  maintain  the  anti-slavery  enterprise,  and  to  win  their 
liberty,  and  that  of  their  enslaved  brethren, — if  every  white 
abolitionist  were  drawn  from  the  field :  McCune  Smith,  and 
Cornish,  and  Wright,  and  Ray,  and  a  host  of  others, — not  to 
mention  our  eloquent  brother,  Remond,  of  Maine,  and 
Brother  Lewis  who  is  the  stay  and  staff  of  field  anti-slavery 
in  New  Hampshire. 

The  people  of  such  men  as  these  cannot  be  held  in  slavery. 
They  have  got  their  pens  drawn,  and  tried  their  voices,  and 
and  they  are  seen  to  be  the  pens  and  voices  of  human  genius ; 
and  they  will  neither  lay  down  the  one,  nor  will  they  hush 
the  other,  till  their  brethren  are  free. 

The  Calhouns  and  Clays  may  display  their  vain  oratory 
and  metaphysics,  but  they  tremble  when  they  behold  the 
colored  man  is  in  the  intellectual  field.  The  time  is  at  hand, 
when  this  terrible  denunciation  shall  thunder  in  their  own 
race. — Herald  of  Freedom,  Concord,  N.  H." 

The  Colored  American. 

The  Colored  Aineiican  after  a  suspension  of  three  months 
has  started  afresh,  under  the  charge  of  our  friend,  Charles  B. 
Ray,   as  sole   editor   and    proprietor.      If  among   the   four 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN.  41 

* 

hundred  thousand  free  colored  people  in  this  country, — to 
say  nothing  of  the  white  population  from  whom  it  ought  to 
receive  a  strong  support,  a  living  patronage  for  this  paper  can 
not  be  obtained,  it  will  be  greatly  to  their  reproach. 

In  their  present  condition,  a  special  organ  of  their  own 
conducted  by  one  of  their  own  number,  ought  to  be  regarded 
by  them  as  an  object  of  great  importance.  True,  it  does  not 
follow  that  because  the  paper  is  called  The  Oolored  Americant 
and  is  edited  by  a  colored  man,  therefore  the  colored  popula- 
tion are  under  obligation  to  support  it ;  for  if  it  be  not  in 
itself  a  faithful  and  useful  journal,  it  cannot  claim  support,  on 
any  other  grounds.  But  we  have  confidence  in  the  ability, 
perseverance,  and  integrity  of  Mr.  Ray,  and  we  doubt  not 
that  he  will  make  The  American  an  interesting  sheet. 

If  any  persons,  white  or  colored,  in  this  city,  desire  to 
become  subscribers  to  it,  we  will  forward  their  names  with 
great  pleasure. 

The  names  of  several  persons  are  published  who  have 
severally  pledged  five,  ten,  twenty,  and  twenty-five  dollars, 
ia  aid  of  The  American.     This  looks  like  being  in  earnest. 

In  the  midst  of  the  present  unhappy  divisions  in  our  ranks, 
we  trust  our  friend  Ray  will  be  enabled  to  distinguish  by 
intuition  the  true  from  the  spurious,  the  right  from  the  wrong, 
and  to  utter  his  convictions  in  a  true  and  fearless  spirit." — 
Ltbera/or. 

•*  T/ie  Colored  Ameiican.  Returning  from  the  country,  we 
are  glad  to  find  upon  our  table  several  copies  of  this  excellent 
paper,  which  has  waked  up  with  renewed  strength  and 
beauty.  It  is  now  under  the  exclusive  control  of  Charles  B. 
Ray,  a  gentleman  in  every  manner  competent  to  the  duties 
devolving  upon  him  in  the  station  he  occupies.  Our  colored 
friends  generally,  and  all  those  who  can  do  so,  would  bestow 
their  patronage  worthily  by  giving  it  to  T/ie  CoUrred 
A  niei'ican. " — Ch  risfia  n  ]  \  l^ness. 


42  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

"  In  the  days  when  The  Colored  American  found  its  way 
into  many  homes,  bearing  the  weight  of  influence  ever 
exerted  by  the  press,  some  of  the  vital  questions  claiming 
public  attention  did  not  differ  materially  from  those  that 
serve  to  interest  the  thinking  community  of  to-day,  as  will  be 
evidenced  by  the  following  editorials : 

Prejydice. 

"Prejudice,"  said  a  noble  man,  "is  an  aristocratic  hatred 
of  humble  life." 

Prejudice,  of  every  character,  and  existing  against  whom  it 
may,  is  hatred.  It  is  a  fruit  of  our  corrupt  nature,  and  has  its- 
being  in  the  depravity  of  the  human  heart.     It  is  sin. 

To  hate  a  man,  for  any  consideration  whatever,  is  murder- 
ous ;  and  to  hate  him,  in  any  degree,  is,  in  the  same  degree 
murderous ;  and  to  hate  a  man  for  no  cause  whatever,  magni- 
fies the  evil.  "  Whosoever  hateth  his  brother  is  a  murderer,'' 
says  Holy  Writ. 

There  is  a  kind  of  aristocracy  in  our  country,  as  in  nearly 
all  others, — a  looking  down  with  disdain  upon  humble  life 
and  a  disregard  of  it.  Still,  we  hear  little  about  prejudice 
against  any  class  among  us,  excepting  against  color,  or  against 
the  colored  population  of  this  Union,  which  so  monopolizes 
this  state  of  feeling  in  our  country  that  we  hear  less  of  it  in 
its  operations  upon  others,  than  in  other  countries.  It  is  the 
only  sense  in  which  there  is  equality ;  here,  the  democratic 
principle  is  adopted,  and  all  come  together  as  equals,  and 
unite  the  rich  and  the  poor,  the  high  and  the  low,  in  an  equal 
right  to  hate  the  colored  man ;  and  its  operations  upon  the 
mind  and  character  are  cruel  and  disastrous,  as  it  is  murder- 
ous and  wicked  in  itself.  One  needs  to  feel  it,  and  to  wither 
under  its  effects,  to  know  it ;  and  the  colored  men  of  the 
United  States,  wherever  found,  and  in  whatever  circum- 
stances, are  living  epistles,  which  may  be  read  by  all  men  in 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN.  43 

proof  of  all  that  is  paralyzing  to  enterprise,  destructive  to 
ambition,  ruinous  to  character,  crushing  to  mind,  and  painful 
to  the  soul,  in  the  monster.  Prejudice.  For  it  is  found 
equally  malignant,  active,  and  strong, — associated  with  the 
mechanical  arts,  in  the  work-shop,  in  the  mercantile  house,  in 
the  commercial  affairs  of  the  country,  in  the  halls  of  learning 
in  the  temple  of  God,  and  in  the  highways  and  hedges.  It 
almost  possesses  ubiquity ;  it  is  everywhere,  doii)g  its  dele- 
terious work  wherever  one  of  the  proscribed  class  lives  and 
moves. 

Yet  prejudice  against  color,  prevalent  as  it  is  in  the  minds 
of  one  class  of  our  community  against  another,  is  unnatural, 
though  habitual.  If  it  were  natural,  children  would  mani- 
fest it  with  the  first  signs  of  consciousness ;  but  with  them,  all 
are  alike  affectionate  and  beloved.  They  have  not  the  feel- 
ing, because  it  is  a  creature  of  education  and  habit. 

While  we  write,  there  are  now  playing  at  our  right,  a  few 
steps  away,  a  colored  and  a  white  child,  with  all  the  affection 
and  harmony  of  feeling,  as  though  prejudice  had  always  been 
unknown. 

Prejudice  overlooks  all  that  is  noble  and  grand  in  man's 
being.  It  forgets  that,  housed  in  a  dark  complexion  is, 
equally  and  alike,  with  the  white,  all  that  is  lofty  in  mind 
and  noble  in  soul ;  that  there  lies  an  equal  immortality.  It 
teaches  to  grade  mind  and  soul,  either  by  the  texture  of  the 
hair,  or  the  form  ol  the  features,  or  the  color  of  the  skin. 
This  is  an  education  fostered  by  prejudice ;  consequently,  an 
education  almost  universally  prevalent  in  our  country ;  an 
education,  too,  subverting  the  principles  of  our  humanity,  and 
turning  away  the  dictates  of  our  noble  being  from  what  is 
important,  to  meaner  things." 

This  Oountry,  our  only  Home, 
*'  When   we   say,    "  our   home,"   we    refer   to   the  colored 
community.     When  we  say,  "  our  only  liome,"  we  speak  in  a 


44  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

general  sense,  and  do  not  suppose  but  in  individual  cases 
some  may,  and  will,  take  up  a  residence  under  another 
government,  and  perhaps  in  some  other  quarter  of  the  globe. 
We  are  disposed  to  say  something  upon  this  subject  now,  in 
refutation  of  certain  positions  that  have  been  assumed  by  a 
class  of  men,  as  the  American  people  are  too  well  aware,  and 
to  the  reproach  of  the  Christian  church  and  the  Christian 
religion,  too,  viz. :  that  we  never  can  rise  here,  and  that  no 
power  whatsoever  is  sufficient  to  correct  the  American  spirit, 
and  equalize  the  laws  in  reference  to  our  people,  so  as  to  give 
them  power  and  influence  in  this  country. 

If  we  cannot  be  an  elevated  people  here,  in  a  country  the 
resort  of  almost  all  nations  to  improve  their  condition;  a 
country  of  which  we  are  native,  constituent  members;  our 
native  home,  (as  we  shall  attempt  to  show)  and  where  there 
are  more  means  available  to  bring  people  into  power  and 
influence,  and  more  territory  to  extend  to  them  than  in  any 
other  country ;  also  the  spirit  and  genius  of  whose  institution 
we  so  well  understand,  being  completely  Americanized, 
as  it  will  be  found  most  of  our  people  are, — we  say,  if  we  can 
not  be  raised  up  in  this  country,  we  are  at  great  loss  to  know 
where,  all  things  considered,  we  can  be. 

If  the  Colored  Americans  are  citizens  of  this  country,  it 
follows,  of  course,  that,  in  the  broadest  sense,  this  country  is 
our  home.  If  we  are  not  citizens  of  this  country,  then  we 
cannot  see  of  what  country  we  are,  or  can  be,  citizens ;  for 
Blackstone,  who  is  quoted,  we  believe,  as  the  standard  of 
civil  law,  tells  us  that  the  strongest  claim  to  citizenship  is 
birthplace.  We  understand  him  to  say,  that  in  whatever 
country  or  place  you  may  be  born,  of  that  country  or  place 
you  are,  in  the  highest  sense,  a  citizen ;  in  flne,  this  appears 
to  us  to  be  too  self-evident  to  require  argument  to  prove  it. 

Now,  probably  three-fourths  of  the  present  colored  people 
are    American     born,     and     therefore    American     citizens. 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN.  45 

Suppotie  we  should  remove  to  some  other  country,  and  claim 
a  foothold  there,  could  we  not  be  rejected  on  the  ground 
that  we  were  not  of  them,  because  not  born  among  them? 
Even  in  Africa,  identity  of  complexion  would  be  nothing 
neither  would  it  weigh  anything  because  our  ancestry  were 
of  that  country ;  the  fact  of  our  not  having  been  bom  there 
would  be  suflBcient  ground  for  any  civil  power  to  refuse  us 
citizenship.  If  this  principle  were  carried  out,  it  would  be 
seen  that  we  could  not  be  even  a  cosmopolite,  but  must  be  of 
no  Where,  and  of  no  section  of  the  globe.  This  is  so  absurd, 
that  it  is  as  clear  as  day  that  we  must  revert  to  the  country 
which  gave  us  birth,  as  being,  in  the  highest  sense,  citizens 
of  it. 

These  points,  it  appears  to  us,  are  true,  indisputably  true. 
We  are  satisfied  as  to  our  claims  as  citizens  here,  and  as  to 
this  being  the  virtual  and  destined  home  of  colored  Americans . 

We  reflect  upon  this  subject  now,  on  account  of  the 
frequent  agitations,  introduced  among  us,  in  reference  to  our 
emigrating  to  some  other  country,  each  of  which  embodies 
more  or  less  of  the  colonizing  principle,  and  all  of  which  are 
of  bad  tendency,  thowing  our  people  into  an  unsettled  state; 
and  turning  away  our  attention  from  vital  matters  which 
involve  our  attention  in  this  country,  to  uncertain  things 
under  another  government,  and  evidently  putting  us  back. 
All  such  agitations  introduced  among  us,  with  a  view  to  our 
emigrating,  ought  to  be  frowned  upon  by  us,  and  we  ought 
to  teach  the  people  that  they  may  as  well  come  here  and 
agitate  the  emigration  of  the  Jays,  the  Rings,  the  Adamses, 
the  Otises,  the  Hancocks,  et  al,  as  to  agitate  our  removal. 
We  are  all  alike  constituents  of  the  same  government,  and 
members  of  the  same  rising  family.  Although  we  come  up 
much  more  slowly,  our  rise  is  to  be  none  the  less  sure. 
This  subject  is  pressed  upon  us,  because  we  not  unfrequently 
meet  some  of  our  brethren  in  this  unsettled  state  of  mind, 


46  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

who,  though  by  no  means  colonizationists,  yet  adopt  the 
colonization  motto,  and  say  they  can  not  see  how  or  when  we 
are  going  to  rise  here.  Perhaps,  if  we  looked  only  to  the 
selfishness  of  man,  and  to  him  as  absolute,  we  should  think 
so,  too.  But  while  we  know  that  God  lives  and  governs,  and 
always  will ;  that  He  is  just,  and  has  declared  that  righteous- 
ness shall  prevail  ;  and  that  one  day  with  Him  is  as  a 
thousand  years,  and  a  thousand  years  as  one  day ;  we  believe 
that,  despite  all  corruption  and  caste,  we  shall  yet  be  elevated 
with  the  American  people  here. 

It  appears  to  us  most  conclusive,  that  our  destinies  in  this 
country  are  for  the  better,  not  for  the  worse,  in  view  of  the 
many  schemes  introduced  to  our  notice  for  emigrating  to 
other  countries  liaving  failed ;  thus  teaching  us  that  our 
rights,  hopes,  and  prospects,  are  in  this  country ;  and  it  is  a 
waste  of  time  and  of  power  to  look  for  them  under  another 
government;  and  also,  that  God,  in  His  providence,  is 
instructing  us  to  remain  at  home,  where  are  all  our  interests 
and  claims,  and  to  adopt  proper  measures  and  pursue  them, 
and  we  yet  shall  participate  in  all  the  immunities  and  privi- 
leges the  American  nation  holds  out  to  her  citizens,  and  be 
happy.  We  are  also  strongly  American  in  our  character  and 
disposition. 

We  believe,  therefore,  in  view  of  all  the  facts,  that  it  is 
our  duty  and  privilege  to  claim  an  equal  place  among  the 
American  people;  to  identify  ourselves  with  American 
interests,  and  to  exert  all  the  power  and  influence  we  have,  to 
break  down  all  the  disabilities  under  which  we  labor,  and 
thus  look  to  become  a  happy  people  in  this  extensive 
country." 

Thus  Editor  Ray  was  no  dupe  in  the  editorial  fight  that  he 
made  for  his  race.  He  successfully  made  The  American  a 
paper  that  will  be  known  for  ages  as  a  bold  and  uncompro- 
mising fighter  for  freedom. 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN.  47 

We  will  not  invite  the  reader  to  any  comment  of  ours 
upon  the  character  and  ability  of  Mr.  Ray  as  a  journalist,  or 
upon  the  influence  and  magnitude  of  the  work  done  by  his 
paper.  Any  remarks  would  be  lost  in  the  ocean  of  comments 
by  others,  some  of  which  are  here  quoted.  We  give  what 
recognized  historians  say  of  Mr.  Ray:  "In  the  year  of  1839, 
he  became  the  editor  of  The  Oolored  American,  a  paper  which 
he  conducted  with  signal  ability.  The  Oolored  American  was 
well  conducted,  had  the  confidence  of  the  public,  and  was 
distinguished  for  the  ability  shown  in  its  editorials,  as  well  as 
in  its  correspondence." 

In  another  place  Mr.  Brown  says:  "All,  however,  who 
remember  as  far  back  as  thirty-five  years,  will  bear  testimony 
to*  the  eflBcient  work  done  by  The  Oolored  American,  and  to 
the  honor  that  is  due  to  its  noble  founder."  He  is  an 
original  and  subtile  writer,  having  fine  powers  to  analyze,  and 
often  flings  the  sparkling  rays  of  a  vivid  imagination  over  the 
productions  of  his  pen.  His  articles  are  usually  of  a  practical 
nature,  always  trying  to  remove  evils,  working  for  the  moral, 
social,  and  political  elevation  of  his  race.  He  was  always 
true  to  the  cause  of  the  Southern  slave,  and  the  elevation  of 
the  black  man,  everywhere." 

Another  writer  says :  "  Dr.  Ray  is  a  terse  and  vigorous 
writer,  well  informed  upon  all  subjects  of  the  day." 

The  American  suspended  publication  in  the  early  part  of 
1842,  having  made  a  brilliant  record  and  opened  a  compara- 
tively easy  road  for  future  efforts  in  Afro-American 
journalism. 


CHAPTER   IV. 


THE   ELEVATOR. 


THE  time  for  decisive,  urgent,  and  unceasing  fight  for  free- 
dom and  citizenship,  from  1838  on,  seems  to  have  taken 
firm  root  in  the  mind  and  heart  of  every  leading  Afro- 
Ameriean,  whose  intelligence  and  practical  knowledge  enabled 
him  to  engage  in  the   contest  in  anything  like  an  efl^ectual 
way. 

This  is  seen  in  the  ways  and  means  established,  through 
which  they  could  express  themselves.  New  York  state  ap- 
pears to  have  been  the  great  fighting-ground  of  the  Afro- 
American  abolitionists.  Not  only  in  New  York,  but  through- 
out the  whole  section  of  New  York  state,  papers  were 
established,  here  and  there,  for  the  purpose  of  agitating  Afro- 
American  freedom  and  citizenship. 

A  small  but  bright  and  newsy  sheet,  under  the  title  of 
The  Elevator,  was  established  at  Albany,  N.  Y.,  in  1842. 
This  journal,  as  were  the  others,  was  devoted  to  the  Anti- 
Slavery  cause  and  to  the  interests  and  progress  of  the  Afro- 
Americans.  It  was  published  by  Stephen  Myers,  whose 
efibrts  made  it  a  strong  advocate  of  everything  looking  to  the 

advancement  and  up-building  of  the  Afro-American. 

48 


THE  ELEVATOR.  49 

Mr.  Myers  was  born  at  Hoosic  Four  Corners,  Rensselaer 
County,  N.  Y.,  in  1800.  He  was  a  slave  of  Gen.  Warren, 
of  Revolutionary  fame,  and  made  free  by  him,  in  the  city  of 
Albany,  at  the  age  of  eighteen.  He  was  a  man  of  very 
limited  education,  but  of  great  natural  gifts.  He  was  both  an 
orator  and  a  writer. 

In  the  publication  of  his  paper  and  the  make-up  of  subject- 
matter,  he  was  greatly  aided  by  his  wife,  who  was  a  lady  of 
education  and  refinement.  Before  marriage,  she  was  a  Miss 
Harriet  Johnson,  the  daughter  of  Capt.  Abram  Johnson. 
She  aided  her  husband  in  the  preparation  of  all  his  editorials, 
«he,  too,  having  caught  the  Abolition  spirit.  In  the  publica- 
tion of  his  journal,  Mr.  Myers  was  backed  by  Horace  Greeley, 
Gerrit  Smith,  Erastus  Corning  of  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Henry  J. 
Raymond,  Hugh  Hastings,  Thurlow  Weed,  William  Caasidy, 
and  Peter  Cagger. 

Mr.  Myers  conducted  his  paper  purely  in  the  interest  of 
the  abolition  of  slavery  and  in  the  interest  of  his  race,  and 
never  for  the  purpose  of  making  money.  The  above-named 
gentlemen,  and  many  others,  aided  him  with  contributions 
from  time  to  time;  and  they  were  largely  instrumental  in 
enabling  him  to  circulate  his  journal  throughout  the  country. 
Although  it  did  not  appear  regularly,  nevertheless  it  was  a 
potent  factor  in  aiding  him  to  make  his  work  effective. 

The  cause  of  Abolition  was  supported  by  many  able  men 
iind  influential  newspapers ;  but  by  none  with  more  earnest- 
ness and  self-sacrificing  devotion  than  that  which  character- 
ized the  life  of  Stephen  Myers.  The  Elevator,  like  many 
other  journals  of  its  class,  proved  a  powerful  lever  in 
diverting  public  opinion,  public  sympathy,  and  public 
support,  towards  the  liberation  of  the  slave.  It  seems 
almost  incredible  that  Mr.  Myers,  with  no  education,  could 
have  accomplished  so  great  a  work.  Nothing  but  unceasing 
labor  and  unwavering  vigilance  could  have  made  him  so 
4 


60  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

successful.  Impressed  by  these  qualifications,  those  at  whose 
hands  he  sought  and  obtained  assistance  were  ever  ready  to 
respond  to  his  appeals.  True,  there  were  many  other  men 
like  Mr.  Myers  engaged  in  the  same  glorious  work;  but  he 
seems  to  have  had  more  than  ordinary  success  in  accom- 
plishing anything  he  attempted,  to  strengthen  the  mission  to 
which  he  consecrated  his  life. 

Wherever  and  whenever  he  attended  Anti-slavery  gather- 
ings, he  was  an  effective  and  even  powerful  speaker ;  and  no 
one  could  listen  to  him  without  becoming  a  warm  supporter 
of  his  cause. 

Meanwhile,  The  ElevcUor  found  its  way  into  the  homes  of 
several  thousands  of  patriotic  citizens  of  all  races,  molding 
Atiti-slavery  sentiments  in  ifcs  ceaseless  efforts  to  arouse  the 
American  people  to  a  sense  of  their  duty  to  exterminate  from 
our  land  a  condition  of  affairs  wholly  inconsistent  with  the 
sublime  principles  of  a  republican  form  of  government. 

Happily,  Mr.  Myers  lived  to  see  slavery  abolished,  the 
Union  restored,  the  Fifteenth  Amendment  attached  to  the 
Constitution  of  the  Nation,  and,  best  of  all,  the  barriers  of 
prejudice  gradually  weaken  their  hold  upon  commercial  and 
professional  circles. 

He  was  also  permitted  to  see  the  Afro- American,  the 
shackled  and  despised  being  whom  "man's  inhumanity  to 
man"  had  made  a  chattel,  take  his  initial  step  in  the  pathway 
of  ideal  American  citizenship,  unfettered  and  free;  while 
the  cloud  of  darkness  which  had  enveloped  him  for  two 
centuries,  gave  way  to  the  sunshine  of  education,  with  oppor- 
tunities to  reach  any  point  in  the  path  of  success  which 
nature  intended  for  him. 

The  last  days  of  Mr.  Myers  were  a  fitting  end  to  a  life 
that  future  generations  can  but  be  pleased  to  admit  was  crown- 
ed with  glory  and  splendor,  by  his  magnificent  achievements 
in  behalf  of  his  fellow-men ;  and  connected  with  his  name  will 


THE  ELEVATOR.  51 

atvays  be  a  lustre  and  a  sanctjty,  which  is  the  certain  reward 
of  an  honorable,  upright  life. 

"  Picsi  on  !  pros  on !  nor  doubt  nor  fcai, 
From  age  lo  age  Ihii  voice  itull  cheer — 
Whate'tr  nuT  die,  and  be  forgot, 
Work  done  for  Freedom  dielh  not." 


CHAPTER  V. 


THE  NATIONAL  WATCHMAN   AND  CLARION. 


THE  sUte  of  New  York  still  gave  evidence  of  her  Afro- 
American  sons'  interest  in  the  Abolition  cause. 
Still  another  messenger  of  warfare  was  issued  from 
another  portion  of  the  state,  under  the  title  of  The  NaJticmcd 
Watchrruxn,  This  paper  was  first  published  in  Troy,  in  the 
latter  part  of  1842,  having  as  its  publisher  and  editor,  Mr. 
William  6.  Allen,  assisted  by  Henry  Highland  Grarnett.  His 
paper  had  but  a  very  brief  existence ;  however,  it  contended 
manfully  for  what  its  projectors  hoped  to  see,  and  for  what 
their  soulsdesired. 

Mr.  Allen  was  among  the  few  men  of  his  time  who  could 
be  looked  upon  as  a  highly  educated  gentleman.  Into  his 
paper  he  put  all  the  intellectual  strength  his  mighty  brain 
could  master,  which  made  it  no  less  able  as  an  advocate  than 
any  of  its  contemporaries.  In  this  brief  period,  he  conduct- 
ed his  publication  with  journalistic  tact  and  energy.  In  his 
editorial  work  he  was  assisted  by  one  of  the  brainiest  and 
most  successful  black  men  in  the  country. 

Mr.  Garnett,  after  his  connection  with  the  Watchvian,  and 
while  he  was  pastor  of  the  Liberty-Street  Presbyterian  Church 

52 


HENRY  HIGHLAND  GARNETT. 


54 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


of  Troy,  published  7%^  Clarion.  This  paper,  while  not  fail- 
ing to  treat  the  most  momentous  of  questions — American 
Slavery — with  weighty  argument  and  skillful  debate,  was 
run,  we  are  informed,  mostly  in  the  interest  of  the  religious 
and  moral  improvement  of  his  race,  to  whose  wellfare  he  was 
wedded. 

As  one  puts  it, — "  Mr.  Garnett  was  a  remarkable  man." 
Ho  was  as  telling  a  speaker,  as  he  was  a  writer.  A  gentle- 
man of  ability  and  worth  sums  him  up  in  the  following  man- 
ner: "He  has  gained  the  reputation  of  being  a  courteous  and 
accomplished  man,  an  able  and  eloquent  debater,  and  a 
pood  writer." 


•)  -^ 


CHAPTER  VI. 


THE  PEOPLES  PRESS  AND  THE  MYSTERY. 


THE  Clarion  vjd&  followed  next  by  an  effort  at  journalism 
in    the   publication  of    The  Peoples   Press,   by  Thomas 
Hamilton  and  John  Dias,  about  1843.     This  publication, 
like  many  succeeding  ones,  lasted  only  a  few  months. 

Mr.  Hamilton  was  book-keeper  in  the  office  of  T/ie  Evan- 
gelist, at  the  time  when  a  desire  to  be  an  editor  first  took 
control  of  him,  which  desire  resulted  in  the  publication  of 
The  Pre^ss. 

There  is  a  belief  among  some  that  this  paper,  for  a  while 
Ijefore  its  suspension,  was  known  as  The  Anglo- African,  but 
this  must  not  in  any  way  be  connected  with  the  later  publi- 
cation of  **  Hamilton's  Magazine,"  and  a  paper  known  also  as 
Anglo- African,  Further  mention  will  be  made  of  Mr.  Ham- 
ilton in  a  succeeding  chapter. 

The  Afro- Americans,  at  this  stage,  evidently  caught  inspi- 
ration, wherever  settled  in  the  North,  as  to  the  duty  of  the 
hour.  Those  who  were  able,  intellectually,  found  it  their 
imperative  duty  to  agitate  through  the  medium  of  the  Press, 
for  but  little  could  be  accomplished  by  means  of  speech; 
even  at  the  North. 

55 


56  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Not  only  was  New  York  the  garden-spot  for  journalistic 
fruit,  but  Pennsylvania  also  occupies  a  place  on  that  record- 
In  1843,  when  the  interest  of  every  man  at  the  North  had 
been  stirred  up  on  the  slave  question,  the  Afro- Americans 
of  Pittsburgh,  not  unlike  their  friends  in  New  York,  desired 
and  sought  to  publish  letters  in  their  behalf,  but  could  find 
no  means  of  expression.  Their  pleas  to  the  white  publishers 
ol  papers  were  not  heeded.  This  prompted  Major  Martin 
R.  Delaney  to  publish  a  weekly  sheet  in  the  early  part  of 
the  year,  under  the  title  of  The  Mystery,  which  was  devoted 
solely  to  the  interest  of  his  race. 

As  we  have  seen  in  preceding  chapters,  and  as  is  generally 
the  case  at  this  writing,  Afro- American  papers  were  always 
lacking  support.  The  most  pretentious  newspapers,  run  strictly 
on  business  principles,  would  be  hardly  able  to  live  upon  the 
support  the  race  offers. 

While  Mr.  Delaney  put  ability,  money  and  business  spirit 
into  his  paper,  yet  it  survived  as  personal  property  only  nine 
months,  when  it  was  transferred  to  a  joint-stock  company  of 
six  gentlemen,  he  being  retained  as  editor. 

Mr.  Delaney  was  an  editor  of  attractive  power.  His 
friends  who  now  live  are  loud  in  their  praises  of  his  editorial 
ability.  A  writer  says — "The  editorials  of  his  journal 
elicited  praises  from  even  his  enemies,  and  were  frequently 
transferred  to  their  columns." 

To  his  editorial  influence  is  due  the  originating  of  the 
Avery  fund.  He  was  the  only  editor  from  1827  to  70,  to 
our  knowledge,  who  was  ever  arrested  for  what  his  enemies 
would  term  libel ;  certainly  he  was  the  first.  A  verdict  of 
guilty  was  rendered  in  the  suit  for  libel,  and  he  was  fined. 
Mr.  Delaney  stood  well  with  his  newspaper  friends.  They 
were  loud  in  praises  of  him  and  his  editorial  work ;  and  upon 
the  occasion  of  the  suit  for  libel,  this  was  fully  exemplified ; 
for  as  soon  as  they  found  out  the  court  had  fined  him,  they 


THE  PEOPLES  PRESS  AND  THE  MYSTERY.     57 


proceeded  immediately  to  start  a  subscription  paper  to  pay 
the  fine.  Happily,  it  had  been  remitted  and  the  money  was 
not  needed. 

Mr.  Delaney  was  a  physician  of  great  skill.  He  was 
among  the  first  Afro-Americans  to  graduate  from  Harvard 
College.  He  championed  the  c^use  of  the  Afro-Americans 
for  four  years  through  Tlie  Mystery^  which  suspended  publi- 
cation in  1847.  This  connection  with  The  Mystery^  was  his 
first  appearance  in  public  life. 

Mr.  Brown,  in  his  '*  Lives  of  Representative  Men  and 
Women,"  says — **His  journal  was  faithful  in  its  advocacy  of 
the  rights  of  man,  and  had  the  reputation. of  being  a  well-con- 
ducted sheet." 

Dr.  Delaney  died  January  24,  1885,  after  living  a  useful 
life  seventy  odd  years. 


CHAPTER  VII. 


THE  GENIUS  OF  FREEDOM. 


SHORTLY  after  this,  another  effort  at  Afro-American 
journalism  was  made  in  the  publication  of  Th^  Oenius 
of  Freedom ,  issued  some  time  between  1845  and  1847. 
with  Mr.  David  Ruggles  as  editor  and  publisher.  The  exact 
date  of  the  commencement  of  this  paper  is  not  known,  the 
writer  having  exhausted  all  resources  to  find  out. 

Ruggles  also  published  contemporaneously  with  l^he  Cbhred 
American  a  quarterly  magazine,  under  the  style  and  title  of 
"The  Mirror  of  Liberty,"  which  we  shall  notice  in  another 
chapter. 

It  is  safe  to  conclude  that  The  Oenius  of  Freedom  was  not 
published  until  aft^r  the  suspension  of  Mr.  Ruggles'  Maga- 
zine in  1841,  and  prior  to  the  establishment  of  The  North 
Star,  at  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  in  1847.  This  paper,  while  edited 
for  the  interest  of  the  Afro- American,  did  not  survive  a  long 
life.  It  was  soon  gathered  into  its  projectors'  arms,  however, 
with  the  knowledge  of  its  having  done  something  for  an  op- 
pressed people.  Thus,  little  is  known  of  it  by  any  one  save 
the  most  careful  observer  of  men,  times  and  events. 

Mr.  Ruggles  was  a  highly  educated  gentleman,  refined  in 

58 


THE  GENIUS  OF  FREEDOM.  59 

manners.  He  was  one  of  the  first  promoters  of  the  Under- 
ground Railroad,  and  was  one  who  stood  by  it  in  times  of 
peril.  He  was  a  terror  to  the  Southerner;  but  a  friend  to  his 
brethren  in  the  South.  He  labored  for  his  people  with  unfal- 
tering trust. 

He  was  the  most  logical  writer  of  his  time ;  indeed,  there 
are  few  now  of  the  craft  who  can  excel  our  subject  in  the 
editorial  field  where  logic  and  argument  have  most  power. 
He  was  a  quick  and  ready  writer,  his  articles  being  of  that 
nature  befitting  the  time  and  occasion. 

Wm.  Welles  Brown,  in  his  "Rising  Sun,"  says, — *'  The  first 
thing  ever  read,  coming  from  the  pen  of  a  colored  man,  was 
D.  M.  Reese,  M.  D.,  used  up  by  David  Ruggles,  a  man  of  color. 
Dr.  Reese  was  a  noted  colonizationist,  and  had  written  a  work, 
in  which  he  advocated  the  expatriation  of  the  blacks  from  the 
American  continent.  Mr.  Ruggles'  work  was  a  reply  to  it. 
In  this  argument,  the  Afro- American  proved  too  much  for  the 
Anglo-Saxon,  and  exhibited  in  Mr.  Ruggles  those  qualities  of 
keen  perception,  deep  thought,  and  originality,  that  mark  the 
critic  and  the  man  of  letters. 

Mr.  Ruggles  was  an  editor  of  the  indomitable  stamp.  He 
was  respected  by  all  of  his  constituents,  as  an  able  and  fear- 
less advocate. 

Hon.  Frederick  Douglass  says  of  Mr.  Ruggles, — "  He  was 
not  only  an  intelligent  man,  but  one  of  the  bravest  and  bold- 
est spirits  of  the  times.  John  J.  Zuille  of  New  York,  says, 
— '*  He  was  a  man  of  profound  ability  and  force  of  character. 
During  most  of  his  active  public  life,  he  was  the  soul  of  the 
Under-ground  Railroad  in  New  York  City,  respected  as  an 
editor,  and  in  the  courts  of  New  York  for  his  intimate  knowl- 
edge of  law  in  slave  cases."  Another  says, — "  He  was  a  keen 
and  witty  writer,  sending  his  arrows  directly  at  his  opponent." 
The  most  striking  characteristic  of  Mr.  Ruggles,  with  re- 
gard to  his  work  and  his  time,  is  that  he  was  of  unmixed 


60 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


blood,  which  clearly  showed  the  possibilities  of  a  race  of 
people,  some  of  whom  were  slaves  and  others  free  but  with- 
out the  right  of  franchisement,  and  with  no  means  of  eleva> 
tion. 

The  Oenvus  of  Freedom,  as  has  been  said,  was  short-lived. 
However,  Mr.  Ruggles'  journalistic  career  numbered  through 
several  years,  the  rest  of  which  will  be  noted  in  a  succeeding 
chapter. 

It  is  highly  probable  that  his  life,  in  this  respect,  would 
have  been  longer,  had  he  not  been  overtaken  with  blindness. 
He  died  in  1849,  highly  respected  and  esteemed  and  with  a 
popularity  which  not  many  of  his  race  enjoy  to-day. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 


THE  RAMS  HORN. 


IN  New  York,  before  the  war,  there  was  embodied  in  the 
Constitution  of  that  state  a  clause  relating  to  the  voting 

qualifications  of  the  Afro- American,  which  was  called  the 
*'  Colored  Clause."  It  was  to  the  effect,  that  no  Afro- Ameri- 
can could  have  the  right  of  suffrage  who  was  not  actually 
worth  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  of  real  estate,  accurately 
rated  and  taxes  paid  thereon ;  while  any  white  man  of  twenty 
years,  without  a  foot  of  land,  could  vote.  The  fact  of  such  a 
law  existing,  many  intelligent  and  level-headed  Afro- Ameri- 
cans were  deprived  of  a  just  right ;  while  his  white  brother, 
in  many  cases  not  so  capable  as  the  other,  was  allowed  it. 

As  the  Afro-Americans  became  more  and  more  intelligent 
and  able  to  see  and  discern  events  of  a  public  nature,  and 
capable  to  sit  in  judgment  upon  matters  of  public  concern  to 
them,  sentiment  among  their  fellows  with  regard  to  this 
injustice  arose  to  such  a  height,  that  the  more  thoughtful 
and  efficient  of  the  race  met  in  New  York  city,  sometime 
between  1845  and  *47,  to  take  into  consideration  this  special 
feature  of  injustice.  The  result  was  a  unanimous  decision  to 
petition  the  legislature  to  eliminate  the  word  "color,"  and 

61 


62  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

have  every  man  to  vote  on  the  same  terms  and  conditions. 
The  legislature,  after  some  fighting,  decided  to  leave  the 
matter  with  the  voters,  who  were  to  vote  Yes  or  No,  on  the 
question.  Now  was  the  most  favorable  opportunity  for  the 
publication  of  an  Afro- American  journal ;  but  there  was  not 
one  then  issued  in  the  land. 

About  this  time,  Mr.  Willis  A.  Hodges,  a  man  full  of 
zeal  and  devotion  for  his  race,  enthused  by  utterances  from 
the  editorial  columns  of  The  New  York  Sun  calling  on  the 
voters  to  vote  **  No,"  prepared  an  article  in  answer  to  these 
utterances,  and  sought  space  for  the  same  in  The  Suns  col- 
umns. 

Mr.  Hodges*  ai-ticle  was  published  for  a  fifteen-dollar 
consideration;  but  its  sentiment  was  modified,  and  it  was 
published  in  the  advertising  columns.  Mr.  Hodges  upon 
inquiry  relative  to  the  alteration  of  his  article  and  the  manner 
of  its  publication,  was  told — "  The  Sun  shines  for  all  white 
men,  and  not  for  colored  men."  He  was  also  told  if  he 
wished  the  Afro- American  cause  advocated,  he  would  have  to 
publish  a  paper  himself  for  the  purpose. 

Right  here,  Mr.  Hodges,  as  was  t^e  case  of  all  his  friends 
with  whom  he  consulted,  saw  the  irreparable  loss  his  people 
had  sustained  by  the  suspension  of  Afro- American  newspapers, 
formerly  published  in  New  York. 

As  has  been  said,  there  was  not  a  paper  published  by  an 
Afro-American,  at  this  time,  in  the  Union.  Mr.  Hodges, 
being  a  man  of  energy,  public-spirited  and  to  the  manor  born, 
hastily  came  to  the  conclusion  that  one  should  be  published 
in  New  York  city  by  Afro-Americans.  He  consulted  with 
leading  Afro-Americans  who  had  been  interested  in  former 
publications,  only  to  be  discouraged.  All  seemed  to  be  seek- 
ing personal  ends,  and  not  what,  at  this  time,  demanded  the 
closest  attention  of  their  leading  minds. 

Finally,  Mr.  Hodges  met  with  an  old  friend,  Thomas  Van 


THE  BAMS  HORN.  68 

Benaselaer,  with  whom  he  formed  a  co-partnership.  This  was 
done  in  October,  1846,  at  which  meeting  they  also  decided 
upon  The  Eatn*8  Horn,  as  a  title  for  the  paper. 

There  was  no  money  in  hand  to  make  the  first  issue.  It 
was  agreed  that  Mr.  Hodges  should  furnish  the  finances  and 
contribute  editorially,  while  Mr.  Van  Rensselaer  was  to  be 
the  business  manager. 

It  is  amusing,  as  well  as  interesting,  to  recall  what  Mr. 
Hodges  himself  has  to  say  about  it :  ''I  had  not  one  dollar  of 
my  own  for  the  paper;  but  as  white-washing  was  a  good 
business  in  New  York,  I  went  to  work  at  it,  and  in  two 
months  I  had  nearly  all  the  money  that  was  necessary  to  get 
out  the  first  number;  and  I  can  truly  say  that  I  furnished 
every  dollar  that  started  The  Mams  Horn,  and  wrote  the 
first  article  that  was  published  in  its  columns." 

To  the  surprise  of  many,  on  the  first  day  of  January,  1847, 
three  thousand  copies  of  The  Rams  Horn  were  gotten  out, 
with  the  significant  motto, — "We  are  men,  and  therefore 
interested  in  whatever  concerns  men." 

It  was  published  in  the  second  story  of  141  Fulton  Street, 
the  price  of  subscription  being  $1.50  to  persons  living  in  New 
York,  and  $1.00  to  those  who  received  it  by  mail. 

The  paper  was  well  received,  though  it  met  with  some 
opposition  on  the  part  of  Afro- Americans  in  the  Metropolis, 
and  was  published  until  dissension  arose  among  its  projectors. 

It  was  edited  by  Messrs.  Hodges  and  Van  Rensselaer, 
assisted  by  Frederick  Douglass.  Mr.  Douglass,  while  he  did 
little  writing  for  The  Rams  Horn,  was  then  so  highly  popular, 
that  no  paper  was  considered  of  much  importance  without  the 
name  of  Douglass  connected  with  it.  He  was  probably  to 
Afro-American  journalism  of  that  day,  what  Bill  Nye  and 
Bret  Harte  are  to  the  journalism  of  their  day.  The  Ram's 
Horn  was  well  distributed.  At  one  time  it  had  upon  its 
books  two   thousand   five  hundred  subscribers.     Of  course. 


64  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

these  were  enough  to  support  several  journals  of  its  size,  but 
few  of  them  represented  fully  paid  subscriptions. 

The  Rams  Horn  was  greatly  aided  in  living  by  such  men 
as  John  Brown,  who  was  a  supporter  and  contributor,  and 
whose  sympathy  was  gained  by  the  publication  of  Mr.  Hodges 
treatment  in  Virginia. 

The  Rama  Horn  was  as  neatly  printed,  and  presented  as 
pleasing  a  journalistic  look,  as  any  paper  published  at  that 
time.  It  was  a  five-column  folio,  printed  on  both  sides  with 
original  matter,  and  was  full  in  every  issue  with  anti-slavery 
sentiment  from  the  editors,  as  well  as  from  able  contributors. 

The  writer  of  this,  especially,  was  attracted  by  the  clean- 
cut  logic  of  an  editorial,  written  by  Mr.  Hodges  on  one 
occasion,  entitled, — "  The  South  Land  Again." 

We  put  Mr.  Hodges  down  as  a  man  of  prolific  brain,  good 
practical  sense,  and  sound  reasoning  faculties.  In  fact,  the 
articles  of  The  Ram's  Horn,  in  general,  were  noted  for  their 
readableness  and  force  of  character. 

Vol.  I,  No.  43,  November  5,  1847,  which  we  have  before 
us,  contains  a  reply  of  a  correspondent  to  the  following  clause 
of  a  circular  sent  out  by  Rev.  Alexander  Crummell,  dated 
April  19,  1846 : 

"The  rising  anti-slavery  feeling  of  the  North  confines 
itself  almost  entirely  to  the  interests  and  rights  of  the  whit« 
race,  with  an  almost  utter  disregard  of  the  Afro- Americans ; 
which  tendency  is  dangerous  to  us  and  should  be  changed.*' 

It  also  contained  other  interesting  articles,  which  space 
forbids  us  to  mention  here. 

After  The  Ram's  Horn  had  been  published  eighteen  months, 
a  dissension  arose  which  resulted  in  Mr.  Hodges  retiring  from 
the  paper,  leaving  Mr.  Van  Rens.selaer  as  editor  and  owner. 
It  is  due  Mr.  Hodges  to  say  he  left  T/ir  Ram's  Horn  free  of 
debt. 

Hodges,  while  crude  in  his  English,  was  one  of  the  most 


THE  RAM  S  HORN. 


65 


sagacious  and  practical  men  of  his  time.  He  was  the  soul  of 
Ihe  Bams  Mam,  though  little  credit  has  been  given  him  by 
some  who  comment  on  Afro- American  journalism.  He  now 
resides  at  Norfolk,  Va.,  a  trusted  citizen. 

The  Sams  Sam  appeared  only  once  with  Mr.  Van  Rens> 
selaer  as  editor  and  owner,  when  it  fell  asleep  in  June,  1848. 
It,  however,  had  done  good  work  for  the  race,  in  whose  special 
interests  it  was  run. 

Mr.  Van  Rensselaer,  while  a  very  indiscreet  man,  was  a 
brave  and  undaunted  advocate  of  the  equal  rights  of  the 
Afro- American  in  the  United  States.  T.  i.  Fortune,  in  writ- 
ing an  article  on  A&o-American  journalism  for  the  holiday 
number  of  The  New  York  JaumaUst,  takes  his  subject  "  From 
The  Ham's  Homy  He  comments  on  The  Rarna  Horn  as 
follows :  *'  Before  the  war,  few  newspapers  were  published  by 
Afro-Americans.  Here  and  there,  a  man  more  intelligent, 
more  venturesome,  more  affluent  than  his  fellows,  turned  to 
journalism  as  the  most  effective  means  of  pleading  for  the 
abolition  of  slavery ;  but  his  funds  would  be  soon  wasted  and 
the  issue  of  his  paper  would  be  stopped." 

It  was  thus  with  The  Rarna  Hom^  and  it?  service  must  not 
be  forgotten. 


DE.  JAMES  McCUNB  SMITH. 


CHAPTER  IX. 


THE  NORTH  STAR. 


THE  suspension  of    The  Ravi's   Horn  did   not  leave  the 
Afro- Americans  entirely  without  an  organ.     Vol.  I,  No. 
43,  of    T^  Rama   Horn   contained   the  following   pro- 
spectus for  an  anti-slavery  organ  at  Rochester,  N.  Y. :     "  Pro- 
spectus for  an  Anti-slavery  paper,  to  be  entitled — '*  The  North 
Star: 

Frederick  Douglass  proposes  to  publish  in  Rochester,  New 
York,  a  weekly  anti-slavery  paper  with  the  above  title.  The 
object  of  The  North  Star  will  be  to  attack  slavery  in  all  its 
forms  and  aspects;  advocate  Universal  Emancipation;  exact 
the  standard  of  public  morality ;  promote  the  moral  and 
intellectual  improvement  of  the  colored  people ;  and  to  hasten 
the  dav  of  freedom  to  our  three  million  enslaved  fellow-coun- 
trymen. 

The  paper  will  be  printed  on  a  double  medium  sheet,  at 
$2.00  per  annum,  if  paid  in  advance,  and  $2.50  if  payment 
be  delayed  over  six  months. 

The  names  of  subscribers  can  be  sent  to  the  following 
persons,  and  should  be  forwarded,  as  far  as  practicable,  by 
thp  first  of  November,  proximo. 

67 


68  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

The  following  are  the  agents:     Frederick  Douglass,  Lynn^ 

Mass, ;  Samuel  B.  ,  Salem,  Ohio ;  M,  R,  Delaney, 

Pittsburgh,  Pa. ;  Val  Nicholson,  Harrisburg,  Ohio ;  Mr,  Wal- 
cott,  Boston,  Mass.;  J.  P,  Davis,  Economy,  Indiana;  Christian 
Donaldson,  Cincinnati,  Ohio ;  J.  M.  M.  Rinn,  Philadelphia, 
Pa, ;  Amaraney  Paine,  Providence,  R.  I. ;  Mr.  Gay,  New 
York," 

The  North  Star  was  issued  the  first  day  of  November, 
1847.     It  and  The  Rains  Horn  were  contemporaries. 

The  editor  of  The  Star  being  head  and  shoulders  above 
many  of  his  colleagues,  his  paper  was  readily  accepted  as  one 
of  the  most  formidable  enemies  to  American  Slavery.  Its 
aims  and  purposes,  as  set  forth  in  the  prospectus,  drew  to  it 
good  support  from  those  of  the  whites  who  favored  Abolition, 

The  North  Star  was  conducted  on  a  much  higher  plane 
than  any  of  the  preceding  publications.  Mr.  Douglass  had, 
by  his  eloquent  appeals  in  behalf  of  the  Abolition  cause, 
created  a  wide-spread  sentiment,  and  he  was  known  as  an 
orator.  While  much  of  his  time  was  spent  on  the  rostrum  in 
behalf  of  Abolition,  yet  many  say  his  best  and  most  effective 
work  for  freedom  was  as  editor,  in  the  publication  of  The 
Star  at  Rochester,  New  York. 

Mr.  Douglass  was  what  is  hard  to  find  in  any  one  man,^— 
a  good  speaker,  as  well  as  an  effective,  able,  and  logical 
writer.  There  is  no  man  to-day  who  is  a  Douglass  with  the 
quill  and  upon  the  rostrum. 

Previous  to  this  publication,  Mr.  Douglass  was  not  known 
as  a  writer ;  but  he  was  afterward  recognized  as  a  great 
man  in  more  than  one  sphere. 

No  writer  ever  expressed  truth  in  better  and  more  fitting 
language  than  did  the  man  who  said — "  His  (Mr.  Doug- 
lass') boldness  and  superior  journalistic  ability  won  for  him  a 
world-wide  reputation." 

His  power  as   a  writer  was  large,  while  his  ready  and 


THE  NORTH  STAR.  69 

yigorous  use  of  the  English  language  was  always  effective  and 
good. 

We  clip  the  following  from  The  Mising  Sun :  "  Frederick 
Douglass'  ability  as  an  editor  and  publisher  has  done  more 
for  the  freedom  and  elevation  of  his  race  than  all  his  platform 
appeals." 

The  commencement  of  the  publication  of  27ie  North  Star 
was  the  beginning  of  a  new  era  in  the  black-man  s  literature. 
Mr.  Douglass'  great  fame  gave  his  paper  at  once  a  place 
among  the  first  journals  of  the  country ;  and  he  drew  around 
him  a  corps  of  contributors  and  correspondents  from  Europe, 
as  well  as  from  all  parts  of  America  and  the  West  Indies, 
that  made  his  columns  rich  with  the  current  literature  of  the 
world. 

While  The  North  Star  became  a  welcome  visitor  to  the 
homes  of  the  whites  who  had  never  before  read  a  paper 
edited  by  an  A  fro- American,  its  proprietor  became  still  more 
popular  as  a  speaker  in  every  state  in  the  Union  where 
Abolitionism  was  tolerated. 

Of  all  his  labors,  we  regard  Mr.  Douglass'  efforts  as  pub- 
lisher and  editor  the  most  useful  to  his  race. 

For  sixteen  years,  against  much  opposition,  single-handed 
and  alone,  he  demonstrated  the  fact  that  the  Afro- American 
was  equal  to  the  white  man  in  conducting  a  useful  and 
popular  journal. 

The  paper  was  continued  under  the  title  of  The  North  Star 
until,  in  1850,  its  name  was  changed,  and  it  was  afterwards 
known  as  "  Frederick  Douglass  Paper y 

But  there  was  only  a  change  in  name ;  for  the  same  prin- 
ciples, the  same  ability,  and  fight  for  Abolition,  characterized 
its  every  movement. 

In  the  publication  and  work  incident  to  the  paper,  Mr. 
Douglass  was  assisted  by  his  sons.  This  accounts,  in  a  great 
measure,  for  their  love  of  newspapers  at  this  writing,  and  their 


70 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


connection,  from  time  to  time,  with  many  different  journals. 
Fred  Douglass'  Paper  continued  to  be  published  until  it  was 
able  to  chronicle  the  emancipation  of  the  slaves.  It  was  then 
gathered  into  the  arms  of  its  promoters,  haying  triumphed  in 
the  cause  for  which  it  so  vigorously  fought. 


o-^ 


CHAPTER  X. 


CONTEMPORARIES  OF  THE  NORTH  STAR. 


BEGINNING  with  The  JVarthStar,  journalism  among  Afro- 
Americans  took  a  higher  stand,  and  was  of  a  more  ele- 
vated plane  than  that  previous  to  1847. 

About  this  time,  the  Abolition  cause  began  to  wax  warm, 
and  the  fight  was  a  vigorous  one.  In  this  condition  of  affairs 
the  Afro- American  could  not  have  less  interest  than  those 
among  the  other  race  who  made  many  sacrifices  for  the  sake 
of  Abolition. 

Upon  the  rostrum  could  be  heard,  all  over  the  North,  the 
voices  of  the  abolitionists  for  the  emancipation  of  the  slave. 

In  this,  the  Afro- Americans  enlisted.  The  matchless  ora- 
tory of  Frederick  Douglass,  John  Remond,  and  others,  was 
listened  to  in  almost  every  section  of  the  North,  pleading  for 
their  brethren's  freedom  from  oppression.  This  was  seen  to 
have  been  a  necessary  means  of  agitation. 

It  was  also  necessary  that  the  press  should  be  conducted 
by  able  and  fearless  advocates.  It  is  true,  Douglass  had  his 
Star,  at  Rochester ;  but  other  papers  were  needed  to  make  the 
press  heard  in  the  hum  of  battle,  in  union  with  the  musical 
voi<je  of  the  orator ;  therefore,  the  Sfar  should  have  its  contem- 

I>orarie8. 

71 


72  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Of  these,  some  were  of  short  and  others  were  of  long 
duration.  The  first  of  them  was  The  Impartial  QUizen,  at 
Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  in  1848,  published  by  Samuel  Ward. 

Mr.  Ward  was  a  very  intelligent  and  sober  man,  and 
conducted  his  journal  on  a  very  lofty  plane.  He  was  as  able 
as  any  other  journalist  since  that  time,  and  his  publication 
was  managed  with  as  much  shrewdness  and  practical  ability 
as  any  of  his  day.  By  many  he  was  regarded  aa  an  abler 
speaker  than  writer. 

The  principles  for  which  the  paper  fought  are  indicated  by 
its  name.  It  clamored  particularly  lor  Afro- American  citizen- 
ship at  the  North,  and  the  freedom  of  the  slave  at  the  South. 

Mr.  Douglass,  an  able  man  himself,  says — "  To  my  mind, 
Mr.  Ward  was  the  ablest  black  man  the  country  has  ever 
produced."  It  follows  that  Mr.  Ward  must  have  been  an 
able  man. 

The  Citizen  advocated,  with  convincing  logic,  political  action 
against  slavery.  Though  the  paper  had  unfortunately  but  a 
brief  existence,  it  gained  for  itself  the  reputation  of  being  a 
spirited  sheet.  The  editor  of  The  North  Star,  which  was  a 
contemporary  of  77ie  Citizen,  says — "  Mr.  Ward  was  an  edu- 
cated man,  and  his  paper  was  ably  edited."  This  was  an 
excellent  effort  at  journalism. 

There  was  now  no  Afro-American  journal  published  in 
New  York  City.  T/te  Banis  Horn  having  been  suspended  in 
1848,  left  the  Afro- Americans  in  that  city  without  any  organ. 

While  journals,  backed  by  men  of  brains,  were  springing 
up  in  other  parts  of  the  North,  New  York  City  contained, 
probably,  a  greater  number  of  able  black  men,  both  speakers 
and  writers  than  could  be  found  elsewhere. 

Mr.  Louis  H.  Putman,  a  man  identified  with  all  the  Afro- 
American  interests,  began  the  publication  of  The  Colored 
Mans  Journal,  in  New  York  City.  It  was  backed  by  a  man 
of  some  financial   strength,  and   therefore  survived  many  a 


74  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

shock  to  which  it  must  otherwise  have  succumbed.  It  was 
issued  in  1851,  and  continued  to  be  published  during  a 
period  of  ten  years  of  stormy  agitation,  until  the  outbreak 
of  the  civil  war. 

As  a  writer,  Mr.  Putman  was  known  very  well.  He, 
however,  did  little  work  as  a  speaker,  save  in  his  native 
town  on  matters  of  local  interest.  His  main  efforts  were 
made  through  his  paper.  He  was  what  might  be  termed  a 
practical  man,  full  of  common  sense,  which  he  used  abundantly 
in  conducting  his  journal.  No  paper  up  to  this  time,  save 
The  Star,  survived  the  existence  of  The  Journal. 

There  is  one  feature  about  Mr.  Putman 's  life  as  a  writer 
which  is  very  flattering.  He  never  fought  for  anything  he 
did  not  conceive  to  be  right.  He  had  his  faults,  as  all  men 
have;  but  he  looked  far  and  thought  soberly  before  acting. 
A  friend  speaks  thus  of  him:  "Mr.  Putman  was  a  man 
full  of  historical  facts,  and  possessed  keen  perceptive  powers ; 
and  he  was  a  good  writer."  His  paper  was  neat  in  appear- 
ance, and  exhibited,  in  its  mechanical  make-up,  a  knowledge 
of  the  higher  order  of  journalism. 

The  next  effort  at  journalism  among  the  early  contempora- 
ries of  The  North  Star  was  27ic  Alienated  American,  edited  by 
Prof.  W.  H,  H,  Day,  which  he  published  at  Cloveland,  Ohio, 
in  1852,  in  the  interest  of  Abolition,  immediately  after  he 
graduated  from  Oberlin,  in  1847.  The  American  was  decid- 
edly one  of  the  best  journals  ever  published,  supported  by  a 
well-trained  man,  as  well  as  of  recognized  ability.  This 
paper  was  wholly  devoted  to  the  cause  for  which  it  was 
every  Afro- American's  pleasure  to  fight, — that  of  freedom. 
A  man  eminently  able  and  thoughtful,  says — "It  rendered 
timely  and  efficient  service  in  the  cause  of  freedom  and  the 
elevation  of  the  colored  people  in  the  state." 

Mr.  Day  was  a  scholarly  writer,  of  as  much  ability  as  any 
of  that  day ;  and  since  he  still  lives,  with  years  of  experience 


CONTEMPORARIES  OF  THE  NORTH  STAR.      75 

upon  his  head,  it  is  safe  to  say  there  are  very  few  now  who 
are  his  equals  at  the  editorial  desk.  To  judge  from  historical 
accounts  of  Mr.  Day  and  his  journalistic  life,  it  is  indeed 
safe  to  say  that  then  t&ere  were  only  a  few  in  that  department 
of  life's  work  who  could  attain  to  his  measure. 

He  is  spoken  of  in  The  Rising  Sun,  as  follows :  "  As  a 
writer,  Mr.  Day  is  far  above  newspaper  editors  generally, 
exhibiting  much  care  and  thought  in  many  of  his  articles. 
As  a  speaker  and  writer,  he  has  done  much  for  his  race." 

He  is  admitted  to  be  among  the  few  who,  with  Douglass, 
may  justly  claim  the  distinction  of  being  a  prolific  writer. 

The  great  secret  of  Mr,  Day's  success  and  triumphant 
ability  as  a  writer  is,  that  he  had  a  finely  stored  memory^ 
firom  which  he  could  draw  at  will.  ITie  American  was  a 
paper  that  could  be  regarded  as  a  creditable  publication,  and 
it  realized  a  good  support.  It  was  the  first  paper  that  had 
ever  been  published  in  Ohio  by  an  Afro-American  for  his 
race ;  and  it  is  a  matter  of  fact  that  an  enthusiastic  and  hearty 
support  was  at  once  created  for  it. 

The  American  suspended  publication,  for  a  while,  before 
Mr.  Day  sailed  for  England,  in  1856  and  '57.  There,  he  was 
recognized  for  his  worth  and  scholarly  training,  his  manner  of 
deportment,  and  for  his  genuine  eloquence  in  his  preaching 
and  lecturing.  Some  time  after  he  returned,  he  embarked 
again  in  journalism,  which  we  shall  have  occasion  to  refer  to 
later  on. 

Mr.  Day  lives  at  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  where  he  is  yet  engaged 
in  toiling  for  his  people.  He  is  a  preacher  in  the  A.  M.  E. 
Zion  church,  and  one  of  its  best  and  brainiest  men. 

In  1887,  Livingstone  College,  Rev.  J.  C.  Price,  President, 
gave  him  the  degree  of  *'  D.  D."  The  honor  has  never  been 
conferred  on  one  more  worthy. 

Truly  he  has  helped  to  make  the  history  of  journalism 
bright  and  shining  by  his  having  been  in  it. 


76  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

It  must  seem  to  the  reader  that  now  the  Afro-Americans 
were  of  some  consequence ,  for  we  see  them  rising  on  all  sides, 
whenever  allowed  any  freedom  at  all,  aiming  at  the  one 
great  evil  of  slavery. 

The  work,  as  the  reader  will  note,  was  not  now  confined 
to  the  state  of  New  York  or  Pennsylvania,  but  was  reaching 
into  the  far  West  and  there  getting  foothold  for  a  crusade 
for  the  right. 

Another  contemporary  of  The  North  Star  was  The  Mirror 
of  the  HmeSy  of  which  Hon.  Mifflin  W.  Gibbs  was  one  of  the 
proprietors  and  editors.  It  was  published  in  San  Francisco, 
Cal.,  in  1855. 

That  The  Mirror  of  the  Times  did  much  good  work  can  not 
be  denied  by  any  one.  It  could  not  have  been  otherwise 
with  the  name  of  Judge  Gibbs  attached  to  it. 

This  journal  was  published  for  seven  years,  and  nobly 
defended  the  race  and  fought  for  the  common  cause  of 
Abolition,  until,  in  1862,  it  was  merged  into  The  Pacific 
Appeal. 

The  Times  did  excellent  work,  and  the  Afro- Americans  of 
to-day  feel  proud  of  its  efforts. 

Judge  Gibbs  is  at  present  Receiver  of  Public  Moneys,  at 
Little  Rock,  Ark. 

Another  excellent  contemporary  of  The  North  Star  was 
The  Herald  of  Freedom,  published  in  1855  by  Mr.  Peter  H. 
Clark.  It  was  one  of  the  best  advocates  of  Abolition  among 
the  Afro- Americans,  for  the  reason  that  it  had  an  editor  of 
good  sense  and  vast  knowledge,  both  natural  and  acquired. 
Mr.  Clark  was  born  in  1827. 

There  are  possibly  few  men  of  our  race  who  have  lived, 
and  now  live,  better  known  as  of  literary  and  intelligent 
worth  than  Mr.  Clark,  every  person  of  importance  giving  him 
the  credit  of  being  an  acute  thinker. 

His  journal  had  a  very  short  existence,  but  it,  no  doubt. 


PETER  H.  CLARK. 


78  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

helped  on  the  fight  for  a  just  principle,  which  was  after- 
wards maintained. 

Its  name  indicated  a  long-looked-for  desire.  It  joined  in 
the  fight  with  a  vim,  and  went  to  rest,  doubtless,  with  the 
feeling  that  it  had  accomplished  something. 

After  the  suspension  of  Hie  Herald  of  Freedom,  in  Ohio, 
Mr.  Clark  was  associated  with  Mr.  Douglass  in  the  publica- 
tion of  The  North  Star.  Upon  the  editorial  staflF  of  this 
paper  he  labored  zealously. 

27ie  Star  had  already  been  actively  battling  for  Abolition 
for  some  years,  and  with  Mr.  Clark*s  vigorous  and  pricking 
pen,  its  aims  and  purposes  for  triumph  were  greatly  strength- 
ened. 

Respecting  his  contributions  to  The  Star,  a  writer  to  the 
author  quotes  William  Welles  Brown  as  expressing  his  senti- 
ment :     "  His  articles  were  fresh,  vigorous  and  telling." 

Mr.  Clark  is  one  of  the  bright  Afro- American  minds,  and 
the  world  has  been  made  brighter  and  more  attractive  for 
his  having  lived  in  it. 

Up  to  this  time  there  had  been  no  part  taken  by  the 
Afro-American  churches  in  the  interest  of  Abolition,  save, 
here  and  there,  a  few  individual  attempts.  There  seems  to 
have  been  no  organized  e£fort  among  the  churches ;  and  noth- 
ing of  a  tangible  nature  was  done  to  battle  against  the  wrong. 

This  the  members  saw ;  and  the  A.  M.  E.  Church,  having 
had  some  years  of  existence,  now  made  a  very  interesting  and 
permanent  stand  in  the  North.  The  principles  of  the  church, 
as  taught  by  Richard  Allen,  were  laid  down  with  much 
power  and  strength. 

The  Press,  an  indispensable  factor,  was  seen  to  be  neces- 
sary here;  and  it  was  about  this  time  (1856)  that  The 
Christian  Recorder  was  established  in  Philadelphia,  with  Rev. 
Jabez  Campbell,  now  Bishop  Campbell,  as  editor. 

It  is  hardly  necessary  for  us  to  comment  here  upon  the 


CX)NTEMPORARIES  OF  THE  NORTH  STAR.     79 

work  of  The  Recorder,  or  to  attempt  to  t«Il  its  liiatory ;  for 
to  every  churchman  The  ChrieAian  Recorder  is  a  familiar 
periodical. 

It  was  establiehed  as  the  official  organ  of  the  A.  M.  E. 
Church,  and  has  manfully  fought  the  fight.     Its  heroic  efforts 


REV.  RICHARD  ALLEN, 
Firat  Bishop  of  Th«  Africsn  M.  £.  Cliurcli. 

in  the  days  of  slavery  for  Abolition,  are  well  known  to  the 
Afro-American  student  of  times  and  evente. 

Rev.  Campbell  brought  its  editorial  work  to  a  high  stand- 
ard, which  was  carried  even  higher  by  succeeding  editors. 

Rev.  Campbell  resigned  his  position  after  a  few  years' 
service,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John  M.  Brown,  who 
afterward  became  Bishop. 


80  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Mr.  Brown  kept  up  the  high  order  of  editorial  work 
attained  by  Mr.  Campbell.  By  these  two  gentlemen  the 
standard  was  fixed,  and  the  foundation  laid  for  a  more 
glorious  service  in  the  time  of  absolute  freedom.  • 

This  brings  us  to  1868,  when  Rev.  Benjamin  F.  Tanner 
took  the  editorial  chair,  which  he  occupied  for  sixteen  years, 
during  which  time  he  made  The  Recorder  an  assured  publica- 
tion, giving  it  that  distinction  and  prominence  which  it  well 
deserved  under  his  management. 

In  1870,  after  Rev.  Tanner  had  had  control  of  The  Recorder 
only  two  years,  a  man  of  eminence  and  high  intellectoal 
ability  speaks  thus  of  him  and  his  paper :  "  As  editor  of  The 
Recorder,  he  has  written  many  witty,  pithy,  and  brilliant 
sentiments.  There  is  a  tinge  of  opulent  fancy  running  through 
his  editorials,  which  always  refreshes  one.  The  wide  repu- 
tation of  his  journal,  outside  of  his  own  denomination,  is 
probably  the  best  test  of  his  ability  as  a  newspaper  con- 
ductor."    This  can  be  said  of  his  whole  career. 

Upon  the  establishment  of  a  church  magazine  in  1884, 
Rev.  Tanner  was  chosen  editor,  whereupon  he  resigned  the 
editorship  of  The  Recorder,  when  Rev.  Dr.  Lee  was  chosen  as 
his  successor. 

As  is  known,  Dr.  Lee  is  one  of  the  greatest  Afro- American 
writers  upon  the  continent  of  America,  and  with  entire  satis- 
faction to  his  race  and  his  church  he  fills  the  responsible 
editorial  chair  of  The  Recorder,  He  is  one  of  those  who  had 
to  toil  by  the  sweat  of  his  brow  for  an  education. 

It  is  highly  interesting  to  think  of  Dr.  Lee  as  once  having 
been  the  stable-man  upon  the  Wilberforce  University  grounds, 
and  of  his  return,  after  a  few  years,  to  be  its  President. 
The  divine  injunction  that  the  first  shall  be  last  and  the  last 
shall  be  first,  is  fully  illustrated  in  this  case. 

There  is  nothing  harsh  about  Editor  Lee  s  productions. 
He  is  rather  an  easy,  mellifluous  writer,  and  fully  conversant 


CONTEMPORARIES  OF  THE  NORTH  STAR.      Rl 


with  hiH  church  polity.     It  may  safely  be  said  that  he  is  one 
of  the  most  dieitingnished  men  of  his  race  and  church. 


BLACK   HARRY— "The  FrencliLT." 
BisbopCkike's  servant,  and  aaid  by  Dr.  Rush,  Bishop  Asbiirr  i 
lo  have  been  the  greateel  omlor  in  America. 


CHAPTER  XI. 


THE  ANGLO-AFRICAN. 


THE  next  marked  effort  in  this  field  was  in  New  York 
City,  and  was  opportunely  made. 
Mr.  Thomas  Hamilton,  of  The  Peoples  Press  fame,  again 
dares  to  brave  the  storm  in  another  publication.  This  time  it 
was  a  decided  success,  reflecting  credit  upon  his  journalistic 
experience  and  his  active  brain.  It  was  called  TJie  Angh- 
African,  and  was  one  of  the  most  powerful  journals,  irrespect- 
ive of  the  color  of  the  publisher,  in  the  Abolition  cause. 

Published  a  few  years  before  the  war,  it  entered  upon  a 
heated  period,  which  demanded  fight, — fight  to  the  bitter 
end. 

Mr.  Hamilton  put  every  thing  serviceable  into  his  paper. 
He  decided  it  should  be  a  creditable  and  effective  sheet,  and 
to  accomplish  this  he  made  many  sacrifices,  and  flung  to  the 
breeze  the  first  number  of  The  African,  (Vol.  1.,  No.  1.)  July 
23,  1859.  It  started  with  a  high  order  of  journalism,  and 
occupied  that  elevated  plane  of  Afro- American  press  work, 
inaugurated  by  The  North  Star. 

Mr.  Hamilton  was,  at  this  time,  sole  owner  of  the  paper ; 
but  his   brother   Robert    was  associated   with  him   in   the 


84  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

editorial  department.  Tfie  Anglo- African  was  a  most  worthy 
paper.  The  publishers  were  men  of  great  intellectual,  as  well- 
as  journalistic  ability.  The  opinion  of  Mr.  Douglass  is — *'  It 
had  more  promise,  and  more  journalistic  ability  about  it,  than 
any  of  the  other  papers," 

It  was  a  large  sheet  of  four  pages,  with  seven  columns  to 
a  page.     These  were  larger  than  ordinary  newspaper  columns. 

It  had  at  their  head  the  following : 

The  Weekly  Anglo-African  is  published  every  Saturday  by 
Thomas  Hamilton,  43  Beekman  Street,  New  York. 

Terms  of  subscription :  Two  dollars  per  year,  or  four  cents 
per  copy.  Thus  it  went  forth,  and  made  a  noble  fight  for 
the  Abolition  cause. 

Papers  published  at  this  time  were  watched  with  a  criti- 
cising eye  by  almost  every  man  among  the  white  people. 
The  editorial  backing  was  closely  observed,  as  well  as  the 
journalistic  look  of  the  paper. 

This  ordeal  The  Anglo- African  was  able  to  meet.  When- 
ever weighed  in  the  journalistic  balances,  it  was  not  found 
wanting. 

Mr.  Thomas  Hamilton,,  like  his  brother,  was  a  man  of 
superior  ability,  and  of  much  experience  in  his  profession. 
He  was  on  The  Evayigelist  for  a  long  while,  and  had  been 
one  of  the  proprietors  of  The  Peoples  Press.  Many  are  of 
the  opinion  that  The  Anglo- Afican  was  the  better  publica- 
tion of  the  two.  We  will  not  venture  the  opinion  that  it 
was  the  best  paper  published,  but  we  will  say  it  was  the 
largest. 

The  great  feature  of  Th4i  Anglo-African  was,  that  it  did 
not  seek  to  make  itself  a  paper  whose  matter  should  originate 
in  the  Hamilton  family  alone ;  and  some  of  its  contributors 
were  known  to  embrace  the  best  Afro-American  talent  of 
those  days ;  the  result  being  a  genuine  Afro- American  news- 
paper. 


"»"h? 


R.  DeLANEY. 


86  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Hamilton  was  devoted  to  journalistic  efforts,  and  proved 
eminently  successful  therein. 

The  motto  of  TJie  Angh- African  was  as  significant  as  that 
of  any  paper  ever  published.  It  was — "Man  must  be  free; 
if  not  through  the  law,  then  above  the  law."  With  this 
motto,  it  manfully  contended  for  Afro- American  freedom  and 
citizenship. 

Mr.  Thomas  Hamilton  continued  to  be  the  owner  and 
editor  of  The  Anglo-African  until  it  was  bought  by  Mr. 
James  Redpath,  one  of  the  old  and  substantial  Abolition- 
ists,— the  object  of  his  purchase  being  the  advocating  of  the 
Haytian  Emigration  Movement;  a  project  that  seemed  then 
to  be  the  only  hope  for  the  Afro- Americans.  This  occurred 
in  the  early  part  of  1860. 

After  its  purchase  by  Mr.  Redpath,  the  paper  was  known 
as  The  Weekly  Anglo- African,  for  a  short  time,  when  the 
following  notice  appeared  in  Vol.  II,  No.  13,  May  11,  1861: 
The  Anglo- African  will  appear  next  week  under  a  new  name 
— The  Pine  and  Palm. 

What  does  it  mean  ?     Wait  and  you  will  see." 

George  Lawrence,  Jr.,  Publisher. 

While  Mr.  Redpath  was  owner,  Mr.  Lawrence  seems  to 
have  done  the  work  for  him,  and  carried  out  his  wishes  with 
respect  to  the  Haytian  Emigration  Movement.  This  Move- 
ment was  pressed  with  earnestness  by  Mr.  Redpath  and  by 
his  representative,  Mr,  Lawrence,  through  The  Afncan,  as 
well  as  The  Pine  and  Palm. 

The  Anglo- African  of  March  23,  1861,  Vol.  II,  No.  36, 
contained  a  full  outline  of  the  Movement,  and  some  very 
pertinent  and  interesting  articles  on  the  feasibility  of  it. 

Mr.  Redpath,  the  General  Agent,  resided  in  Boston,  and 
used  The  African,  afterwards  The  Pine  and  Palm,  as  the 
surest  medium  through  which  the  Afro-American  could  be 
reached. 


THE  ANGLO-AFRICAN.  87 

The  issue  spoken  of  above  also  contained  circulars  setting 
forth  the  advantages  of  the  Movement,  signed  by  Mr.  Red- 
path.  We  would  insert  them  verbatim  et  lUeratim,  as  they 
appear  in  The  Afiican,  but  for  the  great  consumption  of 
space  it  would  require.  It  kept  up  to  the  old  landmark  of 
journalistic  enterprise,  during  the  year  it  was  published. 

About  August  or  Septembur  of  1861,  Mr.  Redpath  having 
resigned  the  position  of  Emigration  Agent  of  the  Haytian 
Movement,  the  paper  reverted  to  the  hands  of  one  of  the 
Hamiltons,  this  time  being  owned  and  edited  by  Mr.  Robert 
Hamilton,  Mr.  Thomas  Hamilton  having  died.  It  also  resumed 
its  original  name,  Anglo- AfHcan. 

Mr.  Hamilton  was  assisted  in  the  editorial  work  by  Rev. 
Henry  Highland  Garnott,  who  appears  in  the  paper  as 
** Editor  of  the  Southern  Department;"  and  who  was  inter- 
ested in  every  good  enterprise  started  during  this  perilous 
time  in  the  interest  of  American  Slavery  Under  Mr.  Robert 
Hamilton's  management  the  paper  increased  in  size,  and  the 
editorial  dash  of  its  columns  was  perceptibly  quickened. 

Mr.  Garnett  was  a  man  of  affaii-s,  and  contributed  in  a 
magnificent  way  to  the  brilliancy  of  the  paper. 

It  was  published  at  50  Beekman  Street,  a  part  of  the 
time,  and  then  at  184  Church  Street,  New  York  City. 

Much  of  the  services  of  The  Anglo- Afncan,  in  these  later 
days  of  its  publication,  was  due  to  Mr.  William  G.  Hamilton, 
son  of  the  former  owner  and  editor,  who  acted  in  the  capacity 
of  business  manager. 

Mr.  Robert  Hamilton  was  known  throughout  New  York 
state,  and,  in  fact,  the  Union,  as  an  able  writer;  and  his 
paper  was  recognized  as  an  unflinching  advocate  of  Republi- 
canism, which  he  regarded  the  best  friend  of  the  slave. 
While  an  untiring  advocate  of  Republican  principles,  he 
watched  party  actions  with  a  vigilant  eye,  in  order  to  detect 
any  traitorous  measure  it  might  attempt  to  support. 


88  THE  ANGLO-AFRICAN, 

The  African  also  looked  with  a  piercing  eye  to  the  educa- 
tional interests  of  the  freedmen  in  the  South. — Vol,  V,  No.  5, 
September  9th,  1865,  immediately  after  the  Surrender,  con- 
tains a  most  potent  and  well-timed  article  on  the  kind  of 
education  the  freedmen  should  have,  and  the  wav  in  which 
he  should  be  taught.  The  editorial  was  headed :  '*  The  South- 
ern Field  and  the  proper  agents." 

The  following  are  the  introductory  words  of  the  article : 

"  We  notice  an  increasing  solicitude  among  the  A^hites,  as 
to  the  influence  likely  to  be  exerted  upon  the  freed  brethren 
of  those  talented  colore«l  men  who  are  now  going  South. 
This  is  quite  natural.  The  whites  are  conscious  of  the  fact 
that  heretofore  thev  have  had  the  field  all  to  themselves; 
that  for  patronage  and  perquisites  they  have  taught  what 
and  how  they  pleased." 

•'  It  is  reasonable  and  proper  that  colored  men  should  feel 
that  it  is  their  mission  now  to  enter  this  field  and  educate 
and  elevate  their  freed  brethren.  This  field  is  naturally 
ours,  and  is  the  onlv  fair  one  we  ever  had  for  usefulness 
before.  Moreover,  the  race  to  be  educated  and  elevated  is 
ours;  therefore  we  are  deeply  interested  in  the  kind  of 
education  it  receive.^*,  etc." 

The  Amjio- Africa II  liveil  (o  see  the  Afro- American  a  freed- 
man,  and  to  enjoy  the  awarded — "  Well  done,  good  and 
faithful  servant,"  in  the  Abolition  fight. 

It  lived  to  see  the  A  fro- American  on  the  march  to  an 
intellectual  position  and  to  civil  citizenship ;  and  with  this 
consciousness  it  died  peacefully  in  the  arms  of  its  promoters. 

The  Hamiltons  will  be  known  as  long  as  the  .cause  for 
which  men  fought,  mentally  and  physically,  is  remembered 
by  their  countrymen.  Their  names  will  be  treasured  in  the 
archives  of  history  in  connection  with  that  of  Phillips,  Garrison, 
and  a  phalanx  of  others,  whose  arms  are  stacked  by  the 
Jordan  of  eternal  rest. 


EEV.  J.  P.  SAMPI 


CHAPTER  XII. 


CONTEMPORARIES  OF  THE  ANGLO-AFRICAN. 


THE  only  paper  we  have  heard  of  that  was  published  by 
one  of  our  race  during  the  war,  or  that  began  publica- 
tion during  that  period,  was  The  Colored  Citizen,  at  Cincin- 
nati, by  Mr.  John  P.  Sampson.  It  was  issued  in  the  interest 
of  the  black  soldiers,  then  fighting  in  the  Civil  War. 

The  Citizen  was  the  only  Afro- American  war-policy  paper 
published.     It  was  generally  known  as  the  "Soldiers*  Organ." 

Many  humane  Christians  at  the  North  aided  in  the  publi- 
cation of  this  paper,  and  circulated  thousands  of  copies  of  it 
among  the  Afro- American  soldiers. 

It  was  a  successfully  conducted  shoot,  having  the  tone  of  a 
journal  whose  mission  was  a  high  and  lofty  one. 

Mr.  Sampson  was  a  man  of  eminent  learning,  having  been 
sent  North  from  his  home  in  North  Carolina  to  obtain  an  ed- 
ucation, which  he  received  in  the  schools  of  Boston. 

He  began  work  as  a  teacher  in  the  public  schools  of  New 
York,  and  so  endeared  himself  to  the  hearts  of  his  people  and 
won  the  esteem  of  the  nation,  that  when  he  entered  upon  this 
mission  he  gave  a  prestige  to  his  paper  which  made  it  an 
ever-welcome  visitor  to  many  homes. 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS.  91 

Mr.  Welles  Brown,  who  possibly  knew  more  about  the 
ability  and  work  of  the  men  of  his  times  than  most  people, 
Bays — "  Mr.  Sampson  was  an  able  writer,  ete.,"  which  com- 
pliment speaks  well  for  him. 

John  P,  Sampson  was  as  well  known  for  his  good  deeds, 
and  for  his  arduous  work  as  editor  in  war  and  reconstruction 
times,  as  any  man  who  ever  espoused  the  Abolition  cause. 

He  was  an  enterprising  editor ;  which  is  much  to  say  of  a 
colored  man  of  his  profession  at  that  time,  for,  usually,  those 
80  disposed  were  not  suffered  to  exercise  their  ability  in  that 
direction. 

His  journal  was  an  authority,  owing  to  the  fact  that  Mr, 
Samp.«««jn  was  a  reliable  man.  He  might  be  termed  an  im- 
preasive  writer, — one  whose  thoughts  in  print  would  leave 
their  lessons  deeply  stamped  upon  the  reader  s  mind.  His 
services  as  an  editor  and  correspondent  were  largely  sought. 
In  addition  to  his  duties  in  connection  with  The  Citizen,  he 
edited,  through  the  mail,  for  a  brief  period,  a  paper  at 
Louisville,  Ky.,  which  was  owned  by  a  joint-stock  company. 
We  have  been  unable  to  find  out  the  name  of  this  paper.  The 
CUizen  suspended  publication  in  the  latter  part  of  1865, 
having  done  great  service  in  the  West  for  the  colored  people. 

The  year  1862  brings  us  to  the  period  when  The  Mirrc/r 
of  the  Times,  previously  spoken  of,  changed  hands,  and  was 
published  as  Tlie  Pacific  Ajypcal,  the  proprietor  being  Mr. 
William  H.  Carter.  It  was  because  of  this  paper  that  Mr. 
Philip  A.  Bell  left  for  the  Pacific  Coast  to  become  its  associate 
editor.  The  Appeal  was  also  one  of  Tlie  Anglo- Africavs 
contemporaries.  It  was  regarded  as  the  official  organ  of  the 
Afro-Americans  on  the  Pacific  Slope,  at  this  time. 

The  following,  which  was  found  weekly  in  its  columns  as 
an  advertisement  of  its  aims  and  purposes,  as  well  as  a 
delineation  of  the  principles  for  which  it  fought,  will  doubtless 
enlighten  the  reader  as  to  its  stand : 


92  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

"  The  Pacific  Appecd,  established  in  1862,  is  the  immediate 
successor  of  The  Mirror  of  the  Times,  which  was  established 
by  colored  men  in  San  Francisco,  in  1855. 

The  Pacific  Appeal  has  always  been  regarded  on  the  Pacific 
Coast,  also  in  the  Eastern  states,  as  a  reliable  index  of  the 
doings  of  the  colored  citizens  of  the  Pacific  states  and  adjacent 
territories.  Every  important  political,  or  other  movement, 
made  by  the  citizens  of  the  Pacific  coast,  is  promptly  detailed 
by  correspondents. 

The  Pacifixi  Appeal  is  independent  in  thought  and  in 
action.  Its  columns  are  open  to  all  parties  for  the  logical 
discussion  of  every  question  pertaining  to  the  welfare  and 
progress  of  the  people,  without  regard  to  race,  color,  or 
condition,  etc." 

With  these  characteristics,  viz. :  its  political  attitude,  ex- 
tensive influence,  and  wide  circulation,  it  was  regarded  by 
the  intelligent  of  all  classes  as  the  most  desirable  and  readable 
newspaper  ever  published  by  A  fro- Americans  on  the  Pacific 
Slope;  and  as  the  equal  of  any  by  Afro- Americans  in  the 
Atlantic  States. 

During  Mr.  Bell's  connection  with  this  paper,  he  exercised 
all  of  his  journalistic  zeal,  for  which  he  was  so  well  and 
favorably  known,  and  this,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  did  its  part 
towards  enabling  it  to  stand.  It  was  a  sprightly-looking 
sheet,  a  six-column  folio,  and  attractively  printed.  Its  edito- 
rials were  of  a  sober  and  sound  character,  which  always 
indicated  the  power  and  make-up  of  the  paper. 

As  was  the  practice  of  every  Afro- American  journal,  The 
Pacific  Appeal  had  a  motto :  "He  who  would  be  free,  him- 
self must  strike  the  blow;"  which  it  adhered  to  as  best  it 
could,  under  existing  circumstances.  This,  it  would  seem, 
was  the  vital  principle  underlying  the  contest  this  paper 
intended  to  make,  in  view  of  what  was  a  common  fight, — 
that  of  Abolition,  or  freedom  to  the  enslaved. 


PHILLIP  A    BELL. 


94  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

The  Appeal  was  permitted  to  witness  the  accomplishment 
of  this,  and  the  bondman  become  a  freeman  and  a  citizen; 
and  lived  for  several  years  afterwards  to  see  him  develop 
his  citizenship. 

Mr.  Philip  A.  Bell,  one  of  the  very  earliest  editors  of  which 
mention  was  made  in  a  preceding  chapter,  having  moved  to 
the  Pacific  Slope  with  the  desire  to  continue  the  good  work  of 
editorial  fighting  for  his  race,  began,  April  18,  1865,  to  issue 
The  Ekvalor.  The  following  is  the  proBpectus,  ae  it  appeared 
in  The  Angh- African: 

"Prospectus: — The  Elevaior, — a  weekly  journal  of  progreaa, 
published  every  Friday. 

Office,  Phoenix  Building,  comer  of  Sampson  and  Jackaon 
Streets,  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  Room  No.  9.  Terms: — Per  year, 
$5.00;  six  months,  $2.50;  three  months,  $1.25;  one  month. 
50  cents;  single  copies,  15  cents. 

This  paper  is  the  organ  of  the  Executive  Committee,  and 
wilt  advocate  the  largest  political  and  civil  liberty  to  all 
American  citizens,  irrespective  of  creed  or  color. 

Such  are  our  general  principles  and  objects;  but  we  shall 
have,  in  addition  thereto,  a  special  mission  to  fulfill:  We 
shall  labor  for  the  civil  and  political  enfranchisement  of  the 
colored  people, — not  as  a  distinct  and  separate  race,  but  aa 
American  citizens. 

We  solicit  the  patronage  of  all  classes,  as  we  intend  to 
make  The  Elevator  a  real,  live  paper,  and  an  evidence  of  the 
progress  of  the  age. 

As  an  advertising  column  for  retail  business,  we  offer 
peculiar  advantages,  as  our  circulation  will  principally  be 
among  persons  who  patronize  such  establishments. 

To  make  our  advertising  columns  accessible  to  all,  we  have 
established  the  following  low  rates  of  advertising : — One  square, 
six  lines  or  less,  one  insertion,  60  cents;  each  subsequent 
insertion,  25  cents. 


CONTEMPORARIES  OF  THE  ANGLO-AFRICAN.  95 

A  liberal   discount  will   be   made  to  those   who  wish   to 
contract  for  advertising  quarterly  or  by  the  year. 

P.  A.  Bell,  Editor. 

Publishing  Committee :  William  H.  Yates,  James  R.  Star- 
key,  R.  A.  Hall,  James  P.  Dyer  and  F.  G.  Barbadoes." 

Mr.  Bell,  having  had  up  to  this  time  twenty-five  years  of 
experience  in  editorial  work,  of  course  started  The  Elevaiar 
without  any  trouble  whatever,  either  as  to  journalistic  finish 
or  business  enterprise.  It  was  a  neatly  printed  paper,  of 
four  pages,  with  seven  columns  to  a  page.  Its  motto  was 
"Equality  before  the  law;"  for  which  it  fought  with  might 
and  main.  It  was  devoted  to  the  literary  culture  of  his  race 
on  the  Pacific  Slope,  and  though  a  contemporary  of  The 
Pacific  Appeal,  it  claimed  to  be  the  organ  of  the  Afro- 
Americans  in  California,  The  place  of  publication  was  615 
Battery  Street,  San  Francisco,  Cal. 

While  an  earnest  and  efiicient  writer  himself,  in  these  his 
la«?t  days  of  journalism,  he  had  an  able  corresponding  editor 
in  the  person  of  Mr.  William  J.  Powell. 

Tlic  Elevator  was  known  as  a  journal  of  progress,  devoted 
to  Science,  Art  and  Literature,  and  also  to  the  Drama. 

As  in  the  other  publications  of  Mr.  Bell,  he  had  about  him 
an  able  cla.ss  of  correspondents,  and  a  willing  force  of  agents. 

Very  often,  during  the  publication  of  The  Elevator,  Mr. 
Bell  was  in  very  straitened  circumstances,  but  he  managed 
to  continue  the  publication  of  his  journal,  and  it  was  always 
readable.  Unfortunately,  he  died  April  24,  1889,  in  destitute 
circumstances,  but  his  paper  still  lives,  Mr.  Bell  having  given 
it  an  impetus  that  will  make  it  flourish  for  a  long  time. 

How  he  was  estimated  as  a  journalist  can  best  be  told  by 
those  who  knew  him,  and  loved  him  for  his  noble  deeds  and 
generosity  of  heart.  The  following  is  the  tribute  from  21ic 
Ooie  City  Press,  of  Kansas  City,  Mo. : 

"Philip  A.  Bell,  the  octogenarian  journalist  is  dead.     In 


96  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

his  death  the  Negro  race  loses  the  oldest  and  one  of  the 
ablest  of  American  editors.  Fifty- two  years  ago,  in  New 
York,  he  flung  to  the  breeze  as  a  menace  to  the  slave  owner 
and  slave  hunter,  The  Golored  American,  A  quarter  of  a 
century  ago,  he  removed  to  San  Francisco,  where  The  Pacific 
Appeal  was  started.  In  1865  Mr.  Bell  launched  T/ie  UlevcUo7\ 
a  spicy  weekly,  which  continues  to  this  day  the  oldest  secular 
Negro  newspaper.  Educated,  original,  capable  of  fine  powers 
of  analysis,  he  flung  the  sparkling  rays  of  his  imagination 
over  the  productions  of  his  pen,  and  came  to  be  regarded  as 
the  Napoleon  of  the  Colored  press.  For  some  years  he  had 
been  too  feeble  to  engage  in  newspaper  work.  Wednesday, 
April  24,  at  the  age  of  81,  his  spirit  fled  to  his  Maker.  He 
died  in  the  poor-house.  And  this  is  the  end  of  a  great 
historic  character.     Peace  to  his  ashes  I" 

Below  is  the  tribute  paid  to  him  by  a  writer  in   ITie  NefO) 
York  Age : 

**  Philip  Alexander  Bell  has  closed  his  eyes  in  death,  in  his 
8l8t  year.  To  all  New  Yorkers  the  fact  opens  a  history  of 
the  past  that  is  not  only  interesting  but  profitable  to  consider. 
It  brings  up  precious  names ;  it  calls  to  mind  when  New  York 
City  would  call  her  roll  of  fifty  and  more  of  big-hearted, 
self-sacrificing  men  who  publicly  distinguished  themselves  and 
served  the  cause  of  their  race  not  selfishly  but  for  justice 
sake ;  men  upon  whom  each  other  could  safely  rely ;  sensible, 
considerate  men ;  stirring,  energetic  men ;  who  were  not  simply 
active  in  eflbrts  to  free  and  enfranchise  their  brethren  in 
bonds,  but  who  were  actively  interested  to  forward  the  cause 
of  morality  generally,  of  education,  of  refinement  and  of  the 
general  weal.  They  were  men  of  inflexible  character  when  a 
principle  was  at  stake." 

*^^  ^^  ^^  ^^  ^^  ^^  ^^  ^^ 

^K  ^*  ^^  ^*  ^^  ^^  ^^  ^^ 

"  All  of  these,  and  more  besides,  are  worthy  of  a  place  in 
the  heart  of  every  lover  of  liberty,   and  especially  in   the 


^T-^  <^^^*^ 


98  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

memory  of  the  colored  race.  It  is  but  seldom  we  hear  men- 
tioned the  name  of  any  of  the  above,  though  they  all  labored 
faithfully  to  bring  about  what  is  to-day  enjoyed  throughout 
the  land  by  millions  of  their  race.  They  were  giant«  in 
efforts ;  they  were  heroes  in  devotion  and  in  sacrifice. 

If  you  would  be  informed  of  the  labors  of  Philip  A.  Bell, 
seek  the  files  of  The  Colm-ed  American,  the  Negro's  pioneer 
paper.  He  started  this  journal  in  1837,  in  New  York  City. 
There  was  associated  with  him  the  Rev.  Samuel  E.  Cornish, 
one  of  the  ablest  colored  men  of  his  day,  ranking  with 
Hamilton,  Simpkins  and  Williams.  At  a  later  date  Dr.  James 
McCune  Smith  was  one  of  its  editors.  Dr.  Smith,  it  will  be 
remembered,  graduated  with  high  honors  from  Glasgow  Uni- 
versity, Scotland.  About  1857  Mr.  Bell  went  to  California, 
where  he  wrote  vigorously  as  an  associate  editor  for  The 
Pacific  Appeal.  He,  with  Frederick  G.  Barbadoes,  did  nobly 
in  manufacturing  a  liberal  sentiment  in  California,  favorable 
to  the  colored  people.  In  1865  he  gave  to  San  Francisco  and 
to  the  country  The  Elevator,  which  paper  had  his  name  at  its 
head  as  editor  and  proprietor  until  his  spirit  from  bondage 
was  set  free  on  the  25th  ult. 

Mr.  Bell  was  a  strong,  vigorous  but  chaste  writer,  quite 
poetic ;  in  fact  he  was  fond  of  the  poets,  many  of  whom  he 
could  quote  readily.  He  was  well  versed  in  history  and 
belles-lettres  and  was  a  fine  dramatic  critic.  He  wrote  several 
articles  for  the  California  daily  papers,  criticising  Keene, 
Macready,   Forrest    and  others. 

"  To  be  restless  and  aggressive,  is  the  lesson  his  life  presents 
to  the  individuals  of  this  day ;  to  those  who  have  the  manliness 
to  feel  that  their  talents,  character,  and  citizenship  are  not 
properly  respected.  He  was  tall  and  prepossessing  in  appear- 
ance and  manners ;  he  had  a  fine  address,  was  quick,  impul- 
sive and  brave,  with  a  keen  sensibility  as  to  honor  and  those 


CXDNTEMPORARIES  OP  THE  ANGLO-APRICAN.  99 

other  amenities  that  mark  a  gentleman  and  refined  society. 
He  was  open-hearted  and  generous.  Philip  A.  Bell  has  left 
behind  but  a  veiy  few  of  those  old  New  Yorkers  who  labored 
with  him  nearly  a  half-century  ago.*' 


C   D> 


V 


'^JU 


CHAPTER  XIII. 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN. 


THE  close  of  the  war,  and  an  epoch  of  freedom  for  the 
Afro- American,  mark  an  entirely  new  phase  in  journal- 
istic pursuit,  as  in  all  other  interests. 

The  South,  the  main  place  of  abode  for  our  people,  is 
vastly  in  need  of  a  press,  not  only  as  a  defender  of  our  rights 
but  as  a  popular  educator;  for  as  one  of  eminence  has  said  of 
the  Afro- American  journals — "They  would  be,  for  a  long 
time,  the  popular  educator  of  the  masses." 

Afro- American  papers  educate  the  masses  of  the  Afro- 
American  people.  These  papers  would  seem  to  be  not  so 
much  a  defender  as  teachers  of  the  masses,  leading  them  to 
see  the  course  they  should  pursue  as  freedmen  in  educating 
and  elevating  themselves  as  a  people. 

The  keenest  and  most  far-seeing  Afro- Americans  were  the 
ones,  too,  whose  labors  were  in  demand. 

With  these  facts  in  view,  the  A  fro- Americans  were  not  long 
in  stretching  themselves  out.  becoming  editors  and  putting 
their  thoughts,  well  mapped  out  and  carefully  arranged,  on 
the  printed  page,  before  the  public. 

The  prospectus  of  the  first  paper  published  in  the  South, 


THE  COLORED  AMERICAN.  101 

appeared  in  Tfi£  Anglo- African^  Vol.  5,  No.  6.     The  following 
is  the  proepectus,  as  it  appeared : 

llie  Colored  American  Prospectus : 

"The  undersigned  propose  to  establish  .in  Greorgia,  in  Au- 
gusta, a  Weekly  Newspaper,  to  be  entitled  The  Cbhred 
American. 

It  is  designed  to  be  a  vehicle  for  the  diflPusion  of  ReHgioua^ 
Political  and  General  Intelligence,  It  will  be  devoted  to  the 
promotion  of  harmony  and  good-will  between  the  whites  and 
colored  people  of  the  South,  and  untiring  in  its  advocacy  of 
Industry  and  Education  among  all  classes;  but  particularly 
the  class  most  in  need  of  our  agency.  It  will  steadfastly 
oppose  all  forms  of  vice  that  prey  upon  society,  and  give 
that  counsel  that  tends  to  virtue,  peace,  prosperity  and 
happiness. 

Accepting,  at  all  times,  the  decision  of  the  public  sentiment 
and  Legislative  Aasemblies,  and  bowing  to  the  majesty  of 
law,  it  will  fearlessly  remonstrate  against  legal  and  constitu- 
tional proscription  by  appeal  to  the  public  sense  of  justice. 

This  paper  will  be  conducted  in  a  kind,  conciliatory,  an4 
candid  spirit,  never  countenancing  that  which  serves  to  engen- 
der hostility.  Its  greatest  aims  shall  be  to  keep  before  the 
minds  of  our  race  the  duties  and  responsibilities  of  freedom; 
and  to  call  attention  to  the  wants  and  grievances  of  the 
colored  people. 

We  earnestly  ask  the  patronage  of  the  colored  people  of 
Georgia,  who  must  see  the  importance  of  such  an  organ. 

We  earnestly  ask  the  cordial  support  of  our  white  friends 
at  the  South,  who  are  striving  to  bring  about  an  "  era  of 
good  feeling"  and  prosperity,  and  who  believe  that  the  colored 
race  can  materially  aid  in  developing  the  resources  of  this 
section.  We  earnestly  ask  aid  from  pur  Northern  friends,  of 
all  classes,  who  can  be  kept  posted  on  all  the  affairs  of  the 
colored  people,  through  our  journal, 


102  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

ITie  Cblared  American  will  be  issued  in  the  latter  part  of 
October  next.  It  will  be  of  medium  size,  good  type,  and 
in  all  respects  a  good  journal,  and  a  very  live  one. 

Terms  $4.00  per  iinnum,  in  advance. 

Send  in  donations  or  subscriptions  to  Rev.  James  Lynch, 
34  Edward  Street,  Baltimore,  Md.,  or  to  J.  T.  Shuffcen, 
Augusta,  Ga. 

Before  proceding  to  comment  respecting  the  work  of  The 
Cblared  American,  it  may  be  interesting  to  know  the  cause  of 
the  establishment  of  The  American  by  the  two  gentlemen 
who  signed  the  Prospectus : 

In  May,  1865,  when  the  United  States  Commissioner  was 
sent  South  to  the  freedmen,  Mr.  Shuften,  then  a  very  young 
man,  was  chosen  to  deliver  the  address  of  welcome.  He  did 
so  and  acquitted  himself  nicely.  He  was  followed  by  Rev. 
Dr.  Lynch  of  Baltimore,  one  of  the  leading  lights  of  the 
A  fro- American  race. 

Mr.  Shuften  saw  the  necessity  of  newspapers  as  the  herald 
and  sentiment  of  the  Afro-American,  in  connection  with  the 
work  of  elevating  his  people.  Being  a  young  man  of  no  great 
influence, — certainly  not  enough  to  give  that  prestige  to  a 
publication  necessary  to  draw  about  it  a  support,  he  succeeded 
in  securing  the  aid  of  Dr.  Lynch.  In  September,  1865,  he 
purchased  type  from  a  Mr.  Singer  and  issued  the  above 
Prospectus  for  a  publication  in  October.  The  first  week  of 
that  month  marked  the  issue  of  TTic  American,  the  first  Afro- 
American  newspaper  published  in  the  South,  after  the  war. 
It  was  received  with  great  favor,  by  both  white  and  black 
citizens ;  and  heartily  endorsed  by  the  people  of  Augusta  for 
its  good  and   timely  counsels,  under  the  new  order  of  things. 

It  had  no  politics  to  advocate  at  that  time;  for  its  advent 
was  before  the  enfranchisement  of  the  Afro- American,  or  the 
ratification  of  the  Fifteenth  Amendment.  It  therefore  had 
nothing  to  promote  but  the  intellectual  and  moral  advance- 


J.  T.  SHUFTEN. 


104  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

ment  of  its  constituents,  which   it  did   to  no   little   extent. 

Hie  American  had  but  one  exchange  upon  its  file, — that  of 
The  Colored  CUizeti,  published  at  Cincinnati,  0. 

The  American  had  but  a  brief  existence.  Mr.  Shuften 
having  consented  to  form  a  joint-stock  company  for  the 
purpose  of  placing  the  paper  upon  a  more  permanent  basis, 
he  was  forced,  in  February,  1866,  through  the  bad  faith  of 
the  stockholders,  to  abandon  the  enterprise  to  its  creditors. 
It  was  purchased  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Bryant  and  afterwards  ap- 
peared under  the  name  of  TJie  Loyal  Georgian. 

The  American,  during  its  career,  received  valuable  support 
and  encouragement  from  Bishop  H.  M.  Turner  and  Rev.  Dr. 
James  Lynch.  In  fact,  Mr.  Lynch  did  a  vast  deal  of  good 
by  writing  for  the  paper,  which  made  it  a  journal  of  interest- 
ing matter.  He  was  not  only  a  man  of  great  experience  but 
of  vast  learning,  and  was  a  ready  writer. 

Says  an  eminent  man :  "  Lynch 's  articles  were  always  care- 
fully prepared,  thoughtful,  argumentative,  and  convincing; 
and  they  performed  a  good  work  wherever  read."  Another 
says:     "Mr.  Shuften  wa«  a  writer  of  natural  ability." 

He  has  issued  several  pamphlets,  and,  at  present,  has  a 
work  of  fiction  prepared  for  the  press,  which  is  entirely 
original.  The  New  York  World  and  Churchman  credits  Mr. 
Shuften  as  the  author  of  the  best  article  yet  published  on  the 
"  Negro  Question." 

He  was  born  in  1840,  in  Augusta,  Ga.,  and  at  present  is  a 
successful,  practicing  lawyer,  at  the  bar  of  Orlando,  Florida. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 


CONTEMPORARIES  OF  THE  COLORED  AMERICAN. 


CONTEMPORANEOUS  with  The  American  was  published 
The  Colored  Tenneseean^  in  the  state  of  Tennessee,  (the 
second  Afro-American  journal  published  in  the  South) 
and  The  True  QymmuniccUor,  at  Baltimore,  Md. 

These  were  journals  of  much  ability  and  influence.  Though 
all  were  of  very  brief  existence,  they  aided  27ie  American  in 
its  great  work  of  advising  the  race. 

The  Anglo- African  of  Nov.  11,  1865,  says  of  these  papers: 
"  ITie  True  Gommunicalor  is  edited  with  much  spirit,  and 
shows  that  the  gentlemen  having  it  in  charge  fully  compre- 
hend their  duties,  and  are  thoroughly  alive  on  all  the  questions 
of  the  hour.  We  hope  that  great  success  will  attend  the 
efforts  of  the  publishers. 

In  speaking  of  The  Tenneseean,  the  same  paper  says : — 

"This  paper,  which  we  have  heretofore  mentioned  with 
much  pleasure,  has  been  enlarged,  and  our  friend  Waring 
of  Ohio  has  joined  the  editorial  corps.  The  people  of  Ten- 
nessee and  the  adjoining  states  appear  to  be  coming  up  to 
the  support  of  this  sterling  paper;  and  we  hope  that  the 
publishers  are  meeting  a  just  reward  for  their  zeal  and 
faithfulness  in  our  cause. 


106       ■       THE  AFBO-AMEEICAN  PRESS. 

Thus  we  aee  that  these  two  papers,  puhlished  in  '65  and 
'66,   did   excellent  work  as  contemporaries  of  Tkt   Colored 

American. 


CHAPTER  XV. 


GENERAL  IDEA  OF  AFRO-AMERICAN  JOUR- 
NALISM. 


THE  establishment  of  The  Communicator  and   The  Tenne- 
secan  opened  the  way  for  the  introduction  of  like  papers 
all  over  the  South. 

From  the  year  1866  on,  Afro- American  newspapers  were 
being  founded  in  almost  every  state,  some  of  which  died  an 
early  death,  while  others  survived  many  years.  Some  dropped 
their  original  name,  and,  under  another,  exist  to-day. 

These  papers  were  started  by  some  of  the  ablest  men  of 
the  race  at  that  time.  They  were  men  whose  loyalty  to  their 
people  could  not  be  questioned,  and  w^hose  efforts  for  race 
development  could  not  fail  to  win  appreciation.  They  labored 
at  a  time  w^hen  the  Afro- American,  just  out  of  slavery,  did  not 
engage  to  any  great  extent  in  literary  efforts ;  and  consequently 
a  support  for  their  journals  was  obtained  by  the  hardest 
efforts  only. 

While  the  South  did  not  accept  defeat  with  any  great 
magnanimity  of  soul,  and  consequently  was  not  interested  in 
the  Afro-American's  development, — in  fact,  did  not,  as  a 
whole,  wish  to  see  it,  yet  there  were  a  few  whose  love  of 
principles  and  a  desire  to  do  what  is  right  in  the  sight  of 


108  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Grod  led  them  to  receive  properly  the  great  result  of  the  war, 
and  at  once  unite  with  the  Christian  people  of  the  North  in 
helping  the  freedmen. 

Wherever  an  Afro-American  was  found  with  brain  sufficient 
to  establish  a  literary  effort,  he  was  aided  by  these  people. 
These  journals  were,  in  many  respects,  of  more  importance 
as  advocates  than  we  find  the  average  Afro- American  journals 
now.  Why?  The  answer  is  plain,  when  we  remember  that 
only  the  ablest  men  of  the  race  engaged  in  these  under- 
takings then.  In  1866  The  American  was  a  thing  of  the 
past,  yet  The  Loyal  Georgian  was,  in  a  measure,  doing  its  work. 

The  Sunbeam,  at  Brooklyn,  edited  by  Rev.  Rufus  L.  Perry, 
(now  D.  D.  and  Ph.  D.),  and  The  Zvon  Standara  and  Weekly 
Review,  edited  by  Rev.  S.  T.  Jones,  (now  Bishop  Jones) 
assisted  by  Prof.  W.  Howard  Day,  (now  a  D.  D.,)  were  all 
marching  to  the  front  and  early  demonstrating  the  capabilities 
of  this  people,  once  oppressed. 

These  were  supplemented  in  their  efforts  by  neater  and 
more  substantial  publications.  In  1868,  Rev.  R.  H.  Cain, 
later  a  member  of  Congress,  and  Bishop  in  the  A.  M.  E. 
Church,  established  The  CharJcsixm  Leader,  at  Charleston, 
S.  C.  He  afterwards  made  it  the  organ  of  his  church,  when 
it  was  known  as  The  3rissionary  Record. 

Rev.  Mr.  Cain,  as  is  known,  is  a  very  able  man,  and  of 
course  much  of  his  brilliancy  was  manifest  in  his  paper.  It 
was  continued  many  years  under  the  editorial  management 
of  Hon.  R.  Brown  Elliott;  but  when  he  was  elected  a  member 
of  Congress,  it  suspended. 

There  were  still  papers  rising  here  and  there,  advocating 
Afro-American  advancement.  The  year  1870  opened  glo- 
riously for  the  Afro-Americans,  in  the  field  of  journalism. 
Tlie  Peoples  Journal,  a  juvenile  paper,  (which  had  10,000 
subscribers)  was  now  being  issued  by  Dr.  R.  L.  Perry,  as  was 
also  The  National  Monitor, 


BISHOP  KICHAED  HAEVEY  CAIK,  D.  D. 


no  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Not  one  among  the  many  Afro- American  journalists  has 
been  more  progressive  and  aggressive  in  journalistic  work 
than  Rev.  Dr.  R.  L.  Perry. 

Rev.  Perry  was  born  in  Smith  County,  Tenn.  He  is  a 
highly  educated  man,  having,  as  has  been  previously  stated, 
two  honorary  degrees  at  the  present  time.  He  has  an 
excellent  idea  of  journalism,  as  one  may  see  by  a  glance  at 
The  Monitor,  He  is  a  writer  of  vast  learning  and  experience. 
The  MoniUyr  has  survived  many  shocks  in  these  twenty  years 
of  labor. 

A  writer  says  of  our  subject:  "His  pen  has  never  in  all 
these  years  failed  to  warn  the  race  of  dangers  ahead.  He 
always  puts  God  first,  and  the  race  next." 

Concerning  the  fii-st  paper  he.  edited,  in  1866,  The  Brook- 
lyn Daily  Union  says:  "It  is  edited  by  an  intelligent, 
active,  clear-headed  colored  man.  It  is  temperate,  sensible, 
and  manly,"  This  is  the  true  estimate  of  his  Monitor,  to  this 
day. 

Mr.  Jas.  J.  Spellman,  now  Special  U.  S.  Lumber  Agent, 
and  Mr.  John  R.  Lynch,  now  Fourth  Auditor  U.  S.  Treasury, 
began  in  this  year,  The  Colored  Citizen,  in  Mississippi.  They 
were  among  the  few  able  leaders  in  Mississippi,  and  their 
journal  was  creditably  gotten  up. 

December  25th  of  that  year,  Mr.  P.  B.  S.  Pinchback  started 
The  New  Orleans  Louisianian,  which  was  the  first  semi- 
weekly  paper  published  by  Afro-Americans.  It  was  pub- 
lished in  this  way  for  three  years,  when  it  was  issued  weekly. 
This  paper  was  a  noteworthy  effort,  and  a  champion  of  the 
race.  Its  editor  put  into  it  all  of  the  zeal  and  fire  for  which 
he  is  noted. 

In  this  year  W.  Howard  Day  also  published  at  Wilmington, 
Del.,  Our  National  Progress,  which  he  edited  with  his  accus- 
tomed vigor.  It  was  a  very  good  effort  in  this  line,  but  eked 
out  only  a  short  existence,     All  during  this  time  the  intel- 


APRO-AMERICAN  JOURNALISM.  Ill 

lectaal  state  of  the  Afiro- American  was  being  improved,  and 
lus  love  for  newspapers  was  daily  increasing. 

In  August,  1861,  John  J.  Freeman  Issued  The  Progressive 
American,  in  New  York  City,  which  ran  from  August  15, 
1871,  to  February,  1887.  It  would  not  then  have  been 
suspended,  but  for  the  failing  health  of  Mr.  Freeman,  who 
was  advised  by  his  physician  to  retire  from  the  business. 

No  publication,  save  The  Recorder,  Elevator,  and  North 
Star,  had  so  long  an  existence  as  this  paper ;  and  there  is  no 
exaggeration  when  the  assertion  is  made,  that  none  did  more 
good.  There  was  bitter  prejudice  to  Afro- American  journals, 
when  The  American  made  its  appearance  in  New  York ;  but 
it  successfully  combated  every  obstacle,  and  came  out  con- 
queror. 

Many  things  profitable  to  the  race  that  T^ie  Atnencan 
fought  for  were  gained.  Notably  among  these  was  the  fight 
made  for  Afro-American  teachers  in  the  public  schools  of 
New  York,  the  result  being  there  are  now  twenty-three 
such  teachers  in  said  schools.  The  American  also  fought 
many  an  evil  of  the  race,  while  advocating  many  good 
measures. 

Mr.  Freeman  was  a  man  of  good  journalistic  ability,  and 
excelled  in  press  work.  In  journalism  his  was  a  lough  road 
to  travel ;  but  all  was  laid  upon  the  altar  as  his  contribution 
to  elevate  the  race.  His  editorials  exhibited  more  than 
ordinary  tact  and  talent,  and  were  always  on  the  side  of 
right,  morality,  and  the  elevation  of  man. 

William  Welles  Brown,  in  writing  on  the  merits  of  The 
American,  says:  "That  spicy  and  spirited  weekly,  The  Pro- 
gressive American,  is  edited  by  the  gentleman  whose  name 
heads  this  sketch.  By  his  natural  genius,  untiring  industry, 
and  scholarly  attainments,  he  has  created,  and  kept  alive,  a 
newspaper  that  is  a  welcome  guest  in  New  York  and  the 
county  around." 


112  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Mr,  Freeman  is  worthy  of  a  more  extended  notice,  but  it 
must  be  withheld  for  want  of  space.  The  author  would  like 
to  mention  many  things  which  he  succeeded  in  obtaining 
through  his  editorial  efforts,  but  must  forbear. 

The  Progressive  American  was  followed  by  The  GomiDumer, 
and  others  equally  as  prominent.  Prof.  P.  H.  Murray  pub- 
lished The  Oohred  Oiiizen,  at  Washington,  D.  C.  Mr.  Murray 
is  the  present  editor  of  The  St.  Louis  Advance,  and  his 
editorials  are  always  fresh,  vigorous,  far-seeing,  and  bristling 
with  argument  backed  with  facts. 

From  this  time  to  1880,  journals  were  continually  being 
started,  which  would  require  several  volumes  to  mention. 
Many  of  them  survived  but  a  short  time. 

This  period  was  one  of  great  political  excitement  for  the 
Afro- American.  The  ballot  had  just  been  given  to  him, 
with  which  it  became  possible  to  place  his  brother  in  the 
Congressional  Halls.  Publications  were  started  in  various 
localities  for  the  achievement  of  a  certain  political  end,  which 
having  been  accomplished,  their  career  would  then  terminate. 
This  decade  was,  however,  a  successful  period  for  Afro-Ameri- 
can journalism,  which  made  a  great  stride,  though  not  equal 
to  that  from  1880  to  1890. 

In  1870  there  were  but  ten  journals  published  by  Afro- 
Americans  in  the  United  States,  and  in  1880  there  were 
thirty ;  therefore  we  perceive  there  was  a  gain  of  twenty  in 
ten  years, — the  most  of  theso  liaving  been  started  after  1875. 
This  is  a  good  and  notable  increase,  when  we  remember  the 

lack  of  literary  culture  of  the  Afro- American,  his  limited 
knowledge  of  newspapers,  and  his  want  of  desire  for  enlight- 
enment then,  and  his  support  of  newspapers  now. 

The  following  list  does  not,  by  any  means,  comprise  the 
exact  number  of  newspapers  published  by  our  people,  for 
some  were  known  only  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  their 
publication. 


AFRO-AMliRICAN  JOURNALISM. 


113 


The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  Afro- American  journals 
that  were  published  when  the  year  1880  was  ushered  in : 


Leader^ 

Christian  Recorder^ 

Conservator, 

Louisiayiian, 

National  Tt^ihune, 

Progressive  Ajnerican, 

Virginia  Star, 

Peoples  Advocate, 

Co-Operator, 

Western  Sentinel, 

National  Monitor, 

Freeman's  Journal, 

Advance, 

Peoples  Journal, 

Spectator, 

Journal  oj  Indastry, 

Obso'ver, 

Concordia  Eagle, 

Colored  Citizen, 

Golden  Enterprise, 

Eastern  Review, 

Elevator, 

Afro-  A  merica  n  Prcshyi^ 

Independent  Pilot, 

African  Exjyositor, 

Star  of  Zion, 

Educator  and  Reformer 

Peoples  Journal, 

Peoples  Watch  ma  n, 

live  Argus, 


'nan, 


Indianapolis,  Ind. 

Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Chicago,  111. 

New  Orleans,  La. 

St.  Louis,  Mo. 

New  York  Citv. 

Richmond,  Va. 

Washington,  D,  C. 

Boston,  Mass. 

Kansas  City,  Mo. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

St,  Louis,  Mo. 

Montgomery,  Ala. 

Jackson,  Misn. 

Galveston,  Tex. 

.      Raleigh,  N.  C. 

New  Orleans,  La. 

Vidalia,  La. 

Topeka,  Kan. 

.     Baltimore,  Mel. 

Providence,  R.  I. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. 

Wilmington,  N.  C. 

Concord,  N,  C. 

,       Raleigh,  N.  C. 

New  Berne,  N.  C. 

Nashville,  Tenn. 

New  Orleans,  La. 

Charleston,  S.  C. 

Washington,  D.  C. 


These  papers  were  held  in  high  regard  for  their  j(»urnal- 
istic  tact  and  worth,  and    for   their   national   reputation  as 


114 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


reliable  journals.  To  our  mind,  the  greatest  stride  made 
ill  Afro- American  journalism,  was  in  the  decade  which  ends 
with  the  present  year,  1890.  Let  us  note  the  advance  in 
the  comparative  estimates  of  1880  and  1890.  For  con- 
venience, we  will  do  80  by  states : 


1 

Stateb. 

1880. 

1890. 

Gaiiy. 

Texas, 

1 

16 

15 

PeDDsylvania, 

1 

10 

9 

Virginia, 

1 

10 

9 

Tennessee, 

1 

9 

8 

Ohio, 

6 

6 

Arkansas, 

7 

7 

Louisiana, 

4 

7 

3 

Georgia, 

10 

10 

Illinois, 

1 

6 

5 

Missouri, 

3 

6 

3 

Kentucky, 

o 

5 

Alabama, 

1 

10 

9 

Disl.  of  Columbia, 

4 

2 

New  York, 

4 

2 

South  Carolina, 

1 

4 

3 

Indiana, 

1 

•> 

ad 

1 

Maryland, 

1 

5 

4 

MissiHHippi, 

1 

4 

3 

Florida, 

3 

3 

Colorado, 

2 

ad 

North  Carolina, 

5 

11 

6 

California, 

2 

3 

Kansas, 

1 

2 

Michigan, 

1 

MinneMot:!, 

1 

West  Virginia, 

2 

New  Jersey, 

2 

2 

Massachusetts, 

1 

1 

Connecticut, 

1 

1 

Rhode  Island, 

1 

Total, 

31 

154 

123 

This  period  begins  with  a  year  when  the  Afro-American 
i.<  seeking  to  advance    in   the  educational    field,  and  to  be 


AFRO-AMERICAN  JOURNALISM. 


116 


thirsting  for  knowledge.  It  begins  with  a  time  when  Afro- 
Americau  journalism  is  deeply  interwoven  in  the  fabric  of 
the  nation,  and  is  seen  to  be  an  indispensable  factor  in  the 
improvement  of  our  race. 

Some  of  the  states  not  mentioned  have  had  Afro-American 
papers,  but  they  were  short-lived.  This  increase  of  jour- 
nalism in  these  last  years  indicates  as  plainly  as  anything 
can  the  triumphant  progress  of  the  race.  Since  the  begin- 
ning of  1890,  there  has  been  a  marked  gain  in  Afro- Ameri- 
can journals  over  the  last  decade.  The  typographical 
appearance  and  the  editorial  standard  of  these  papers  are 
their  noticeable  characteristics.  They  assume  greater  propor- 
tions, and  seem  more  comprehensive  in  their  editorial  dealings. 

In  jjumming  up  this  chapter,  we  can  readily  conclude  that 
the  increase  in  our  journalistic  efforts  is  a  fair  measure  of 
our  literary  ability,  which  has  been  so  developed  within 
a  quarter  of  a  century.  Onward!  fellow-craftsmen,  is  the 
watchword. 


CHAPTER  XVI. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  MAGAZINES. 


THAT  the  measure  of  a  people's  literary  qualifications  is 
its  press  facilities  has  been  accepted,  we  think,  as  a 
fact;  yet  a  people's  literary  worth  is  not  to  be  estimated 
solely  by  the  number  of  its  newspapers,  magazines  and  periodi- 
cals; for  a  hundred  of  them  united  may  not  possess  as  much 
merit  as  one  other  journal  in  point  of  editorial  excellence. 
Therefore,  we  deduce  this  from  careful  study:  that  press 
facilities  may  be  a  measure  of  a  people's  literary  worth,  only 
insomuch  as  the  press  is  able,  practical,  and  efficient;  and  so 
far  as  it  expresses  itself  clearly  and  produces  sentiment  in 
accordance  with  the  principles  of  right,  truth  and  justice. 

What  kind  of  press  work  goes  to  make  up  this  measure, 
is  the  question  for  each  of  us  to  consider.  What  kind  of 
press  work  has  aided  in  demonstrating  the  Afro- American's 
literary  worth,  is  another  question  for  solution. 

We  believe  all  nations  consider  the  magazine  the  best 
exponent  of  its  literary  w^orth.  This  being  so,  it  is  fair  to 
conclude  that  such  is  the  case  with  the  Afro- American. 

Tliere  is  found  in  the  magazine  not  only  the  purest  and 
best   thought   of  the  editor   but'  also  the  richest  and   best 


AFRO- AMERICAN  MAGAZINES.  117 

thought  of  the  leaders  and  representatives  of  his  race ;  made 
80  by  culture,  experience,  and  pure  Christian  character. 

If,  then,  a  race  possess  any  number  of  these  magazines, 
which  are  well  contributed  to  and  sustained  by  its  own 
people,  it  becomes  a  self-evident  fact  that  they  are  growing 
in  literary  merit. 

The  Afro- Americans  early  began  this  work.  Those  at  the 
North,  even  while  their  brethren  were  enslaved  m  the  South, 
and  they  themselves  were  not  enjoying  many  of  the  blessings 
of  freedom,  and  while  their  elevation  was  retarded,  saw  in 
this  branch  of  journalism  a  timely  and  effective  means  of 
advocacy  for  the  abolition  of  slavery  in  the  South,  and  the 
improvement  of  the  black  man  at  the  North.  As  early  as 
the  30's  an  Afro-American  was  at  the  head  of  a  popular 
monthly  magazine,  Mr.  William  Whipper  having  editorial 
control  of  The  National  Reformer  in  1833,  which  was  the 
property  of  the  American  Moral  Reform  Society. 

This  magazine  was  exceedingly  popular,  and  was,  as  a 
matter  of  fact,  read  by  more  whites  than  blacks.  It  was 
published  in  the  interest  of  the  Abolition  Movement,  and  of 
the  moral,  educational,  and  social  reform  of  the  people,  irre- 
spective of  color.  It  therefore  occupied  a  position,  in  which 
the  Afro-American  editor  had  to  strive  bravely  to  reach  a 
high  standard. 

Mr.  Whipper  was  a  man  of  fine  editorial  powers ;  and  the 
magazine  under  his  control  was,  in  most  respects,  the  equal 
of  its  former  literary  managers.  A  leader  of  the  race, 
familiar  with  Mr.  Whipper's  editorial  work  for  reform,  pays 
him  this  tribute :  *'  Mr.  Whipper's  editorials  were  couched 
in  chaste  and  plain  language;  but  they  were  bold  and 
out-spoken  in  the  advocacy  of  truth." 

It  was  in  1833  that  Mr.  Whipper  sent  to  the  world  these 
favorable  and  suggestive  words  through  The  Reformer,  rela- 
tive to  moral  reform.     Said  he :     '*  Our  country  is  rich  with 


118  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  .PRESS. 

means  for  resuscitating  her  from  moral  degeneracy.  She 
possesses  all  the  elements  for  her  redemption.  She  has  but 
to  will  it,  and  she  is  free."  If  '33  presented  this  glorious 
aspect  for  moral  reform,  how  much  greater  should  this  day 
offer! 

This  magazine  we  have  just  been  considering,  while  in 
every  respect  A  fro- American  by  having  an  Afro- American  as 
editor,  was  not  owned  by  a  black  man.  It,  however,  demon- 
strated the  Afro- American's  capacity  for  the  editorial  work  of 
a  magazine. 

But  it  was  not  long  before  the  Afro- American  was  sole 
ownor  of  a  magazine,  as  well  as  editor  of  it.  With  the  year 
1837  came  the  publication  of  Tfie  ^firror  of  Liherfy,  a 
quarterly  magazine,  (taking  William  Welles  Brown  as  au- 
thority), published  by  David  Ruggles,  whom  we  have  noticed 
in  a  preceding  chapter.  Mr.  Ruggles  was  much  interested 
in  the  moral,  social,  and  political  elevation  of  the  free  Afro- 
Americans  in  the  North,  and  for  this  he  labored  zealouslv 
through  the  columns  of  his  magazine  for  many  years.  He 
was  not  so  interested  in  the  Abolition  Movemont.  w^hen  editing 
The  Mirror  of  Liberty.  The  magazine  had  an  able  corps  of 
writers  and  was  a  credit  to  the  race. 

Between  the  years  1840  and  1850,  there  is  no  record  that 
t^lls  us  of  any  publication  of  the  nature  we  have  been 
considering.  Not  until  '59  do  we  hear  of  another  Afro- 
American  magazine.  True  to  the  spirit  of  the  Afro- American, 
unhindered,  this  time  his  effort  for  a  magazine  was  greater 
than  ever,  resulting  in  one  the  journalistic  neatness  of  which 
was  worthy  of  that  of  the  most  pretentious.  It  was  called 
Tlie  Ayufh'Afrirn)}  Magazine,  and  was  an  outcome  of  The 
Anglo- Africa))  pnptM*,  both  being  owned  and  edited  by  Mr. 
Hamilton.  Vol.  1,  No.  1,  appeared  January,  1859.  It  was 
a  monthly  magazine  of  thirty-two  pages.  The  title  page  had 
the  following:     "Et  nigri   Memnonis  arma."     January  1st, 


AFRO-AMERICAN  MAGAZINES.  119 

1856.     Published  by  Thomas  Hamilton,  48  Beekman  Street, 
New  York. 

This  magazine  adhered  closely  to  the  outline  of  policy 
given  in  the  prospectus,  it  being  devoted  to  Literature, 
Science,  Statistics,  and  the  advancement  of  the  cause  of 
human  freedom.  The  name  of  Thomas  Hamilton  as  editor 
was  a  guarantee  for  its  editorial  matter.  Its  contributors, 
who  were  men  of  unimpeachable  character  and  ability,  kept 
its  columns  constantly  teeming  with  light.  They  always 
presented  a  clear  and  concise  statement  of  the  race  s  condition 
at  that  time,  both  free  and  enslaved. 

The  objects  mentioned  below,  set  forth  in  the  prospectus, 
were  faithfully  adhered  to  and  worked  for.  They  were  as 
tollowf?:  "To  chronicle  the  population  and  movements  of 
the  colored  people. 

To  present  reliable  statements  of  their  religious,  as  well  as 
their  moral  and  economic  standing. 

To  present  statements  of  their  educational  condition  and 
movements,  and  of  their  legal  status  in  the  several  states. 

To  examine  the  basis  on  which  rest  their  claims  for  citizen- 
ship in  the  several  states  and  of  the  United  States. 

To  give  an  elaborate  account  of  tl^  various  books,  pam- 
phlets, and  newspa{)ers,  written  or  edited  by  colored  men. 

To  present  the  biographies  of  noteworthy  colored  men 
throughout  the  world." 

The  price  of  subscription  to  this  magazine  was  $1.00.  It 
had  fifty  corre.^spondents.  Upon  the  death  of  Mr.  Hamliton, 
in  1861,  its  publication  was  suspended;  but  it  was  resur- 
rected in  1864  by  his  son,  William  G.  Hamilton,  then 
bookkeeper  in  the  office  of  The  Weekly  Anglo- African,  pub- 
Hahed  by  his  uncle ;  it  lived,  however,  but  a  short  time,  to 
serve  as  a  reminder  of  what  had  been. 

The  period  intervening  before  we  hear  of  another  magazine, 
is  a  very  long  one, — freedom   and  citizenship  having  come 


120  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

to  the  Afro- American,  meanwhile.  True,  there  were  maga- 
zines and  periodicals  published  in  the  Afro- American  schools; 
but  we  speak  of  such  as  were  for  the  Afro- American  people 
at  large. 

T/ie  A.  M,  E.  Church  Ecview,  an  organ  of  the  General 
Conference  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Church  at  Baltimore,  next  claims 
our  attention.  The  first  number  appeared  in  July,  1884.  It 
was  a  quarterly  of  never  less  than  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  pages.  Its  journalistic  finish  is  pleasing  to  the  eye,  while 
its  literary  contributions  are  of  high  order.  In  the  beginning 
it  was  edited  by  Rev.  B.  T.  Tanner,  now  Bishop  Tanner ;  but 
at  present  its  editorial  head  is  Dr.  L.  J.  Coppin,  a  writer  of 
acknowledged  ability. 

Tlie  Review  has  a  circulation  of  1500,  which  is  daily 
increasing.  It  goes  to  all  points  of  the  United  States,  Africa, 
Europe,  Hayti,  etc.  As  a  writer  says:  "It  is  an  example 
of  race  enterprise  and  superior  ability."  The  price  of  sub- 
scription is  $1.50,  and  it  is  fully  worth  it." 

After  Tlie  A,  M.  E.  Church  Reviao,  came  the  magazine 
published  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  known  as  "  Chir  Women  and 
Children,''  with  Dr.  William  J.  Simmons,  editor.  This  maga- 
zine was  established  in  \'^^S.  Its  purpose  was  the  uplifting 
of  the  race,  particularly  our  Afro-American  women  and 
children.  Being  devoted  to  this  kind  of  work,  it  ha«  done 
more  than  all  the  Afro- American  papers  together  in  bringing 
to  the  front  the  latent  talent  of  our  lady  writers.  Its 
columns  have  been  open,  from  time  to  time,  to  all  our  women, 
for  articles  on  the  particular  questions  which  affect  home, 
the  mother  and  children.  By  the  eflforts  of  its  editor  it  has 
thus  given  to  the  world  a  bright  array  of  female  writers, 
upon  different  questions  hitherto  unknown  to  the  literary 
world. 

Its  editor.  Rev.  William  J.  Simmons,  D.  D.,  is  recognized 
by   the   nation   as   an   educator,   both  with   respect  to  the 


122  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

school-room  and  the  newspaper.  He  occupieB  a  prominent 
place  in  the  affairs  of  his  church  and  his  people.  At  present 
he  is  the  honored  Secretary  of  the  Southern  District  of  the 
American  Baptist  Home  Mission  Society,  President  of  the 
National  Press  Convention,  and  President  of  the  State  Uni- 
versity, Louisville,  Ky.  He  has  edited,  in  his  time,  several 
newspapers, — a  prominent  one  being  The  American  Baptist, 

Dr.  Simmons'  capacity  for  thought  is  an  unusual  one.  His 
literary  efforts  are  such,  we  feel  that  the  world  of  journalism 
is  becoming  so  great  a  power  through  him,  that  men  yet 
unborn  will  regard  him  as  of  superior  mind. 

We  clip  two  tributes  to  Dr.  Simmons  as  a  writer,  and 
leave  the  reader  to  think  about  the  man:  "As  an  editorial 
writer  he  has  obtained  a  national  reputation  for  a  pungent 
and  aggressive  style.  He  is  an  unremitting  champion  of 
right  as  against  wrong  of  any  kind,  and  has  a  bluff  straight- 
forward way  of  expressing  himself  on  all  occasions,  that  is 
as  -  refreshing  as  it  is  startling  at    times." — Ind.  Freeman. 

A  writer  in  the  North  pays  the  following:  "Rev.  Wm. 
J.  Simmons,  D.  D.,  President  of  the  State  University  of 
Louisville,  Ky.,  and  the  chief  Baptist  scholar  on  this  con- 
tinent, is  one  of  the  race's  big  coming  men.  He  has  seen 
much  of  the  world  and  men,  and  is  a  versatile,  luminous 
thinker  and  writer.  His  chief  work,  'Men  of  Mark,'  brought 
him  into  immediate  and  famous  notice,  and  is  a  book  of  price- 
less value  to  all  who  desire  to  know  and  learn  of  the  magnates, 
'chief  scribes'  and  orators  of  the  Negro  race.  He  is  President 
of  the  Colored  Press  Association  and  has  always  been  looked 
upon  as  a  Nestor  in  its  different  councils." 

Howards  Nec^ro  Amciican,  published  at  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  is 
another  creditable  feature  of  magazine  literature  among  the 
Afro-Amorieans.  It  is  an  octavo  of  at  least  sixty  pages  of 
reading  matter  of  the  best  kind.  The  first  number  was  issued 
by  its  proprietor,  Jas.  H.  \V.  Howard,  July  Ist,  1889,     It 


REV.  \V,  .1.  SIMMONS,   D,   n., 
presiiienl  of  Stnie   L"iiirmity,   I/.iii-^vill.-. 


124  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

is  neat  and  tasty  in  its  typographical  arrangement,  and  has, 
at  this  writing,  an  excellent  circulation.  Its  editor,  Mr. 
Howard,  is  a  man  of  thrift,  born,  in  1856,  at  Hamilton,  and 
was  educated  in  the  schools  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  He  is  a  writer 
of  ability  and  long  experience,  having  edited  the  State  Jour- 
nal from  1881  to  '86,  in  Hanisburg,  Pa. 

The  next  magazine  we  find  is  farther  west,  and  is  called 
The  Afro-Amei-ican  Biulgct.  It  is  published  monthly  at 
Evanston,  111.,  with  Rev.  J.  S.  Woods  as  editor  and  proprietor, 
and  Rev.  W.  H.  Twiggs  as  Corresponding  Editor.  This  mag- 
azine, in  many  respects,  is  a  very  praiseworthy  production, 
particularly  because  of  its  bright  journalistic  touch.  Its  editor, 
a  man  highly  educated  in  letters  and  in  theology,  and  with 
natural  editorial  capacity,  makes  TJie  Budget  a  gem,  editori- 
ally. It  is  devoted  to  the  practical  problems  of  the  Afro- 
American  race,  and  always  contains  contributions  from  many 
of  the  excellent  writers  among  our  people.  It  is  of  thirty-two 
pages,  carefully  arranged,  and  is  sold  at  the  low  price  of 
seventy-five  cents  per  year. 

As  we  conclude  this  chapter  we  are  greeted  by  the  finest 
and  fairest  publication  yet,  The  Southiund,  a  monthly  maga- 
zine, founded  by  Rov.  J.  C.  Price,  D.  D.,  of  Livingstone  College, 
Salisbury,  N.  C,  and  edited  by  Prof.  S.  G.  Atkins  of  that 
school.  It  is  truly  the  Forum  of  the  Afro- American  press. 
Words  too  commendable  of  I7ie  Southland  cannot  be  said. 
The  high  mission  it  comes  to  fulfill  must  indeed  be  carried 
out  to  the  letter;  and  in  order  to  do  this  it  demands  the 
support  of  the  race.  There  is  no  more  worthy  magazine  than 
this.  The  first  number  was  issued  in  February,  1890,  and 
received  great  encomiums  from  the  press  generally. 

The  founder,  as  well  as  the  editor,  needs  no  introduction  at 
our  hands :  one,  the  leading  educator  of  our  race ;  the  other, 
a  writer  of  supreme  excellence, 

T^ie  ^Southland    is   the    fac-simile   of    The   Foruvi   ift   its 


"''    '  (.  PWCft  D  B. 


«;> 


126 


THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 


typographical  arrangement.  It  is  published  more  particu- 
larly as  an  exponent  of  the  leaders'  opinions  of  the  situation 
in  the  South,  It  is  bound  to  "hoe  its  row"  through  the 
intellectual  field. 

There  are  other  magazines  and  periodicals  published  in  the 
Afro-American  educational  institutions  Soutli.  but  they  are 
issued  more  with  reference  to  these  institutions  than  to  the 

broad  di8CUie»dou  of  the  race  question. 


CHAPTER  XVII. 


THE  DAILY  AFRO-AMERICAN  JOURNALS. 


THE  Afro- American  has  not  lost  any  time  in  learning  the 
advantage  of  a  daily  paper,  with  respect  to  the  good  it 
may  do  in  a  community.     He  has  made  efforts  in  this  line 
that  have  been  somewhat  successful. 

But  there  are  many  obstacles  attending  publications  of  this 
sort  among  the  Afro- Americans.  The  prejudices  existing 
prevent  his  connection  with  any  united  or  Associated  Press 
organization ;  which  debars  him  from  the  privilege  of  receiv- 
ing telegraphic  communications  at  the  cheap  rates  accorded 
the  members  of  such  a  body.  Then  it  is  our  opinion  that 
while  the  race  is  prepared  for  daily  papers,  yet  the  support 
now  given  our  weeklies  argues  that  ii-j  great  number  of  dailies 
among  us  would  be  supported.  The  history  of  Afro- Ameri- 
can dailies  thus  far,  proves  to  us  that  where  they  have  been 
published  the  patronage  was,  in  the  main,  white;  and  in 
order  to  obtain  and  hold  this,  it  would  not  answer  to  have 
the  papers  too  deeply  "  colored ;"  but  if  regard  were  paid  to 
this,  it  would  offend  the  Afro- American.  These  are  only  a 
few  of  the  many  reasons  for  the  lack  of  daily  Afro- American 
joomals. 


128 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRE8S. 


But,  for  all  this,  it  is  our  pleasure  to  record  some  effoi'ts  in 
this  line  which  have  met,  and  now  seem  to  be  meeting,  with 
success,  though  attended  with  many  difficulties. 

The  first  attempt  made  to  establish  a  daily  publication  was 
at  Cairo,  111.,  where  Hon.  W.  S,  Scott,  then  publishing  a 
weekly,  started  a  daily  in  connection  with  it.  It  was  known 
as  The  Cairo  Gazette,  Mr.  Scott  being  owner  and  editor.  He 
bought  a  complete  outfit,  at  a  cost  of  $2000,  which  enabled 
him  very  successfully  to  put  his  paper  into  operation.     Vol. 

1,  No.  1,  of  the  daily 
i.ssue,  came  out  April 
23,  1882,  as  an  in- 
dependent publica- 
tion, in  the  interest 
of  the  race.  Mr.  Scott 
was  a  prominent  man, 
and  as  popular  with 
the  w^hites  as  with  the 
blacks ;  a  proof  of  the 
fact  being  that  his  job 
office  did  all  the  city's 
printing.  Four-fifths 
of  the  circulation  of 
his  paper  was  among 
the  whites.  It  was  a  readable  f^heet,  all  original  matter, 
and  li.id  a  good  force  uf  reporters.  Mr.  Scott's  politics  do 
not  nii^et  tlie  a[)proval  of  many  ;  but  hit^  ability  is  never 
questioned.  The  Daily  Gazette  was  issued  six  months,  when 
it  was  destruVLMl  bv  tire. 

The  next  etiurt  at  a  dailv  is>ue  Wiis  The  Chlumhu:<  Messni- 
ger,  at  Columl)u.«,  Ga.  It  was  started  June  20,  1887,  as  a 
weekly  paper,  and  published  for  a  year  and  a  half  as  such, 
when  it  became  a  semi-weekly,  and  linally  a  daily.  It  was 
edited  with  much  spirit  and  fitness  by  Mr.  B.  T.  Harvey,  a 


B.  T.    HARVF.Y. 


HON.  W.  8,  SCOTT. 


130 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


graduate  of  the  Tuskeegee  Normal  School.  We  have  his 
word  for  the  fact  that,  as  a  daily,  it  had  a  good  circulation, 
or,  in  other  words,  a  paying  circulation,  and  its  receipts  were 
clearly  satisfactory  to  him.  Its  size  was  12  by  20  inches,  and 
full  of  reading  matter. 

The  Daily  Messenger  would  not  have  suspended  publica- 
tion, but  the  editor  having  accepted  a  position  in  the  Railway 
Mail  Service,  he  was  necessarily  compelled  to  close  up  his 
business  enterprise  for  a  time. 

As  we  have  said,  the  paper,  as  a  daily,  met  with  the  success 
Mr.  Harvey  anticipated,  which  will  be  seen  in  a  part  of  a  per- 
sonal letter  to  us,  which  we  insert :  "  Let  me  add,  that,  with 
my  experience  in  newspaper  work,  I  am  confident  the  colored 
press  could  be  made  more  confidential  and  powerful,  if  more 
would  attempt  daily  issues.     They  can  be  made  a  success." 

T/w  Knoxville  Negro  Worlds  Patteson  Bros.  &  Co.,  publish- 
ers, Knoxville,  Tenn.,  was  issued  daily  for  two  weeks,  but 
more  as  an  advertiser  than  a  regular  daily  medium  of  news. 

As  we  close  this  chapter  we  learn  of  a  daily  publication  in 
Baltimore,  known  as  lite  Public  Ledger.  It  is  edited  by  Mr. 
Wesley  Adams.  The  Public  Ledgei'  is  having  great  success, 
we  are  informed,  and  our  w'lAi  is  that  its  efiforts  may  be  so 
appreciated  as  to  warrant  it.s  continued  publication. 


PART  SECOND. 


JIAB8HALL  W.  TAYUJB. 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 

SKETCHES    AND  PORTRAITS  OF   AFRO-AMERICAN 

EDITORS. 


Timothy  Thomas  Foetune,  Editor  New  York  Age, 

THE  most  noted  man  in  Afro-American  journalism  is 
T.  Thomas  Fortune  of  New  York.  He  was  born  of 
slave  parents  in  the  town  of  Marianna,  Jackson  County, 
Florida,  October  3,  1856.  His  parents  were  Sarah  Jane  and 
Emanuel  Fortune, — the  former  of  whom  died  in  1869;  the 
latter,  who  was  a  conspicuous  character  in  the  Reconstruction 
period  of  Florida  politics,  is  now  a  well-to-do  and  respected 
citizen  of  Jacksonville. 

It  is  evident  that  young  Fortune  was  destined  to  be  a 
power  in  journalism.  While  a  mere  lad  he  haunted  news- 
paper offices,  soon  after  the  war,  making  himself  useful  aroun<l 
the  office  of  The  Mariamia  Courier;  and  later,  when  his 
parents  moved  to  East  Florida,  he  entered,  first  the  com- 
posing room  of  The  Jacksonville  Cbiirier,  then  T7i€  Union, 
where  he  gathered  a  fair  knowledge  of  the  "art  preserva- 
tive/* He  then  attended  the  Stanton  school  at  JacksonvilL* 
for  a  while,  and  afterward  entered  the  Jacksonville  post-office 
as  office-boy.     He  was  soon  promoted  to  the  position  of  letter 


134  THE  APRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

stamper  and  paper  clerk.  The  Postmaster  and  he  failing  to 
agree  in  a  small  matter,  Mr.  Fortune  threw  up  his  position 
and  returned  to  the  "  case." 

While  '*  sticking  type  '*  he  received  an  appointment  in  1874 
as  mail-rout«  agent  between  Jacksonville  and  Chattahoochee. 
He  resigned  this  position  in  1875,  and  was  appointed  Special 
Inspector  of  Customs  for  the  Eastern  District  of  Delaware  by 
Sec.  B.  H.  Bristow,  at  the  instance  of  his  unwavering  friend, 
Congressman  William  J.  Purnam  of  the  First  Congressional 
District  of  Florida.  He  resigned  this  position  in  the  fall  of 
1875  and  entered  the  Normal  Department  of  Howard  Uni- 
versity at  Washington,  where  he  remained  two  school  years. 
He  then  entered  the  composing-room  of  The  Peoples  Advocate, 
at  Washington,  and  while  there  he  was  married  to  Miss  Carrie 
C.  Smiley.  Soon  after  this  he  returned  to  Florida,  and  spent 
a  year  teaching  county  schools.  In  1879  Mr.  Fortune  went 
to  New  York  City,  and  entered  the  composing-room  of  The 
Weekly  Witness.  In  1880  he  made  his  bow  as  a  journalist,  as 
editor  of  The  Rumor,  Geo.  Parker  and  William  Walter  Samp- 
son being  partners  in  the  publication,  the  name  of  which  was 
soon  changed  to  The  New  York  Olohe. 

The  Globe  wielded  a  powerful  influence  for  the  right.  The 
author  well  remembers  the  frequent  references  made  to  The 
Olohe  and  its  editor.  At  that  time  few  Afro-American 
journals  were  published  whose  columns  were  as  reliable  and 
newsy  as  those  of  The  Olohe,  Owing  to  a  disagreement  in 
the  partnership,  The  Olohe  suspended  in  November,  1884. 

In  speaking  of  our  subject,  at  the  time  of  the  suspension  of 
Tlie  Globe,  a  writer  in  Dr.  Simmons'  "  Men  of  Mark"  has  the 
following  to  say :  *'  The  suspension  gf  The  Olohe  did  not 
discourage  its  editor.  He  had  commenced  his  work  with  a 
well-defined  plan  in  view,  and  he  was  determined  to  continue 
it.  He  felt  the  need  of  a  journal  to  contend  for  the  just 
rights  of  his  race,  and  thought  that  much  good  might  be  done 


T.  THOMAS  FORTUNE. 


186  THE  AFRO-AMEtllCAN  PRESS. 

through  such  an  agency.  He  maintained  that  for  a  paper  to 
be  a  power  for  good  among  his  people,  it  must  be  fearless  in 
its  tone ;  that  its  editor  should  not  fail  to  speak  his  just  con- 
victions ;  that  he  should  hold  himself  aloof  from  parties,  and 
maint^n  his  position  untrammelled  by  parties  and  party 
bosses." 

Adhering  to  the  principles  in  the  above  he  re-entered  his 
chosen  field  as  publisher  of  The  New  York  Freeman,  Novem- 
ber 22,  1884.  This  was  only  a  week  after  the  suspension  of 
The  Obbe,  of  which  Mr.  Fortune  was  editor  and  proprietor. 

The  Freeman  was  decidedly  the  most  popular  paper  pub- 
lished among  Afro- American  journals,  for  several  reasons,  the 
most  prominent  being  these:  In  typographical  make-up  it 
resembled  the  best  journals  of  the  whites,  and  contained  all 
the  most  important  news  about  the  Afro- American,  sent  by 
trustworthy  and  brilliant  correspondents.  Having  such  a 
corps  of  writers  the  paper  contained  such  news,  and  carried 
with  it  such  influence,  as  did  no  other.  In  this  respect  it 
pleased  the  masses. 

Another  good  reason  for  its  success  was  Mr.  Fortune  s 
ability  as  an  editorial  writer.  He  declares  himself  boldly, 
and  by  many  is  regarded  as  the  ablest  among  the  many 
Afro- Americans  who  wield  the  *' goose  quill."  W.  Allison 
Sweeney,  a  reputable  writer,  speaks  of  him  in  The  Indian- 
apolis Freeman,  as  follows :  "  T.  Thomas  Fortune,  the 
well-known  newspaper  man,  although,  comparatively  speak- 
ing, a  young  man,  came  near  going  to  the  front  amongst  the 
big  literary  men  of  the  race,  at  one  jump.  Coming  into 
notice  first,  a  few  years  since,  as  editor  of  The  Olobe,  pub- 
lished in  New  York  City,  he  has  since  then,  through  his 
editorship  of  The  Freeman,  published  in  the  same  city,  made 
his  name  nearly  a  household  word  throughout  the  land.  As 
a  brilliant,  pointed,  aggressive  editorial  writer,  Mr.  Fortune 
deserves  all  the  fame  he  has  garnered  to  himself.    It  is  not 


APRO-AltERICAM  EWTOttS.  137 

indulging  the  least  in  hyperbole  to  say  that  he  is  considered 
by  many  the  leading  editorial  writer  and  all-around  news- 
paper man  of  his  race.  He  also  ranks  as  an  essayist  of  no 
mean  order,  and  in  the  language  of  PoUok,  occasionally 
'touches  his  harp';  and  if  '  nations '  do  not '  hear  entranced,' 
they  may  some  day,  for  the  '  fine  frenzy '  of  the  poet  is  largely 
developed  in  his  mental  organism.  Seriously,  Mr.  Fortune 
has  given  fugitive  verses  to  the  world,  at  different  times, 
Ui»t  burned  and  sparkled  with  true  poetic  fire." 

7^  Freeman  had  a  moat  encouraging  career,  and  Mr. 
Fortune,  no  doubt,  would  have  remained  its  editor,  had  he 
not  accepted  a  position  upon  the  editorial  staff  of  The  New 
York  Evemttg  Sun,  one  of  the  wealthiest  papers  in  the 
Uetiopolis.  He  is  one  of  the  few  young  men  who  have  held 
a  position  upon  the  editorial  staff  of  a  leading  white  daily. 

The  IVeeman  having  been  transferred  to  Messrs.  Fortune 
and  Peterson,  ita  name  was  changed  to  The  New  York  Age, 
under  which  caption  it  is  now  published.  Our  subject  is  an 
editorial  contributor  to  The  Age,  at  present.  Frequent  refer- 
ences are  made  to  his  articles,  which  are  always  able  and 
forcible.  Hon.  Jno.  0.  Dancy,  in  The  Slar  of  Zion,  speaks  of 
him,  in  reference  to  his  contributions  to  TTie  Age,  as  the 
"watchful  paragrapher." 

One  thing  about  Fortune's  articles  is,  that  he  never  writes 
nnless  he  makes  somebody  wince.  When  he  goes  for  a  thing 
in  his  editorials,  he  generally  comes  back  victorious.  He  ia 
an  adiierent  to  the  idea  of  industrial  and  elementary  edu- 
cation for  the  A  fro- Americans  of  the  South,  since,  in  bis 
judgment,  they  stand  most  in  need  of  that  kind  of  an  edu- 
cation. 

In  politics  Mr.  Fortune  has  maintained  a  stand  in  his 
writings  that  few  Afro- Americana  can  afford  to  take.  He  has 
been  fierce  in  his  condemnation  of  corrupting  principles,  in 
botb  the  Democratic  and  Republican  parties,  but  a  pleasing 


138  THE  AFRO-AMERICAK  PRESS. 

and  earnest  advocate  of  every  good  principle  in  each.  In 
other  words,  Mr.  Fortune  stands  as  an  independent  thinker 
in  politics,  as  in  other  matters  of  public  interest.  His 
political  writings  as  editor  of  The  Freeman,  during  President 
Cleveland's  Administration,  were  watched  with  interest  by 
thousands  of  intelligent  Afro- Americans,  and  by  a  large 
portion  of  whites,  who  were  constant  readers  of  his  paper. 

As  an  editor  of  The  Freeman,  he  was.  the  first  to  suggest 
and  further  the  National  League  idea,  to  prevent  mob 
violence  and  intimidation  of  his  people  at  the  South. 

Mr.  Fortune's  book,  entitled  *'  Black  and  White,"  is  a 
credit  to  him  and  the  race.  It  is  generally  looked  upon  as 
being  a  fine  work.  He  is  also  author  of  *•  The  Negro  in 
Politics."  It  can  be  truly  said  that  Mr.  Fortune  is  an  ex- 
cellent specimen  of  what  the  Afro-American  may  do  in 
journalism,  and  what  he  will  do.  He  is  surely  the  '*  Prince 
of  Journalists,"  and  his  writings  have  won  for  him  a  life-long 
reputation  as  **  editor,  author,  pamphleteer  and  agitator." 
For  a  man  so  young,  who  has  already  climbed  so  many  rounds 
in  the  hard  ladder  of  journalism  and  authorship,  who  will 
say  he  may  not  reach  the  top  before  the  allotted  years  of  man 
have  run  into  the  minutes  and  seconds  of  a  ripe  and  honored 
old  age? 

Col.  William  Murrell,  Editor  New  Jersey  Trumpet. 

Colonel  William  Murrell,  whose  life  is  full  of  interesting 
events,  and  whose  labor  in  journalism  ha.s  been  of  a  lengthy 
period,  was  born  a  slave  in  the  state  of  Georgia.  He  was  in 
the  war  as  valet  to  Confederate  General  Longstreet,  and  after 
the  latter 's  death  he  enlisted  as  a  soldier  in  the  44th  Regi- 
ment Virginia  and  South  Carolina  troops.  After  the  war 
he  moved  to  Louisiana,  where  he  served  in  the  State 
Legislature  either  as  door-keeper  or  representative  for  nine 


OOL  WILLIAM  MUEBELL. 


140  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

years.  He  was  on  the  staff  of  Gov.  W.  P.  Kellogg,  with  the 
rank  of  major,  and  was  afterward  promoted  to  be  colonel, 
and  was  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  Louisiana  State 
National  Guards.  He  now  occupies  an  important  position 
in  the  Interior  Department,  to  which  he  was  appointed  by 
Secretary  Noble. 

His  life  as  an  Afro- American  journalist  began  while  resid- 
ing in  Louisiana,  where  he  edited  at  Delta,  Madison  Parish, 
The  Madison  Vindicator.  Upon  going  to  Washington,  D.  C, 
he  edited  The  Baltimore  Vindicator,  then  published  at  Balti- 
more, Md.  He  went  to  New  Jersey  in  1883,  and  established 
The  Trumpet,  of  which  he  is  now  editor  and  proprietor. 
The  Colonel  is  ably  assisted  in  the  management  of  his  paper 
by  his  amiable  wife,  Mr?.  Louisiana  Murrell.  His  past 
success  but  predicts  what  a  future  there  is  in  store  for  him, 
in  regard  to  the  ennobling  work  of  journalism. 

Rev.  J.  Alexander  Holmes,  Ex-Editor  Central 

Methodist. 

The  life  of  Mr.  Holmes  began  in  the  city  of  Lexington, 
Va.,  December  11,  1848.  Having  some  love  for  books  and 
letters,  he  took  advantage  of  the  early  school  training  which 
was  offered  the  negro;  after  which  he  matriculated  at  the 
Storer  College,  Harper's  Ferry,  where  he  graduated  in  1872. 
For  a  while  he  taught  school,  subsequently  entering  the 
ministry  in  March,  1874.  He  steadily  pursued  his  studies 
during  his  ministerial  connection  with  the  Washington  An- 
nual Conference  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  which  seems  to  have 
been  a  course  marked  out  with  a  successful  end  in  view. 

He  has  lived  conspicuously,  having  held  some  of  the  best 
charges  in  that  Conference,  and  has  several  times  represented 
it  in  the  General  Conference.  His  editorial  life  of  two 
years'  duration  began  in  1887,  when  appointed  editor  of  The 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  141 

Oentral  Methodist,  It  did  a  multiplicity  of  good  works  in 
religious  and  educational  fields.  He  is  quiet  and  unassum- 
ing, has  the  affection  and  respect  of  all  who  know  him,  and 
particularly  of  those  privileged  to  an  intimate  acquaintance 
with  him.  His  writings  speak  effectively  for  the  welfare  of 
the  race. 

Messbs.  S.  N.  Hill  and   William   H.  Dewey,  Editoes, 

Respectively,  of  the  People's  Advocate 

AND  The  Golden  Rule. 

Mr.  Hill  first  saw  the  light  in  New  Berne,  in  1859,  and 
settled  at  14  years  of  age  in  Wilson,  N.  C,  where  he 
graduated  from  the  St.  Augustine  Normal  and  Collegiate 
Institute,  in  1880.  He  at  ouce  began  the  newspaper  busi- 
ness, in  connection  with  Prof,  E.  Moore,  in  tho  publication 
of  TJie  Wilson  News.  This  was  a  strong  paper,  and  was  the 
staunchest  advocate  for  the  calling  of  a  convention  of  Afro- 
Americana  in  North  Carolina,  with  the  view  of  having  their 
p^>ople  recognized  on  the  juries  of  the  courts  of  that  state. 

Mr.  Hill  was  next  upon  The  Banner,  at  Raleigh,  N.  C, 
the  organ  of  the  Industrial  Association  of  that  state.  Upon 
retiring  from  The  Banner,  he  returned  home  and  began  the 
publication  of  The  Peoples  Advocate,  which  he  moved  to 
Wilmington.  While  published  at  this  place,  it  became  one 
of  the  leading  journals  of  the  state,  being  frequently  referred 
to  by  the  local  white  papers,  and  by  the  leading  New  York 
dailies.  He  returned  home  with  The  Advocate,  prior  tO'this 
last  campaign,  as  the  organ  of  the  Republican  party  of  the 
22d  Congressional  district.  It  did  remarkable  service  for  the 
party. 

As  a  writer,  Mr.  Hill  is  bold,  fearless  and  consistent.  We 
are  prepared  to  say  his  future  will  be  bright  as  the  leading 
editor  of  the  free  press. 


142  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Mr.  Dewey,  like  Mr.  Hill,  was  bom  at  New  Berne,  N.  C, 
September  13,  1858.  Having  to  earn  his  own  living,  his 
means  for  the  acquisition  of  books  were  very  limited.  He  is 
prominently  connected  with  the  G.  U.  0.  0.  F.,  in  the  state 
of  North  Carolina.  He  owned  and  edited  The  Peoples 
Advocate,  in  1886,  which  did  good  work  in  the  interest  of  the 
Republican  party.  In  1887,  this  paper  was  merged  into 
The  Golden  Rule,  through  which  the  solidity  and  harmony 
of  the  party  in  Craven  County  has  more  than  once  been 
accomplished.  The  Golden  JRuk  is  well  edited,  having  for 
its  object  the  amelioration  of  the  race,  and  the  advancement 
of  the  Afro- American,  financially,  educationally  and  morally. 

Rev.  G.  W.  Gayles,  Editor  Baptist  Signal. 

Possibly  no  man  connected  with  Afro- American  journal- 
ism has  had  a  brighter  and  more  honored  career  than  the 
above  subject.  He  was  born  in  the  county  of  Wilkinson, 
Miss.,  January  l29,  1844,  of  slave  parents.  Perry  and  Rebecca 
Gayles. 

Young  Gayles,  being  one  of  his  master's  house-servants 
enjoyed  a  privilege  that  was  accorded  only  those  who  were 
similarly  situated  at  that  time.  As  house-servant,  he  was 
taught  the  alphabet  by  a  lady  who  was  employed  as  private 
tutor  in  Mrs.  Nancy  Barron's  family.  This  was  done  on 
account  of  his  diligence.  He  soon  became  able  to  read  the 
Bible  and  his  hymn  book,  which  he  gave  his  greatest  atten- 
tion. Though  so  interested  in  these,  he  earnestly  pursued 
the  studies  requisite  for  a  good  education,  until  he  finally 
became  well  adapted  intellectually  for  the  duties  of  life  which 
lay  so  brilliantly  before  him. 

Called  to  the  ministry  in  November,  1867,  he  has  since,  by 
vigorous  work,  been  of  great  credit  to  his  race  as  an  "ex- 
pounder of  the   Word."      Shortly   after  he  was  ordained 


EEV.  G    W.  GAY1.es. 


144  ,  THE  AFBO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

minister,  came  his  appointments  to  some  of  the  most  prominent 
places  in  Mississippi.  Before  pointing  the  reader  to  his 
career  in  journalism,  we  will  name  these  positions :  In  1869, 
he  was  appointed  by  Geo.  A.  Ames  of  the  United  States 
Army  a  member  of  the  board  of  police  for  the  Third  District 
of  Bolivar  County.  In  1870,  he  became  a  Justice  of  Peace 
for  the  Fifth  District  of  Bolivar  County,  through  Grov.  J.  L. 
Alcom.  In  August.  1870,  he  was  appointed  supervisor  for 
the  Fifth  District.  He  was  also  elected  to  the  Stat«  Legis- 
lature for  four  consecutive  years,  and  was  returned  in  1877 
as  State  Senator  for  the  Twenty-eighth  Senatorial  District. 
He  has  since  held  the  position  by  re-election.  He  was 
Corresponding  Secretary  for  the  Missionary  State  Convention, 
and  has  since  been  unanimously  elected  and  re-elected  to  the 
position  of  president.  Thus  we  see  that  his  wide  experience 
in  religious,  political  and  general  affairs,  has  served  to  make 
him  a  grand  force  in  journalism.  The  Convention  of  which 
he  was  president  founded  The  Baptist  Signal  in  1880,  and 
elected  our  subject  to  be  its  editor. 

As  an  editorial  writer,  Rev.  Mr.  Gayles  ranks  high  among 
those  of  the  "pencil-shoving"  class.  He  is  a  dignified  and 
practical  writer,  believing  in  laying  before  his  readers  that 
which  will  be  of  solid  benefit  to  them  in  their  progress 
through  life. 

The  Signal,  a  six-column  paper,  issues  monthly  one 
thousand  copies,  and  always  contains  matter  of  a  helpful 
nature.  As  a  religious  journal  and  an  exponent  of  religious 
ideas,  it  ranks  among  the  first.  Through  his  great  personal 
influence  and  that  of  his  paper,  the  Baptist  State  Convention 
feels  proud  to  own  a  college  in  Natchez,  Miss.,  costing  six 
thousand  dollars. 

In  presenting  Mr.  Gayles  in  this  work,  we  score  another 
success  in  the  pioneer  labors  of  Afro-American  journalism, 
for  it  must  be  conceded  he  has  achieved  much  with  his  pen. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  145 

Mr.  Chbistopheb  J.  Perry,  Editor  Weekly  Tribune. 

In  noting  the  journalistic  efforts  of  the  Afro- American,  The 
Philadelphia  Tribune y  of  which  the  above  subject  is  editor, 
falls  into  the  category  of  the  most  conspicuous.  The 
Tribune  began  publication  in  1884,  with  Mr.  Perry  as  pro- 
prietor and  editor. 

Perry's  life  in  the  journalistic  work  had  been  of  some 
duration  before  this  effort.  Born  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  of  free 
parents,  September  11,  1854,  he  availed  himself  of  the  school 
facilities  provided  for  the  colored  children  of  that  city,  which 
were  very  meager.  Going  to  Philadelphia,  his  present  home, 
quite  young,  and  having  the  desire  to  be  educationally  a 
free  man,  he  diligently  applied  himself  to  books,  attending 
the  night  schools  of  that  city.  He  earned  his  support  by 
work  in  private  houses,  and  could  be  often  seen  examining 
the  volumes  in  the  libraries  of  these  homes. 

As  early  as  1867,  he  began  writing  for  newspapers,  his 
letters  being  always  newsy  and  pleasing.  He  has  an  excel- 
lent style,  and  prominent  men  complimented  him  highly  for 
his  letters  at  this  early  period  in  his  journalistic  life.  In 
November,  1881,  he  began  writing  for  a  Northern  daily,  and 
later  on  became  the  editor  of  the  Colored  Department  in 
The  Sunday  Mercury  This  led  to  the  establishment  of  Tfie 
Tribune,  in  1884,  which  he  has  conducted  since  with  editorial 
skill  and  newspaper  tact.  A  writer  says:  '' T/ie  Tibune, 
under  his  guidance,  has  become  one  of  the  leading  Afro- 
American  journals  of  this  country."  The  same  paper  says : 
*'  It  is  a  staunch  advocate  of  the  rights  of  the  negro,  and  is  a 
credit  to  Editor  Perry's  managing  skill." 

Mr.  Perry  has.  an  excellent  idea  of  his  mission  as 
an  Afro-American  editor,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  fol- 
lowing editorial,  published  when  TTie  Tribune  began 
its  fourth   year.     That    the    reader    may    rightly    estimate 


CHEISIOPHEE  I.  PEEEY. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  147 

the  independent,  energetic  spirit  of  the  man,  we  'insert  it 
entire : 

Out  Fourth  Anniversary, 

**  So  busy  were  we  fighting  in  our  earnest  though  humble 
way  for  Harrison  and  protection,  that  we  actually  forgot  our 
birthday.  It  is  a  fact  of  which  we  are  truly  proud,  that  The 
Tribune  is  the  only  colored  journal  north  of  Mason  and 
Dixon's  line,  which  has  never  wavered  in  its  fidelity  to 
Republicanism.  In  the  face  of  very  appealing  temptations 
from  our  friends,  the  enemy,  we  have  been  true  and  steadfast. 
It  was  this  party  enthusiasm  which  led  us  to  forget  that  on 
Saturday  last  we  were  just  four  years  old. 

"  The  retrospect  is  very  gratifying.  No  other  venture  of 
this  kind  ever  started  in  the  face  of  more  appalling  diffi- 
culties; but  from  the  beginning  our  progress  has  been 
persistent  and  steady.  Envy  has  raised  its  foul-tongued 
voice  against  us.  Self-satisfied,  self-constituted  Phariseeism 
has  persistently  criticised  us.  But  onward  we  have  steadily 
pursued  our  way,  supported  and  encouraged  by  the  growing 
confidence  of  our  patrons.  Our  circulation  has  increased 
every  week,  our  advertising  columns  crowd  out  news  every 
issue,  and  they  stand — as  compared  with  those  of  other 
colored  journals  throughout  the  country — a  weekly  tribute 
to  our  facilities  for  reaching  the  eyes  of  purchasers. 

**  The  reason  for  this  is  simple.  The  Tribune  is  a  paper  of 
the  people  and  for  the  people.  It  is  the  organ  of  no  clique 
or  class.  As  its  name  indicates,  its  purpose  is  to  lead  the 
masses  to  appreciate  their  best  interests  and  to  suggest  the 
best  means  for  attaining  deserved  ends.  We  have  no  sympa- 
thy with  the  spirit  of  many  colored  editors,  who  complain 
that  their  race  does  not  support  their  ventures.  We  have 
been  admirably  suppoited.  Our  past  year  has  been  a 
complete  success.  We  believe  that  it  has  been  due  to  our 
effort   to   please    our   patrons  and   to    be  worthy  of  their 


148  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

confidence.  It  shall  be  our  purpose  in  the  future,  as  it  has 
been  in  the  past,  to  maintain  ITie  Tribunes  reputation 
for  consistency,  reliability  and  news  enterprise.'* 

Noticing  the  past  career  of  Hie  Tribune,  we  can  readily 
account  for  the  success  attending  its  efforts. 

Revs.  R.  C.  Ransom,  W.  S.  Lowry,  Daniel  S.  Bentley, 
William  F,  Brooks  :  Associate  Editor,  Business 
Manager,  President  and  Treasurer, 
Respectively,  of   The  Afro- 
American  Spokesman. 

These  men  compose  the  back-bone  of  The  Afro-American 
Spokesman.  If  brains  and  money  will  push  The  Spohea" 
man  to  success,  we  can  look  confidently  to  the  accomplishment 
of  it,  with  such  men  at  its  head. 

Rev.  Mr.  Ransom  was  born  at  Flushing,  Ohio,  January  4, 
1861, — the  only  child  of  George  and  Hattie  Ransom.  He 
graduated  from  the  Wilberforce  University  in  1886,  with  the 
degree  of  Bachelor  of  Divinity.  As  a  writer,  he  is  vigorous, 
possessing  a  somewhat  caustic  style.  Aside  from  the  associate 
editorship  of  The  Spohcsvian,  he  is  a  large  contributor  to 
various  publications  on  quite  a  variety  of  themes. 

Rev.  W.  S.  Lowry,  the  business  manager,  was  born  in 
Allegheny  County,  Pa.,  December  5,  1848.  Having  served 
in  the  war,  his  opportunities  for  early  education  were  con- 
siderably limited.  He  felt  deeply  moved  to  enter  the  ministry 
in  1868,  and  in  1870  attended  the  Wilberforce  University 
for  three  terms,  in  order  to  prepare  himself  for  his  life-work. 
Since  commencing  it,  he  has  held  responsible  positions,  now 
being  pastor  of  one  of  the  best  churches  in  the  Pittsburg 
Conference,  viz. :  that  of  Brown  Cbapel,  Allegheny  City,  Pa. 

Conceiving  the  idea  of  the  need  of  such  an  organ  as  The 


BEV.  W.  8.  LOWRY. 


■% 


150  THE  AFKO-AMEKICAN  PRESS. 

Spokesman,  Rev.  Mr.  Lowry,  with  Rev.  R.  C.  Ransom  and 

D.  S.  Bentlev,  decided  upon  a  way  by  which  such  a  paper 

could  be  established,  and  accordingly  pushed  it  to  success. 

Through  his  skilful  financiering  he  is  putting  the  paper  in 

every  home,  and  making  for  it  a  sure  support.     As  a  writer, 

his  style  is  graceful,  rich  and  pure.     He  is  an  occasional  con- 
tributor to  the  city  papers. 

Rev.  Daniel  S.  Bentley,  president  of  the  company,  and 
pastor  of  the  Wylie  Ave.  A.  M.  E.  church,  was  born  in 
Madison  county,  Ky.,  and  is  now  thirty-eight  years  old.  His 
fitness  for  his  life-work  was  acquired  in  Berea  College.  He 
is  a  trusted  leader  in  the  A.  M.  E.  church,  and  a  man  highly 
esteemed  by  the  Bishopric  of  his  church.  His  first  writings 
gave  descriptive  accounts  of  his  people's  religious  and 
general  improvement,  in  the  early  part  of  his  ministry. 
Most  of  his  productions  have  found  ready  entrance  to  The 
Ckristian  Recorder.  Upon  the  organization  of  the  Spokesman 
Stock  Company,  he  was  unanimously  elected  its  president. 

Rev.  \Vm.  F.  Brooks,  the  treasurer,  and  the  pastor  of  the 
Grace  Memorial  Presbyterian  church,  is  a  man  of  most  excel- 
lent parts,  intellectually  and  otherwise.  He  is  a  graduate  of 
the  famous  Lincoln  University,  and  may  yet  occupy  a 
professor's  chair  in  that  institution.  He  is  doing  good  work 
for  The  Spokesman. 

Magnus  L.  Robinson,  Editor  National  Leader. 

Magnus  L.  Robinson,  the  managing  editor  and  one  of  the 
proprietors  of  ITie  Washington  National  Leader,  was  born 
at  Alexandria,  Va.,  November  21,  1852.  His  parents  gave 
him  a  good  private  school  education.  Being  naturally  of 
an  industrious  mind,  he  served  an  apprenticeship  for  four 
years  in  a  bakery,  and  for  several  years  thereafter  fol- 
lowed  the   vocation   of  a  baker.     In  1868,  he  entered  the 


BEV.  DANIEL  8.  BENTLEY. 


152 


THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 


law  department  of  the  Howard  University,  at  Washington, 
D.  C,  from  which  he  earnestly  endeavored  to  graduate,  but 
was  forced  to  give  up  his  studies  on  account  of  ill  health. 
He  next  turned  his  attention  to  teaching,  and  passed  an 
examination  for  a  position  in  the  public  schools  of  his  native 
state.  In  due  time  he  procured  a  school  and  taught  success- 
fully for  nine  months,  beginning  in  1879. 

Before  recounting  Mr.  Robinson's  journalistic  career,  we 
would  call  the  attention  of  the  reader  to  his  popularity  in  the 
community  where  he  lives,  and  to  his  circumstances.  He  is 
a  bright  mulatto,  rather  diminutive  in  size,  with  extremely 

affable  manners.  He  owns  the  property 
in  Alexandria  where  he  resides.  He 
married  young  and  is  blessed  with  a 
devoted  wile,  loving  children,  and  a  host 
of  friends  by  whom  he  is  highly  respected. 
He  stands  high  in  society,  and  is  president 
of  the  Frederick  Douglass  Library  Asso- 
ciation, the  most  prominent  literary  and 
social  organization  at  his  home.  He  is  a 
true  and  faithful  friend ;  and  being  a 
shrewd  politician,  is  easily  the  leader  of 
the  Afro-American  people  of  Alexan- 
dria, who  always  consult  him  on  questions  of  public  moment^ 
and  general  welfare.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Executive 
Committee  of  the  Colored  National  Press  Convention,  and 
delivered  an  address  at  the  National  Press  Convention  which 
met  in  the  Metropolitan  A.  M.  E.  church,  Washington.  D.  C, 
March  5,  1889,  his  subject  being  "  Representative  Negroes.'* 
During  the  time  he  taught  school  he  became  interested  in 
journalism  and  politics,  to  which  he  has  given  much  study 
and  attention.  Being  a  close  student  of  human  nature  and  a 
good  judge  of  men  and  measures,  he  has  contributed  to 
the  press  many  thoughtful,  able,  and    logical  articles  upon 


M.  L.  ROBINSON. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  .  153 

important  and  current  topics  of  the  day,  which  were  highly 
actvptable  to  such  papers  as  The  Baltimore  iSun,  Baltimore 
American,  and  The  Lynchburg  Daily  News. 

The  subject-mattor  of  these  productions  was  always  highly 
appreciated  by  the  reading  public.  He  did  such  good  work 
ill  the  journalistic  line,  as  to  give  him  a  considerable  reputa- 
tion among  the  professionals,  and  he  was  the  fii*st  Afro- 
American  to  be  regularly  employed  on  a  white  journal  in 
Baltimore,  Md.,  having  been  assigned  to  duty  as  reporter  on 
The  Baltimore  Daily  Bee,  which  was  re-established  in  1876. 
He  subsequently  removed  to  Harrisonburg,  Va.,  and  with  his 
brother,  Robert  B.  Robinson,  he  established  T/ie  Virginia 
Poftt,  which  he  ably  edited  for  three  years  at  that  place. 

During  this  time,  he  was  steadily  growing  into  popular 
favor,  and  wa?  chosen  to  fill  many  political  offices,  which  he 
graced  with  signal  ability,  Among  his  honors  may  be 
mentioned  the  fact  that  he  was  the  tirst  Afro-American  to 
hold  the  offif-e  of  secretary  of  the  llepublican  Committee  of 
Ro*:kingham  County,  Va.,  to  which  he  was  chosen  in  1880. 
lie  was  also  elected  secretary  of  the  Charlottesville,  Va., 
Congressional  Convention,  which  nominated  Hon.  John  Paul 
for  Congreas  in  1880.  In  1881,  he  represented  Rockingham 
County,  in  the  Colored  State  Convention,  held  at  Petersburg; 
and  in  the  same  year,  having  removed  to  his  native  home  at 
Alexandria,  he  was  nominated  for  magistrate  in  that  city, 
and  received  a  very  flattering  vote.  Afterward,  his  time  was 
devoted  to  teaching,  and  holding  other  positions  of  trust  and 
honor  in  his  state. 

On  January  12,  1888,  he  established  27ic  Nnlional  Leader 
at  Washington,  D.  C,  and  hoisted  the  name  of  James  G. 
Blaine  for  president,  in  his  first  publication.  His  was  the 
first  negro  journal  to  raise  the  Harrison  and  Morton  ensign  at 
the  National  Capital.  His  paper  met  with  phenomenal 
suo'ess,  and  did   great  service  for  the  Republican  party  in 


154  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

New  York  among  the  Afro-Americans,  where  it  had  a 
circulation  of  over  5000  copies  during  the  campaign  of  1888: 
It  is  very  radical  in  its  policy,  and  is  endorsed  by  the  Hon. 
Fred  Douglass  as  the  most' staunch  Republican  journal  now 
published  in  this  country. 

On  the  26th  of  April,  1890,  Mr.  Robinson  removed  his 
paper  to  Alexandria,  his  native  city,  since  when  it  has  been 
regularly  issued  every  Saturday  as  The  Weekly  Leader,  Mr. 
Robinson  is  the  oldest  editor  in  the  state,  in  point  of  service, 
having  entered  upon  the  work  of  journalism  in  1880  as  editor 
of  The  Virginia  Post. 

In  conclusion,  it  is  well  to  refer  to  some  of  the  later  honors 
conferred  upon  Mr.  Robinson.  On  the  16th  of  October,  1889, 
he  was  chief  marshal  of  the  largest  and  most  imposing  Odd 
Fellows'  parade  that  ever  marched  through  the  streets  of 
Washington,  D.  C.  He  was  the  Republican  candidate  for 
aldefftan  in  his  city  in  1889,  but  was  defeated.  He  was  also 
a  prominent  candidate  for  the  legislature  that  year.  He  was 
president  of  the  8th  Virginia  District  convention  of  colored 
men,  held  in  Alexandria,  May  15,  1890,  at  Odd  Fellows' 
hall,  which  was  called  for  the  betterment  of  the  intellectual 
and  industrial  interests  of  the  race. 

Thus,  as  is  seen,  when  his  people  desire  a  leader  they 
turn  instinctively  to  him  to  represent  them ;  and  if  his  days 
are  prolonged,  his  future  career,  it  is  safe  to  predict,  will  be 
of  greater  distinction  than  that  of  the  past. 

Hon.  Jno,  W.  Cromwell,  Editor  People's  Advocate. 

Mr.  Cromwell,  the  well-known  editor  of  The  Peoples 
Advocate,  was  born  in  Portsmouth,  Va.,  September  5,  1845, 
being  the  youngest  child  of  Willis  and  Elizabeth  Carney 
Cromwell.  When  but  a  few  years  old  his  parents  moved  to 
Philadelphia,  and  he   was  sent  to  the  public  schools,  after 


HON.  JKO.  W.  CROMWELL. 


156  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

which  he  was  admitted  to  the  institute  for  colored  youth, 
whose  principal  was  the  learned  Prof.  E.  D,  Bassett. 

Our  subject  graduated  in  1864,  after  which  he  began  what 
proved  to  be  a  most  successful  career  as  a  pedagogue.  He  is 
regarded  as  one  of  the  finest  English  scholars  in  the  Union. 
He  was  an  active  worker  in  the  Reconstruction  period,  labor- 
ing for  his  people  at  the  rif*k  of  his  own  life.  He  has  held 
excellent  government  positions,  some  of  them  highly  honor- 
ary, to  which  we  cannot  further  refer,  as  we  desire  to  dwell 
more  particularly  upon  his  journalistic  career. 

He  graduated  from  the  Law  Department  of  Howard  Uni- 
versity in  1874,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  He  has  not 
done  much  as  a  lawyer,  though  he  has  been  almost  invariably 
successful  in  the  few  cases  intrusted  to  him.  His  success  as 
senior  counsel  in  the  cases  against  the  Georgia  Railroad,  under 
the  Inter-State  Commerce  Act,  is  very  flattering  to  his  ability. 
He  and  his  associate,  Mr,  W.  C.  Martin,  are  the  only  Afro- 
American  lawyers  that  have  appeared  before  that  Commission. 
When  Hon.  Grover  Cleveland  assumed  the  Chief  Magistracy 
of  the  nation,  he  was  removed  from  the  government  service 
for  "offensive  partisanship,"  which  consisted  in  the  publica- 
tion of  a  Republican  newspaper,  The  Peoples  Advocate^ 
which,  by  the  way,  is  Mr.  Cromwell's  most  conspicuous  public 
service. 

The  Advocate  was  first  thrown  to  the  breeze  at  Alexandria, 
Virginia,  April  16,  1876.  After  a  spirited  fight  against  it 
during  Mr.  Cromwell's  absence,  it  received  the  commendation 
and  endorsement  of  the  Republican  Convention,  assembled  at 
Lynchburg  to  select  delegates  to  the  Chicago  Convention. 
T.  B.  Pinn  was  publisher,  R.  D.  Beckley  business  manager, 
and  John  W.  Cromwell  editor.  A  few  weeks  after  its 
publication,  it  absorbed  The  Sumner  Tribune,  irregularly 
published  at  Culpepper  Court  House,  and  afterwards  at 
Alexandria,    by    Hon.   A.  W.  Harris.      The    connection    of 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  157 

Measrs.  Finn  and  Beckley  with  The  Advocate  was  brief,  and 
80  was  that  of  Mr.  Harris,  leaving  Mr.  Cromwell  the  sole 
proprietor  before  it  had  been  in  existence  more  than  three 
months. 

Then  came  the  question:  What  shall  be  done  with  it? 
which  was  solved  by  a  determination  to  continue  it  as  a 
permanent  enterprise,  though  the  month  of  December  showed 
receipts  amounting  to  but  sixty-six  cents.  The  persistent 
advice  of  his  wife  Lucy  not  to  give  up,  proved  the  turning 
point.  In  June,  1887,  he  bought  a  second-hand  outfit,  and 
published  his  first  "  all-at-home"  sheet  June  29,  in  the  city 
of  Washington,  Mr.  T.  T.  Fortune  supervising  its  mechanical 
work.  The  Advocate  has  been  published  ever  since,  with 
varying  fortunes ;  and  it  has  never  missed  but  one  issue. 

Among  its  editors  at  difierent  times,  besides  its  proprietor, 
may  be  named  the  late  Charles  N.  Otey,  George  H.  Richard- 
son, and  Rev.  S.  P.  Smith,  who  were  its  regular  contributors 
and  correspondents  at  difierent  periods,  as  were  also  well- 
known  journalists,  now  in  other  fields  of  labor.  Young  men 
who  learned  to  stick  type  on  The  Advocate  have  found  em- 
ployment at  the  government  printing-ofiice,  and  with  ITie 
Christian  Recorder,  The  New  York  Age,  TJtc  Cmiservafor,  and 
doubtless  other  journals. 

Mr.  Cromwell's  specialty  is  in  the  collection  of  facts,  which 
he  presents  with  such  clearness  and  force  as  to  command 
universal  attention.  His  "Negro  in  Business,"  prepared  for 
a  syndicate  of  Northern  newspapers,  received  editorial  notice 
in  The  Forum,  and  in  one  form  and  another  was  published 
widely  throughout  the  country.  Having  had  several  years 
of  experience  as  a  teacher,  his  editorials  on  educational  topics, 
race  organizations,  etc.,  reveal  his  trained  bent  pf  mind  and 
ODBelfish  ambitions.  A  writer  in  Dr.  William  J.  Simmons' 
"  Men  of  Mark,"  speaks  gloriously  of  our  subject's  work  in 
this  field.      He  says:     "All   praise   and   honor  should   be 


158  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

given  him.  None  have  worked  more  faithfully  or  unremit- 
tingly in  this  field  than  Mr.  Cromwell,  and  none  is  held 
higher  in  the  esteem  of  the  colored  press.  *  *  *  *  * 
Mr.  Cromwell  has  kept  his  paper  going  through  these  trying 
years,  and  has  succeeded  in  business,  laying  by  some  money 
for  a  rainy  day. 

As  a  writer,  Cromwell  is  specific,  close,  logical  and  compre- 
hensive. His  paper  is  pure,  and  is  of  the  sort  that  can  be 
put  into  the  hands  of  the  virtuous,  and  will  rather  lead  them 
to  a  higher  life,  than  in  any  way  degrade  them.  As  would 
be  expected,  his  English  is  plain  and  forcible  and  his  style 
not  at  all  bombastic." 

Concerning  the  make-up  and  appearance  of  the  paper,  the 
same  writer  says :  "Its  weekly  issue  is  looked  for  with 
considerable  interest,  as  it  discusses  thoroughly  all  questions 
which  may  arise  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  concerning 
which  he  expresses  himself.  The  paper  is  especially  notable 
for  its  typographical  make-up  and  its  excellent  proof-reading." 
We  can  not  say  more  of  TJie  AdvocaU  and  its  learned  editor 
than  is  here  quoted. 

Messrs.  William    H.  Anderson,   Benjamin   B.  Pelham, 
W.  H.  Stowers,  and  R.  Pelham,  Jr.,  Editors   . 
AND  Proprietors  Plaindealer. 

Afro- American  journalism  is  attended  with  many  difficulties 
in  the  way  to  success,  that  are  not  met  by  other  people  in  the 
same  kind  of  work ;  yet  there  are  journals  published  by  the 
members  of  the  race  to-day,  which  show  that  with  the  proper 
business  capacity  and  editorial  ability,  the  work  can  be  made 
most  emphatically  a  success. 

Such  a  paper  is  The  Detroit  Plaindealer,  with  the  gentle- 
men as  editors  and  proprietors  whose  names  appear  at  the 
head  of  this  article.      The  origin  of  this  now-famed  newB- 


160  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

paper  was  under  very  adverse  circumstances.  Its  first  number, 
(May  19,  1883,)  was  a  seven-column  folio,  with  three  col- 
umns of  advertising  matter.  At  its  anniversary  issue.  May, 
1888,  it  had  twenty  pages,  with  fifty-four  columns  of  adver- 
tising matter.  In  reading  the  history  of  Tlie  Plmndealer^  as 
found  in  the  anniversary  issue  of  May,  1888,  one  can  see 
that  the  glorious  achievements  which  have  attended  the 
efforts  of  this  ideal  newspaper  were  due  to  its  lofty  conception 
of  such  work.  The  Flaindealer  saw,  at  the  very  beginning, 
that  there  was  more  in  Afro-American  journalism  than  the 
desire  for  financial  success,  for  it  says : 

"But  Afro- American  newspapers  have  for  their  rcUson 
cTetre  other  motives  higher  than  money-making  or  notoriety, 
seeking  which  make  their  success  or  failure  of  more  moment 
and  of  much  more  interest  to  those  who  appreciate  their 
necessity.  The  failure  of  an  Afro- American  journal,  i.  e.,  a 
good  one,  means  not  simply  that  the  people  are  supporting 
some  other  in  its  place,  but  that  they  are  not  inclined  to 
support  any.  It  does  not  mean  simply  a  transfer  of  patron- 
age, but  a  lack  of  it.  It  does  not  mean  that  the  desire  is 
elsewhere  gratified,  but  that  there  is  no  desire.  It  is  an 
index  of  the  tendencies  of  a  people  and,  to  a  certain  extent,  a 
measure  of  their  progress."  After  citing  this.  The  Plain' 
dealer  then  says  its  mission  was  and  is  "To  overcome  distrust; 
to  demonstrate  that  T/ie  Plaiiidealcr  is  an  impartial  advocate 
of  everything  for  the  welfare  of  Afro-Americans;  to  set  an 
example  that  there  is  no  field  of  labor  which  cannot  be 
successfully  explored  and  cultivated  by  the  Afro-American 
who  is  energetic  and  painstaking ;  to  provide  a  medium  for 
the  encouragement  of  literary  work,  for  the  creation  of  a 
distinctive  and  favorable  Afro-American  sentiment,  for  the 
dislodgment  of  prejudice  and  for  the  encouragement  of 
patriotism." 

These    objects,  it  must  be  admitted,   2%e  Plaindealer  has 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  161 

endeavored,  with  all  the  life  and  power  of  the  free  press,  to 
demonstrate  and  carry  out;  and  it  may  be  added  that  the 
right  conception  of  its  mission  among  a  class  of  emancipated 
freemen  has  been  the  secret  of  its  success.  Its  history  has 
been  made  eventful,  useful  and  authoritative,  by  its  numerous 
representative  and  versatile  contributors.  The  leading  men 
©f  the  race,  as  Douglass,  Lynch,  Bruce,  and  others,  have 
been  upon  its  staff  of  contributors.  Its  editors  and  proprie- 
tors, men  of  push  and  men  of  the  hour,  are  Messrs.  William 
H.  Anderson,  Benjamin  B.  Pelham,  William  H.  Stowers,  and 
Robert  Pelham,  Jr.,  a  brief  sketch  of  whom  we  now  give. 

William  H.  Anderson,  one  of  the  four  original  members  of 
The  Plaindealer  Company,  first  saw  the  light  in  Sandusky,  0., 
August  13th,  1857.  He  attended  the  common  schools  there 
until  he  came  to  Detroit  with  his  parents  at  16.  On  graduat- 
ing from  the  High  School  in  75,  he  commenced  as  parcel 
boy  with  Newcomb,  Endicott  &  Company,  and  steadily  rose 
to  the  position  of  bookkeeper.  He  is  now  one  of  their  most 
trusted  employes,  beside  doing  his  editorial  work  upon  The 
Plaindealer.  His  first  newspaper  experience  was  with  The 
Detroit  Free  Press.  He  then  corresponded  with  The  New 
York  Olobe,  and  since  his  connection  with  TTie  Plaindealer 
•onducted  the  series  of  articles  that  attracted  such  wide 
mention,  "  Our  Relation  to  Labor." 

Benjamin  B.  Pelham  was  born  in  Detroit,  February  7, 
1862.  He  began  his  school  life  at  the  age  of  nine  years  at 
the  Everett  School,  and  was  a  member  of  the  first  class  which 
graduated  from  that  school  to  the  Detroit  High  School.  At 
the  termination  of  his  course  in  the  High  School,  he  accepted 
a  position  with  the  Detroit  Post  and  Tribune  Company.  His 
first  experience  in  journalism  began  with  the  publication  of 
The  Venture,  an  amateur  paper,  which  he  edited  three 
years.  He  has  been  connected  with  The  Tribune  in  various 
tapacities  for  fifteen  years,  during  a  portion  of  which  time 


162  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

he  also  held  a  clerkship  in  the  Revenue  Office  under  Collector 
Stone,  but  was  decapitated  because  Cleveland  believed  *  a 
public  office  a  public  trust  and  correctly  surmised  that  dyed- 
in-the-wool  Republicans  could  not  be  depended  on  to  do 
Democratic  missionary  work.  His  early  connection  with  The 
Venture  was  an  excellent  school  of  preparation  for  his  after 
labors  on  The  Plaimlealer,  and  much  of  the  early  success  of 
the  paper  is  due  to  his  terse,  witty  and  well-written  articles. 
William  H,  Stowers  was  born  February  7th,  1859,  in 
Canada,  where  his  parents  had  fled  to  escape  the  persecution 
of  slavery.  His  parents  returned  to  Michigan  when  he  was 
seven  years  of  age.  He  attended  the  county  schools  until 
17 ;  then  came  to  the  city  to  attend  the  High  School,  which 
he  did  under  difficulties,  having  to  walk  eight  miles  each  way 
in  hot  and  cold,  wet  and  dry  weather.  He  graduated  in  '79. 
Ho  then  became  Receiving  Clerk  for  Root,  Stone  &  Co.,  which 
position  he  held  for  seven  years.  Mr.  Stowers  has  had  some 
experience  in  amateur  journalism,  having  been  associated 
with  Mr.  B.  B.  Pelham  in  issuing  The  Venfurc,  an  amateur 
sheet.  He  has  a  2")ractical  knowledge  of  stenography,  having 
taken  a  course  at  the  Detroit  Business  College.  He  has  been 
Deputy  Sherifi'  since  '86.  With  all  his  other  duties  he  has 
ably  held  up  his  end  as  one  of  27ie  Plai7ideal£r  editors.  It 
is  safe  to  add  that  there  is  no  more  able  or  forcible  writer 
in  Afro- American  journalism  than  he. 

Robert  Pelham,  Jr., — our  hustler — was  born  January  4th, 
1859,  in  Petersburg,  Va.  At  an  early  age  his  parents  came 
to  Detroit.  He  attended  the  public  schools,  graduating  from 
the  High  School  in  '77.  He  commenced  his  labors  with  The 
Detroit  Iribune  at  10  years  of  age,  as  carrier  boy.  By  faith- 
ful, energetic  service  he  has  risen  in  their  employ,  and  now 
has  control  of  its  mailing  and  subscription  department  and 
gives  employment  to  a  number  of  Afro-American  youths. 
Last  year  he  was  made  Deputy  Oil  Inspector.     Ever  since 


AFR0-AMH1Uc:AX  Kl)IT(.)Il.S.  103 

its  inception  he  haa  been  business  manager  of  The  Plain- 
dealer,  and  much  of  its  Huccess  has  been  due  to  his  untiring 
zeal  and  labors  in  its  behalf. 

The  rrowning  results  of  their  efforts  is  seen  in  every  issue 
of  llie  r/aindealcr.  Full  of  news,  and  its  columns  teeming 
with  bright  editorials,  it  will  always  be  a  welcome  visitor  to 
the  hume  of  every  Afro- American.  A  writer  in  The  Beau- 
mont  (Texas)  Mecorder  expresses  our  sentiment  in  the  follow- 
ing linetf : 

••Another  good  paper  is  Tlie  Detroit  Plaindealer,  This 
paper  is  just  what  its  name  indicates.  It  does  not  mince 
matters,  but  it  calls  a  spade  a  spade  every  time.  And  what 
is  mot-t  interesting  about  it  is,  it  is  making  money  and  enjoys 
a  good  circulation  throughout  the  country.  The  Messrs. 
Pelham  seem  to  know  what  they  arc  about." 

The  exact  tiuth  as  to  the  consistency  of  Southern  editors 
found  in  the  editorial  columns  of  Tlie  Phiindealer  cannot  fail 
to  command  attention,  as  well  as  prove  true  all  that  has  been 
said  of  them  respecting  their  editorial  capacity.  Says  The 
Planidealer : 

*•  Consi.«tency  is  a  jewel  little  prized  by  Southern  editors. 
One  issue  of  their  papers  teems  with  tirades  against  Northern 
agents  who  entice  Afro-American  labor  from  the  South,  and 
the  next  declares  *the  negro  a  detriment'  rather  than  aid  to 
that  section,  and  dlamors  for  his  speedy  departure  or  annihi- 
lation. He  is  said  at  one  time  to  be  utterly  devoid  of 
ambition,  contented  and  happy  in  the  state  which  Southern 
brutality  has  placed  him,  and  at  another  berated  because  he 
aspires  to  social  equality  with  his  former  master.  He  is 
regarded  as  an  arrant  coward;  but  one  single  specimen, 
unarmed  and  alone,  is  suflScient  to  cause  a  *  Negro  riot'  and 
warrant  the  calling  out  of  the  *  militia.*  He  is  said  to  be 
utterly  devoid  of  moral  sense,  yet  is  expected  to  display 
qualities  of  forbearance,  patience  and  generosity,  which  are 


i 


164  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

only  possible  to  types  of  humanity,  inherently  pertaining  to 
the  whites.  ******  If  St.  Peter  springs  the 
*  Negro'  question  on  the  average  American  at  the  gates  of 
Paradise,  the  a.  A.  will  be  in  a  trying  position,  for  he  will  find 
in  Heaven  a  numerous  host  of  black  men  who  have  come  up 
'through  tribulation;'  and  if  he  elects  to  try  the  warmer 
climes  of  Hades  to  escape  contamination,  it  is  reasonably 
sure  that  he'll  find  a  few  there." 

Thus  we  close  the  career  of  a  representative  newspaper^ 
with  the  Afro-American  as  its  trustworthy  and  faithful 
promoter. 

Prof.  J.  E.  Jones,  Editor  African  Missions. 

Among  Virginia's  proud  and  noble  Afro-American  sons, 
there  is  none  more  worthy  than  the  above  subject,  who  was 
born  in  the  Rome  of  Virginia,  October  15th,  1850,  of  slave 
parents,  and  was  himself  a  slave  until  the  Surrender. 

During  the  war  our  subject's  mother  was  impressed  with 
the  idea  that  her  son  should  possess,  at  least,  the  ability  to 
read  and  write,  and  she  accordingly  sought  the  aid  of  a 
fellow-slave  to  instruct  her  boy  several  nights  in  the  week. 
This  was  continued  until  1864,  when  matters  became  quite 
heated,  and  the  teacher  began  to  doubt  whether  he  could 
continue  the  instruction  of  this  youth.  However,  after  some 
consideration  it  was  decided  that  he  should  be  taught  between 
the  hours  of  ten  and  twelve,  on  Sunday  mornings,  during 
the  absence  of  the  people,  who  were  at  that  time  attending 
divine  services.  The  master,  discovering  that  the  tutor  of 
young  Jones  could  read  and  write,  sold  him ;  but  the  mother 
was  so  moved  to  have  her  son  educated,  she  secured  the 
services  of  a  sick  Confederate  soldier,  which  were  soon 
terminated  by  the  surrender  of  Lee.  A  private  school  was 
opened  soon  after  the  war,  the  lamented  R.  A.  Perkins  of 


FROF.  J.  E.  JONES. 


1C6  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Lynchburg  being  teacher.  To  this  our  subject  was  sent^ 
Not  having  considered,  heretofore,  the  advantages  a  good 
education  would  attbrd,  he  was  now  led  to  see  how  unrfatLs- 
factory  his  present  attainments  were,  and  became  eager  to 
improve.  Afterward,  on  entering  the  school  of  James  M. 
Gregory,  now  dean  of  the  College  Department  of  Howard 
University,  he  began  to  recognize  more  fully  what  it  was  to 
be  learned  in  the  science  of  letters;  therefore  he  made  rapid 
progress,  and  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  best  pupils  in  the 
school. 

In  the  spring  of  1868  he  was  baptized,  and  connected 
himself  with  the  Court  Street  Baptist  church  of  his  city.  In 
October  of  '68  he  entered  the  Richmond  Institute,  at  Rich- 
mond, Va.,  for  the  purpose  of  pursuing  a  theological  course, 
having  a  desire  to  propagate  Scriptural  truth.  He  completed 
the  academic  and  theological  course  in  three  years;  after 
which,  he  left  Virginia,  and  entered  the  Madison  University 
at  Hamilton,  New  York,  in  1871.  In  1876  he  graduated 
from  the  collegiate  department.  The  same  year  he  was 
appointed  by  the  American  Baptist  Home  Missionary  Society 
to  a  professorship  in  the  Richmond  Institute,  now  Richmond 
Theological  Soniinary,  which  position  he  still  holds,  filling 
the  chairs  of  Homiletics  and  Greek.  The  degrees  of  A.  M. 
and  D.  D.  have  been  conferred  upon  him  by  his  Alma  Mater, 
and  by  Selma  (Ala.)  University,  respectively.  It  can  thus 
be  readily  seen,  that  as  a  student  of  theology  and  science  he 
is  eminently  qualified  for  the  trusts  committed  to  him. 

No  one  has  been  more  active  in  securing  for  his  people, 
by  word  and  pen,  their  rights,  than  Prof  Jones.  While  his 
journalistic  life  has  not  been  as  extensive  as  that  of  training 
the  Afro-American  for  "  Theologs."  he  has  had  a  wonderful 
career  in  this  field,  which  should  by  no  means  be  overlooked. 
His  career  in  newspaperdom  begins  with  his  editorial  work 
as  a  member  upon  the  staff  of  The  Baptist  Oompanmi,     This 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  167 

journal,  the  organ  of  the  Virginia  Baptists,  was  conspicuous 
for  its  many  brilliant  editions;  and  as  for  the  subsequent 
writings  of  Prof.  Jones,  we  know  that  not  one  upon  the  staff 
contributed  more  to  The  Ckympatuon  8  high  reputation  than  he. 

In  1883  he  was  elected  corresponding  secretary  of  the 
Baptist  Foreign  Mission  CJonvention  of  the  United  States,  and 
by  virtue  of  this  position  he  edits  the  organ  of  the  Conven- 
tion, kiiown  as  African  Missions. 

To  deviate  a  little  from  his  journalistic  career,  we  wish  to 
call  the  reader's  attention  to  what  The  Eeligrioiis  Serald, 
organ  of  the  white  Baptists  of  Virginia,  said  about  him  when 
elected  to  this  responsible  position : 

"Prof.  Jones  is  one  of  the  most  gifted  colored  men  in 
America.  Besides  being  a  Professor  in  Richmond  Theological 
Seminary,  he  is  corresponding  secretary  of  the  Baptist  For- 
eign Mission  Convention.  He  has  the  ear  and  heart  of  his 
people,  and  fills  with  distinction  the  high  position  to  which 
his  brethren,  North  and  South,  have  called  him." 

Now  let  us  return  to  Prof  Jones'  journalistic  life,  inas- 
much as  this  work  should  especially  inform  the  reader  upon 
that.  Though  27ie  Companion  suspended  publication,  Prof. 
Jones  continued  his  labors  as  a  writer.  He  is  known  over 
the  country  for  possessing  a  quick  and  ready  pen.  He  once 
held  a  newspaper  controversy  with  the  learned  Roman  Cath- 
olic Bishop  Keane  of  Richmond,  Va.,  which  created  wide- 
spread interest.  Dr.  Cathcart,  in  the  Baptist  Encyclopedia, 
Fpeaks  of  the  controversy  thus :  '*  Prof.  Jones  is  an  efficient 
teacher  and  a  forcible  writer.  In  1878,  he  held  a  contro- 
versy with  Bishop  Keane,  in  which,  according  to  the  decision 
of  many  of  the  most  competent  judges,  the  bishop  was 
worsted.'^  If  we  said  no  more,  this  A  fro- American's  abilitv 
as  a  writer  must  be  fully  demonstrated.  As  a  *'  pusher  of  the 
pen,'*  he  never  fails  to  elicit  the  interest  of  all. 

Our  subject,  in  writing  the  Introductory  Sketch  of  Rev.  A. 


168  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Binga,  Jr.,  D,  D.,  in  "Binga's  Sermons,*'  discusses,  in  his 
preliminary  to  the  life  of  Dr.  Binga,  the  progress  of  the 
Afro- American,  in  a  most  pleasing  and  soul-cheering  manner. 
Says  he :  **  At  the  end  of  every  revolution  in  a  countiy,  there 
can  be  observed  an  effort  to  throw  off  the  old  and  take  on  a 
newer  and  higher  civilization.  This  has  been  peculiarly  true 
of  the  negro  race.  The  race  is  moving  forward  in  the  face 
of  great  obstacles,  and  is  rising  from  the  low  and  depressing 
depths  of  degradation,  to  which  the  system  of  American 
slavery  has  reduced  it.  If  the  character  of  this  progress  be 
scrutinized,  it  will  be  found  that  the  forces  which  propel  ia 
the  direction  of  improvement,  and  the  ideas  we  form  of  the 
nature  of  that  improvement  will  be  the  same  forces  and 
ideas  that  propel  other  races  and  society  in  general.  Im- 
provement in  a  race  is  an  indication  that  the  race  is  alive ; 
for  progress  is  but  the  movements  of  life  to  attain  worthy 
and  noble  objects.  The  manhood  and  ability  of  a  racu 
command  the  attention  of  the  public.  Attention  is  com- 
manded wherever  power  is  possessed.  Power  is  possessed  by 
a  race  when  it  makes  progress  along  those  lines  that  indicat*** 
general  development,  etc."  Thus  our  subject  proceeds  until 
he  shows  the  A  fro- American  to  actually  be  on  the  progressive. 

Prof.  Jones,  in  his  writings,  editorially  or  otherwise,  is 
known  for  the  calm,  deliberate  and  conserva^^^ive  way  in  which 
he  deals  with  things,  as  will  be  seen  in  ah  editorial  in  the 
April  issue  of  Tlw  African  Missions.  After  having  been 
invited  into  a  religious  meeting  of  white  Baptists  to  take  a 
seat  on  the  main  floor,  one  Sunday  night,  he  was  approached 
by  an  usher  who  requested  him  to  repair  to  the  gallery.  He 
quietly  left  the  liouse,  and  later  on,  in  a  cool  and  most 
deliberate  manner,  writes  editorially  about  the  affair: 

"We  wont  into  a  mooting,  in  this  city,  last  Sunday  night, 
to  hoar  a  sonnon  from  a  gentleman  who  is  conducting  a 
revival.     The  meeting  was  had    for  men    exclusively.     The 


AFRO-AMERICAX  EDITOl^s.  169 

usher  invited  us  to  walk  in  and  t^ke  a  seat.  We  did  so, 
but  pretty  soon  he  came  to  us  and  said :  '  You  will  have  to 
go  to  the  gallery.  I  made  a  mistake;  you  cannot  remain 
here.*  We  were  puzzled.  We  could  not  see  the  reason  for 
such  conduct  upon  the  part  of  those  having  the  meeting  in 
hand. 

•*  We  have  attended  the  political  meetings  held  at  different 
times,  in  different  parts  of  the  city,  by  the  respective  parties, 
but  have  never  had  any  one  invite  us  to  the  gallery.  Why 
such  a  thing  should  be  done  in  a  religious  meeting,  we 
cannot  understand.  It  does  seem  to  us  that  there  should  be 
as  much  charity  in  a  meeting  of  this  character  as  there  is 
in  a  political  meeting,  but  there  was  not.  It  was  exceed- 
ingly painful  to  us  to  receive  such  unchristian-like  treatment 
from  our  denomination.  We  fail  to  see  the  relation  between 
this  sort  of  treatment  and  religion.  There  may  be  some 
practical  morality  in  it,  but  according  to  o\ir  judgment  it 
does  not  harmonize  with  the  teaching  of  the  New  Te.stamont. 
The  Negro  may  be  wrong,  in  many  respects,  as  to  what 
constitutes  the  ideal  Christian,  but  he  certainly  will  not  get 
mnch  light  on  the  subject  from  the  men  who  (cannot  keep 
their  prejudice  in  abeyance  through  one  religious  service. 
We  suggest  that  our  white  friends  write  over  tlici  dooi's  of  the 
places  in  which  they  hold  religious  services,  No  negroes  rn:ed 
apply.  We  wish  onhf  white  persons  to  he  saved.  If  it  were  a 
fact  that  the  Negro  had  no  better  con<^eptionp  of  the  religious 
life  than  stated  by  his  critics,  it  would  be  in  keeping  with  his 
early  training,  both  from  precept  and  example." 

With  this  manner  of  dealing  with  religious  and  social 
ostracism,  the  recognition  of  the  Afro-American  is  an  assured 
fact.  The  Caucasian  mu.st  be  reasoned  with,  not  bulldozed. 
This  Prof.  Jones  understands,  as  is  evident  by  the  way  he 
has  expres.sed  hini.«elf  above,  and  whi<h  no  fair-minded  white 
man  can  read  without  emphatic  approval. 


170  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Hon.  M.  M.  Lewey,  Editor  Florida  Sentinel. 

Matthew  M.  Lewey,  son  of  John  W.  and  Eliza  Lewey,  was 
born  in  Baltimore,  Maryland,  1845.  Up  to  the  age  of  fifteen 
he  had  received  no  schooling,  except  the  little  that  was 
afforded  by  the  private  schools  of  that  slave  state.  At  sixteen 
his  parents  sent  him  to  New  York,  where  his  aunt,  Mrs. 
Emeline  Carter,  and  grandfather.  Rev.  William  McFarlin, 
lived.  There  he  attended  the  well-known  school  on  Mulberry 
street,  Rev.  John  Petterson,  principal.  When  Grovernor 
John  A.  Andrew  of  Ma&sachnsettfi  was  about  to  organize  the 
colored  54th  and  55th  regiments  of  volunteers,  the  subject  of 
this  sketch  dropped  his  st^liool  books  and  joined  the  55th 
regiment,  although  but  eighteen  years  of  age.  He  had  fully 
caught  and  recognized  the  sentiment  of  President  Lincoln's 
proclamation. 

His  regiment  took  part  in  several  hard-fought  engagements, 
among  which  were  the  siege  of  Fort  Wagner,  the  battle  of 
James  Island,  and  the  fearful,  horrible  slaughter  of  Honey 
Hill,  S.  C.  In  this  latter  engagement  he  was  shot  three 
times  while  bearing  the  colors  of  his  regiment,  and  finally 
fell  badly  wounded.  After  a  period  of  several  months  in 
the  hospital  at  David's  Island,  New  York,  being  totally 
disabled,  he  was  honorably  discharged  in  the  summer  of  1865. 

In  the  fall  and  winter  of  that  year,  he  pursued  his  studies 
under  the  instruction  of  Rev.  William  T.  Carr,  then  pastor  of 
the  Madison  Street  Presbyterian  church,  Baltimore.  In  the 
fall  of  1867  he  entered  the  preparatory  department  of  Lincoln 
University  at  Oxford,  and  graduated  from  the  collegiate 
department  with  full  honors  in  the  spring  of  72.  The 
following  year  he  entered  the  law  department  of  Howard 
University,  under  the  deanship  of  Hon,  John  M.  Langston,  in 
the  cjjiss  with  Josiah  Settle,  H.  B.  Fry,  Robert  Peel  Brooks, 
and  others.     Before  completing  the  full  course  he  removed 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  171 

to   Florida  and    began    teaching    school   at  Newmansville. 

In  *74»  Grovemor  M.  L.  Sterns  commissioned  him  justice 
of  the  peace  for  his  county.  From  this  time  till  77  he  held 
the  offices  of  mayor  of  Newmansville  and  postmaster  of  the 
town.  In  1878,  after  admission  to  the  bar,  he  began  the 
practice  of  law  in  the  5th  Judicial  circuit  of  his  adopted 
state.  In  '82,  he  was  elected  to  the  legislature,  in  which 
capacity  he  accomplished  some  good  work  in  the  interest 
of  education,  among  his  race.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
married  to  Miss  Bessie  H.  Chestnut,  of  Gainesville,  Florida, 
where  he  has  lived  ever  since,  pursuing  the  practice  of  his 
profession. 

In  1887  he  founded  The  Florida  Sentinel,  a  weekly  journal 
published  at  Gainesville,  Florida,  in  the  interest  of  his 
people.  Before  the  close  of  the  year  the  paper  grew  to 
exceptional  popularity  throughout  the  state.  IVie  Sentinel  is 
warmly  Republican  in  politics,  but  not  so  hide-bound  in 
partisan  proclivities  that  it  forgets  to  resent  an  insult  to  the 
race  from  a  Republican,  whether  black  or  white. 

I7i€  Sentinel  has  developed  within  two  years  to  an  extent 
that  will  compare  favorably  with  any  negro  journal  of  the 
South.  M.  M.  Lewey  is  sole  editor  and  proprietor,  and  owns 
an  outfit  worth  $3000,  all  new  material.  He  runs  a  No.  2 
Campbell's  improved  power-press,  capable  of  800  impres-sions 
per  hour.  His  job  department  is  complete  with  a  quartor 
medium  favorite  job  press,  and  is  doing  his  full  share  of 
work  among  all  classes  of  people,  notwithstanding  there  are 
two  daily  papers  in  the  city,  with  job  offices  connected. 

Filling  the  columns  of  The  Sentinel  with  news  is  not  all  of 
Mr.  Lewey *8  ambition  in  the  field  of  journalistic  pursuits,  for 
when  the  reader  scans  the  editorials  of  that  paper,  he  is  at 
once  struck  with  the  ability  displayed,  and  the  very  practical 
way  in  which  the  editor  deals  with  questions  aflPecting  the 
educational  and  political  interests  of  his  race.     The  author 


172  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

was  never  more  fired  to  a  realization  of  the  political  condition 
of  the  colored  men  under  the  present  administration,  than 
was  he  while  reading  an  editorial  in  The  Sentinel,  under  the 
caption  of  "  Colored  Men,  Don't."  After  citing  many  reasons 
for  the  Afro- American's  failure  to  attain  influential  offices 
under  the  Republican  administration  commensurate  with  his 
numerical  strength,  the  editor  cites  as  another  reason  the 
following,  which  in  its  entirety  is  the  most  telling  reason  we 
have  yet  seen  given : 

**  Another  trouble  negro  Republicans  get  into,  which 
appears  almost  like  premeditated  design  to  commit  political 
death,  is  that  they  go  into  convention,  and  permit  a  few  men, 
with  no  political  influence  at  home,  to  get  control  of  the  party 
organization,  carry  it  to  Washington  City,  and  have  their 
men  appointed  to  office,  with  the  negro  left  out.  Worse  still ; 
after  experiencing  these  sad  disappointments  some  colored 
men  will  cringe  and  apologize  for  having  aspired  to  positions 
of  influence  and  trust,  for  the  purpose  of  securing  a  subor- 
dinate place.  This  is  political  cowardice,  and  unmanly  in 
the  extreme." 

Not  only  is  Mr.  Lewey  level-headed  in  this,  but  as  editor 
of  The  Sentinel,  we  find  him,  in  a  most  considerate  manner, 
endeavoring  to  inspire  the  race  with  a  desire  to  be  a  self- 
respecting  and  a  self-assisting  people — not  content  to  live  in 
the  atmosphere  of  dependency.  In  an  editorial,  "  Brains  will 
Tell,"  Mr.  Lewey  clearly  proves  the  Afro- American  presft 
responsible  for  an  abstract  mixture  of  the  so-called  race 
problem,  which  has  led  our  people,  says  he,  "  into  a  wonder 
of  mysteries  as  to  their  relationship  to  this  government,  and 
what  must  be  done  to  command  personal  respect  and  civil 
recognition  from  the  white  men,  not  only  in  the  South  but 
the  North,  likewise."     The  plucky  editor  then  says: 

"  Douglass,  Lan^don  and  Bruce,  have  obtained  recognition 
among  white  men,  Democrats  as  well  as  Republicans,  Nortk 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  173 

and  South,  by  reason  of  their  indomitable  Belf-perseverance 
in   their   peculiar   field   of  labor;   and   other  colored   men, 
through   pluck  and  energy,  will  obtain  similar  respect  and 
recognition  in  their  peculiar  fields  of  labor,  no  matter  -what 
this  labor  is,  whether  it  be  in  the  cotton  fields,  work-shop, 
school-room,   or   the   grocery   store.      The   sooner   we    rely 
entirely  upon  ourselves  in  the  development  of  manly    char- 
acter, aspire  to  excel  in  everything,  work  hard  day  and  night, 
get  money,  educate  our  children,  don't  beg  but  depend  upon 
our  own  brain  and  muscles, — in  the  very  nature  of  things, 
white  men  will  soon  recognize  seven  millions  of  Douglasses^ 
Langdons   and   Bruces.''     He  then    backs  his  assertions   by 
that  of  Tfie  New  York  Herald,  whose  stand,  in  this  instance, 
is  to  be  commended.     Says   The  Hei'ald:     "But  the  patent 
facts  are  that  it  is  not,  and  never  can  be,  exclusively  a  white 
man's  government.     The  seven  millions  of  negroes  constitute 
one-ninth  of  our  population.     They  have  the  same  rights,  the 
■ame  privileges,  that  the  rest  of  us  enjoy. 

*'  As  for  putting  negroes  into  office,  why  that  depends  on  the 
negroes,  not  on  us.  If  a  black  man  shows  the  ability  to  use 
power,  he  will  probably  acquire  it.  He  must  make  himself, 
and  we  cannot  unmake  him.  If  he  is  satisfied  to  always 
remain  a  field-hand,  that  is  his  business;  and  the  race 
question  settles  itself.  But  if  he  develops  executive  talent, 
business  capacity,  political  astuteness  and  skill,  he  will 
gravitate  to  his  place,  whether  it  is  the  counting-room  or  the 
rostrum.  Tliis  is  not,  after  all,  a  question  of  prejudice,  but  a 
question  of  brains.     Brains  will  solve  the  problem." 

If  The  Sentinel  continues  to  grow  in  the  future,  a«  it  has  in 
the  past,  Florida  can  well  afford  to  claim,  in  this  journal, 
one  of  the  best  colored  newspapers  published  in  the  Soutli. 
With  such  dignified  utterances  as  are  found  in  his  quoted 
editorial,  his  influence  over  the  race  to  which  he  belongs  can 
but  be  uplifting,  and  of  the  most  helpful  nature. 


174  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Col.  Joseph  T.  Wilson,  Editoe  Industeial  Day. 

Amid  the  roar  of  cannon  and  in  the  smoke  of  battle,  the 

first  Republican    newspaper  published  in  Virginia  made  its 

appearance  in  the  little  town  of  Hampton,  in  March,  1865. 

Its  editor,    Col.  D.  B.  White,  had  served  as  colonel  of  the 

38th  Regiment  New  York  Volunteers,  then  serving   before 

Richmond,  in    Gen.  Butler's   army  of  the  James.     At  that 

time   Hampton  contained    among  its  ruins  and  ashes  about 

6000  people, — contrabands,  refugees  and  soldiers,  nearly  all 

of  whom  were  negroes. 

The  advent  of  The  True  SoiUhemer  (the  name  of  the  new 
venture)  was   attended  with   great  success.     The   names  of 

more  than  three  thousand  persons,  paying  ten  dollars  in 
advance,  made  up  its  list  of  subscribers;  an(h Colonel  White's 
pen  enlightened  them  on  the  movements  of  Grant's  and  Lee's 
armies,  as  they  advanced  upon  or  retreated  from  the  belea- 
guered city,  Richmond,  the  rebel's  capital.  It  was  published 
weekly,  printed  on  a  Franklin  hand-press  in  a  building  often 
rocked  by  the  heavy  ordnance  at  Fortress  Monroe,  three 
miles  away. 

In  1855,  Col.  Joseph  T.  Wilson,  the  subject  of  this  sketch, 
whose  connection  with  The  True  Southerner  we  shall  hereafter 
mention,  was  graduated  from  the  schools  of  New  Bedford, 
Mass.  After  graduating,  he  went  in  August  of  the  same 
year,  as  steersman  on  board  the  ship  Seconet,  of  Mattapoisett, 
for  a  three  years  whaling  voyage  in  the  Pacific  Ocean.  His 
stay  was  prolonged,  and  mixed  with  thrilling  events  until 
1862. 

While  building  a  trestle  on  the  Valparaiso  and  Santiago 
railroad,  he  heard  of  the  Rebellion,  and  immcdiat4?ly  took 
passage  on  the  Bio-Bio,  arriving  in  New  York  the  following 
August,  and  sailed  thence  in  the  bark  Indian  Belle  for  New 
Orleans,  La.,  with  government  stores.     At  New  Orleans  he 


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176  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

joined  the  army,  entering  the  Second  Regiment  Louisiana 
Native  Guard  Volunteers  as  a  private.  He  served  in  several 
positions  in  this  regiment,  which  so  distinguished  itself  during 
the  siege  of  Port  Hudson,  in  1863.  He  continued  in  the 
army  until  1864,  when  he  was  furloughed  from  the  Hilton 
Head  South  Carolina  hospital.  After  spending  a  few  weeks 
with  friends  in  New  Bedford,  he  entered  the  Massachusetts 
General  Hospital  at  Boston,  from  which  he  was  discharged 
from  the  army. 

He  returned  to  Norfolk,  Virginia,  in  September,  and 
entered  the  secret  service  of  the  Government,  operating  with 
his  squad  on  the  Elizabeth  and  James  rivers,  and  in  front 
of  Richmond  with  the  army  of  the  James.  In  December  of 
the  same  year  he  took  part  in  the  battles  of  Fort  Fisher  and 
Petersburg,  becoming  so  disabled  by  wounds  as  to  leave  the 
service  entirely.  In  March  of  the  following  year  he  had 
charge  of  the  Government  supply  store,  at  Norfolk,  Va. 

After  the  Surrender  he  began  the  mercantile  business,  and 
managed  a  large  fruit  store.  In  the  meantime,  with  the  fall 
of  Richmond  and  the  disbanding  of  the  Army  of  the  James, 
Tlie  Tnce  Southomer  was  moved  to  Norfolk,  where  the  local 
columns  of  the  paper  were  placed  under  the  editorship  of  Col. 
Wilson,  through  whose  energy  the  paper  acquired  a  large 
circulation.  The  following  Sept-ember,  Col.  White,  its  pub- 
lisher, gave  him  full  charge  of  the  journal,  with  its  six 
thousand  and  two  hundred  subscribers,  which  he  continued 
to  edit  until  a  mob,  in  1866,  broke  in  and  destroyed  the  office 
and  its  contents.  In  August,  1867,  he  was  placed  in  charge' 
of  The  Union  Republican  office  at  Petersburg.  These  papers 
were  owned  entirely  by  white  men,  many  of  whom  became 
prominent  office  holders  in  the  State  and  Federal  (Jovern- 
ments. 

Wilson  had  assumed  a  very  important  position  in  1867,  in 
the  organization  of  the  Republican  party,  and  is  remembered 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  177 

now  for  his  speeches  in  favor  of  confiscation,  in  the  con- 
ventions of  those  days.  He  entered  the  Internal  Revenue 
Service  in  1869  as  the  first  ganger  in  the  state.  In  1870, 
he  was  transferred  to  the  Customs  Department  as  an  Inspector 
at  Norfolk.  In  1880  he  established  The  American  Sentinel, 
and  supported  Garfield  and  Arthur.  He  was  a  warm  and 
enthusiastic  admirer  of  General  Grant ;  was  in  attendance  at 
the  convention  when  he  was  defeated  for  the  third  term.  He 
was  presidential  elector  in  1876,  on  the  Hayes  and  Wheeler 
ticket,  and  was  defeated  in  the  convention  by  Hon.  Joseph 
Segar  the  same  year  when  candidate  for  Congress. 

The  American  Scniincl  was  a  strong  Republican  weekly, 
to  whose  influence  Mr.  John  Goode  attributed  his  defeat  when 
candidate  for  Congress  on  the  Democratic  ticket,  and  the 
Hon.  John  F.  Dezendorf  was  elected.  Mr.  Goode  had  held 
the  position  for  four  years,  having  defeated  Hon.  James  H. 
Piatt,  Jr.  llie  American  Seyitinel  ceased  to  appear  in  the 
latter  part  of  1881,  Wilson  being  unable  to  attend  to  it  on 
account  of  his  business  as  Inspector. 

In  1882  Wilson  led  the  Republicans  against  the  Mahone 
Re-adjuster  party,  in  the  colored  convention  at  Petersburg, 
and  was  elected  chairman  of  the  convention.  A  struggle 
ensued  for  the  mastery  of  the  proceedings,  which  lasted  for 
hours.  The  mayor,  W.  E.  Cameron,  afterwards  re-adjuster 
governor  of  the  state,  with  his  police  took  charge,  and  seated 
the  re-adjuster  Afro- Americans. 

In  August  of  the  same  year,  he  attended  as  a  delegate  the 
state  Republican  convention,  at  Lynchburg.  It  was  at  this 
convention  that  a  number  of  Republicans  sided  with  the 
re-adjusters,  and  held  an  opposing  convention  at  the  same 
time,  in  the  same  city.  Wilson  remained  with  the  Republi- 
cans, was  elected  chairman  of  the  convention  and  conducted 
its  proceedings  so  satisfactorily,  that  he  was  nominated  by 
acclamation  as  its  candidate  for  governor,  the  motion  having 


178  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

been  made  by  Rev.  M.  C.  Young,  and  the  vote  declared  by 
Hon.  John  F.  Dezendorf.  He  declined  the  nomination, 
however,  on  account  of  the  division  in  the  party  ranks  and 
retired  from  active  service  in  politics  until  the  next  fall, 
when,  by  his  influence.  Judge  Spaulding  was  nominated  for 
Congress,  in  the  Second  District.  Spaulding  withdrew  before 
the  election,  and  Harry  Libby  was  nominated.  Wilson  can- 
vased  the  district  with  Mr.  Libby,  and  was  credited  with 
having  saved  it  to  the  Republicans, 

In  March,  1883,  he  was  appointed  one  of  a  corps  of 
thirty-five  Special  Internal  Revenue  agents,  and  was  stationed 
at  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  At  his  request,  he  was  transferred  to 
Virginia  in  July,  with  headquarters  at  Richmond.  In  July, 
1884,  Congress  reduced  the  number  of  agents  one-half,  and 
Wilson  was  one  of  those  retired. 

In  March,  1885,  he  began  the  publication  of  The  Right 
Way,  at  Norfolk.  In  a  few  months,  however,  his  terse 
articles  caused  bim  to  incur  the  hatred  of  William  Lamb, 
mayor  of  the  city,  and  the  enmity  of  George  E.  Bowden, 
then  Collector  of  the  port,  and  since  the  representative  in 
Congress  from  that  district.  By  questionable  legal  proceed- 
ings these  men  got  control  of  the  printing  material,  and  in 
order  to  stop  the  publication  of  the  paper,  gave  it  away. 
Thus  TJie  Right  Way  ceased  to  appear,  expiring  in  Sept-ember 
of  that  year. 

Wilson  removed  to  Richmond  in  1885,  and  organized  the 
Galilean  Fisherman's  Insurance  Company,  which  he  managed 
with  sagacity  and  success.  In  1888,  he  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  colored  committee  of  the  Virginia  Agricul- 
tural, Mechanical  and  Tobacco  Exposition,  and  subsequently 
became  its  secretary.  He  met  with  great  success  in  securing 
exhibits  for  the  Colored  department. 

In  October,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Fisherman's  organiza- 
tion, he    began    the    publication  of  The  Indit^trial  Day,  a 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  179 

thirty-two  page  monthly ;  and  in  January,  1889,  commenced 
to  issue  it  weekly.  This  publication  he  devoted  to  the 
industrial  idea,  as  a  means  of  assisting  to  solve  what  is  termed 
the  race  problem. 

In  1881,  Col.  Wilson  published  a  volume  of  his  poems, 
the  entire  edition  of  which  (1000)  was  sold  in  sixty  days, 
and  the  proceeds  devoted  to  his  post  of  the  Grand  Army  of 
the  Republic  at  Norfolk.  In  1882,  his  work  on  Emancipa- 
tion was  published  at  the  Hampton  Normal  and  Agricultural 
Institute.  In  1888,  •'  The  Black  Phalanx,"  written  by  him, 
was  published  by  the  American  Publishing  Company,  ol 
Hartford,  Conn.  This  work  needs  no  commendation  here. 
Its  sale  sui  passes  that  of  any  other  work  written  by  an 
Afro- American.  Wilson  has  contributed  to  the  press  con- 
stantly, and  there  are  few  papers  published  by  Afro- Americans 
whose  pages  have  not  been  adorned  and  its  readers  enlight- 
ened by  his  articles  upon  the  living  issues  and  questions  of 
the  hour. 

He  has  written  several  articles  concerning  the  w^ork  and 
duties  of  the  Afro- American  press.  We  reproduce  a  portion 
of  one  of  these  written  by  Wilson  for  I'hc  Planet.  Alter 
citing  the  pioneer  work  of  the  Caucasian  press,  and  what  it 
had  to  do  in  reaching  its  present  position,  this  veteran  says: 
"What  was  true  of  the  whites  is  now  true  of  the  negro  race. 
Twenty-five  years  ago  you  could  count  on  the  fingers  of  oik^ 
hand  all  the  newspapers  publi.^hed  by  negroes  in  the  United 
States,  and  as  easily  count  the  books  written  by  negro  men 
and  women ;  but  to-day  more  than  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
five  newspapers  are  printed  every  week,  and  not  less  than 
twenty-five  issued  monthly,  not  including  two  or  three 
magazines.  These,  like  the  white  press  of  fifty  years  ago, 
are  the  pioneers  of  the  race's  literature,  and  are  read  by 
two  hundred  thousand  negroes  who  accept  their  teaching  as 
readily  as   does    a  school  child   that  of  the  teacher,  with, 


180  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

perhaps,  one  exception.'*  We  see  that  he  has  the  riglit 
conception  of  the  relation  of  our  press  to  the  people. 

Col.  Wilson  is  the  oldest  A  fro- American  newspaper  man 
now  living  in  Virginia,  and  his  writings,  full  of  sound 
judgment  and  precious  experience,  ought  to  be  well  accepted 
by  the  youth  of  our  race.  Our  subject  makes  use  of  the 
following  words  in  TJie  Day,  which  plainly  show  the  severe 
troubles  the  Afro-American  press  has  been,  and  is  now. 
subjected  to.  "  The  Negro  press,  with  a  few  exceptions,  ha.« 
for  quite  a  period  been  under  fire — a  galling  fire,  such  as  no 
press,  not  excepting  the  press  of  Old  Ireland,  has  had  to 
confront." 

The  Colonel  is  active  and  aggressive,  a  bold  writer,  an 
astute  thinker,  and  an  ornament  to  Virginia's  journalism. 

Hon.   John    H.   Williamson,    Editor   North   Carolina 

Gazette. 

John  H.  Williamson  first  saw  the  light  of  day,  October  3, 
1844,  at  Covington,  Ga.,  his  parents  being  James  and 
Williamson,  the  property  of  Gen.  John  N.  William- 
son. Upon  the  death  of  their  master,  his  parents  moved 
with  their  mistress  to  Louisburg,  N.  C,  this  now  being  the 
home  of  our  subject. 

At  an  early  period  he  longed  to  be  able  to  read,  and  so 
began  to  study.  To  prevent  him  from  learning,  his  mistress 
hired  him  out.  The  white  people  said  in  those  days,  as  they 
say  now,  sometimes — "  It  is  a  dangerous  thing  for  a  negro 
to  read."     He  succeeded,  however,  in  his  effort. 

He  held  responsible  positions  during  the  Reconstruction 
period.  He  has  spent  most  of  his  time  in  legislative  halla 
and  at  the  editorial  desk,  contributing  to  the  success  of  the 
race,  both  by  word  and  pen.  In  1867  he  was  appointed 
register  for  Franklin  County  by  Gen.  Sickles,  and  was  elected 


HON.  JUHN  U.  W. 


182  THE  AFRO-AMEJUCAlJ  PRESS. 

the  same  year  to  the  Constitutional  convention  to  frame  a 
new  constitution,  under  an  act  of  Congress.  His  legislative 
career  begins  with  1866 — '68.  He  has  since  served  in  that 
capacity  from  '68  to  72,'  76  to  '78,  and  '86  to  '88.  He  was 
defeated  in  *74  and  '78,  and  '88,  owing  to  party  diflference* 
each  time.  He  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  in  his  state  for 
years,  a  position  of  considerable  responsibility  in  North 
Carolina.  For  ten  years  he  was  a  member  of  the  county 
board  of  education,  and  a  school  committeeman  of  his  school 
district.  He  was  also  a  delegate  to  the  National  Republican 
conventions  of  '72,  '84,  and  '88,  In  1881,  he  was  elected 
secretary  of  the  North  Carolina  Industrial  Association,  holding 
that  position  for  seven  years,  mana«iing  its  affairs  with 
ability  and  success. 

His  course  in  journalism  has  been  of  an  extensive  nature, 
and  is  worthy  of  mention.  It  begins  with  the  founding  of 
The  Banner,  April  14,  1881, — of  which  he  was  editor  and 
proprietor.  It  was  the  organ  of  the  Industrial  Association, 
and  as  such  it  was  devoted  mainly  to  educg^onal  and 
industrial  pursuits.  T/ie  Bamier  met  with  great  favor 
throughout  the  state,  its  circulation  running  up  in  a  brief 
period  to  two  thousand,  the  majority  of  subscribers  being 
laborers.  While  the  paper  was  devoted  mainly  to  the 
industrial  interests  of  the  race,  it  did  not  fail  to  speak  boldly 
upon  all  questions  where  the  rights  of  the  Afro- American 
were  involved. 

In  1883,  to  promote  its  interests  and  accomplish  more 
good,  believing  in  the  maxim — "In  union  is  strength," — The 
Banner  united  with  The  Ooldsboro  Enterprise,  controlled  by 
George  A.  Mebane,  and"E.  E.  Smith,  now  minister  to  Liberia. 
This  paper  assumed  tlie  name  of  The  Banner  Enterprise,  and 
was  published  at  Raleigh,  N.  C.  It  was  devoted  to  politics, 
and  other  matters  pertaining  to  the  race,  and  had  a  most 
succesgful  career  for  quite  a  while,  a  powerful  influence  being 


A^RO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  183 

exerted  by  the  eflTorts  of  George  A.  Mebane,  and  E.  E.  Smith 
and  John  H.  Williamson,  who  were  well  known  as  editors. 
When  a  difference  of  opinion  arose  upon  the  matter  of 
publication,  Mr.  Williamson  sold  his  interest  to  George  A. 
Mebane,  and  retired  from  the  paper,  leaving  Mr.  Mebane 
8ole  editor  and  proprietor,  Mr  Smith  having  also  retired. 

Mr.  Williamson's  journalistic  career  did  not  end  here. 
In  August,  1884,  he  commenced  the  publication  of  The 
North  Carolina  Gazette,  a  weekly  paper,  which  was  devoted, 
in  accordance  with  his  bent  of  mind,  to  education,  industry 
and  politics,  among. the  Afro- Americans.  As  with  his  former 
papers,  so  with  Tfie  Gazette,  a  large  circulation  was  secured, 
it  reaching  two  thousand  or  more.  Many  of  the  able  lady 
writers  of  the  old  North  State  contributed  to  its  columns, 
among  whom  were  Misses  L.  T.  Jackson,  Annie  C.  Mitchell, 
and  Jane  E.  Thomas.  , These  made  the  paper  very  popular 
with  their  own  sex,  and  it  was  eagerly  sought  for.  The 
advertisements  came  largely  from  the  white  business  men  of 
Raleigh.  The  Gazette  truly  did  much  good,  and  we  regret, 
with  scores  of  Afro-Americans  of  the  state,  that  the  editor's 
other  duties  prevented  his  continuing  the  publication  of  his 
paper. 

John  Mitchell,  Jr.,  Editor  Richmond  Planet. 

The  New  York  World,  in  its  issue  of  February  22,  1887, 
said :  *'  One  of  the  most  daring  and  vigorous  negro  editors 
is  John  Mitchell,  Jr.,  editor  of  Tlie  Richnond  Planet.  The 
fact  that  he  is  a  negro,  and  lives  in  Richmond,  does  not 
prevent  him  from  being  courageous,  almost  to  a  fault." 

Without  one  more  word,  these  lines  from  the  greatest 
daily  of  the  nation  set  forth  the  character  and  aim  of  the 
man  and  paper  who  heads  this  sketch.  He  entered  into  life 
July  11,  1863,  amid  the  roar  of  cannon  and  the  smoke  of 


184  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

battle,  in  Henrico  County,  where  his  parents  lived,  his  father 
being  a  coachman  and  his  mother  a  seamstress.  In  Rich- 
mond, Va.,  he  first  attended  school,  through  the  push  of  his 
mother,  his  instructor  being  Rev.  A.  Binga,  D.  D.,  now  pastor 
of  the  First  Baptist  church  of  Manchester.  Under  this 
teacher  he  advanced  rapidly,  until  in  1876  he  entered  the 
Richmond  normal  school,  graduating  from  the  same  some 
years  afterward.  He  is  regarded  as  a  natural  born  artist. 
His  work  has  been  highly  commended  by  Senator  William 
Mahone,  Hon.  B.  K.  Bruce,  Senator  John  A,  Logan  and  Hon. 
Frederick  Douglass. 

His  desire  for  the  newspaper  life,  which  has  been  his  most 
prominent  public  service,  seems  to  have  begun  when  he 
cried  The  State  Journal  upon  the  streets  of  Richmond  as  a 
newsboy.  In  1883  he  was  the  Richmond  correspondent  of 
The  Neio  York  Freeman,  and  December  5th,  1884,  The 
Planet  was  placed  under  his  editorial  survey,  which  he  has 
kept  revolving  until  this  day. 

The  PUmct  was  in  a  very  precarious  condition  when  Mr, 
Mitchell  took  charge.  Since  that  time  he  has  made  it  an 
indispensable  possession  to  the  people  of  Virginia.  He  has 
so  perfected  his  plans,  that  TJie  Planet  may  continue  its 
revolutions  without  undue  shock  or  disturbance.  Since  he 
has  had  control  he  has  put  in  a  Campbell  cylinder  press, 
which  is  run  by  an  electric  motor ;  also  job  presses,  and  the 
office  is  liglited  by  electricity.  This  is  all  due  to  Mr. 
MitcheH's  energy  and  power  to  manage. 

He  has  the  reputation  of  being  the  gamest  Afro- American 
editor  upon  the  continent.  His  forte  as  an  editor  is  to  battle 
against  the  outrages  perpetrated  upon  his  people  in  the 
South.  In  doing  this  he  has  encountered  many  dangerous 
obstacles  and  undergone  many  daring  risks.  His  efforts  as  a 
newspaper  man  caused  his  election  to  the  Richmoi;d  city 
council   in   May,  1888.     He  is  also  vice-president  of  the 


i86  THE  AFRO-AkERIOAN  PRESS. 

National  Press  Association.  He  secured  the  pardon  of 
Thomas  Hewlett,  and  the  reprieve  of  Simon  Walker,  who 
was  sentenced  to  be  hung.  At  this  writing  he  is  working 
for  a  commutation  of  his  sentence. 

As  a  writer,  "Men  of  Mark"  saysf  *'Mr.  Mitchell  is  a 
bold  and  fearless  writer,  carrying  out  to  the  letter  all  he  says 
he  will."  The  Afro- American  Presbyterian,  published  at  Wil- 
mington, N.  C,  says  the  following  of  The  Planet:  "Some  of 
our  secular  exchanges,  as  The  Freeman  of  Indianapolis,  and 
T/ie  Planet  of  Richmond,  are  doing  some  splendid  work,  in 
the  interest  of  the  negro  race.  Their  urgent  advocacy  of  the 
right  is  bound  to  create  a  stronger  sentiment  against  the 
oppressor."  At  the  National  Press  Convention  in  Washing- 
ton, March  5, 1888,  Editor  Mitchell  addressed  the  convention 
upon  "Southern  Outrages."  "lola,"  the  great  lady  writer 
and  secretary  of  the  convention,  writes  toi  The  Detroit  Plain- 
dealer  the  following  complimentary  remarks  of  our  subject : 

"  Any  one  listening  to  the  burning  words  and  earnest 
delivery  of  John  Mitchell,  Jr.,  the  man  who  has  devoted 
himself  to  this  particular  phase  of  the  "Negro  Question," 
must  feel  some  throes  of  indignation  and  bitter  feeling  rise 
within  him.  My  eyes  filled  with  tears  and  my  heart  with 
unspeakable  pity,  as  I  thought  of  The  Richmond  Planet's  list 
of  unfortunates  who  had  met  such  a  fearful  fate.  No 
requiem,  save  the  night  wind,  had  been  sung  over  their  dead 
bodies ;  no  memorial  service  to  bemoan  their  sad  and  horrible 
fate  had  before  been  held  in  their  memory,  and  no  record  of 
the  time  and  place  of  their  taking  off,  save  this,  is  extant; 
and  like  many  a  brave  Union  soldier  their  bodies  lie  in  many 
an  unknown  and  unhonored  spot." 

"All  lionor,  then,  to  John  Mitchell  for  his  memorial  service 
— for  his  record,  if  only  to  the  few!  May  his  life  be  spared 
to  continue  the  great  work  he  has  set  for  himself.  May  his 
personal  bravery  and  courage  be  an  incentive  to  others  1 " 


APRO-AifEHlCAl^  EDITORS.  187 

As  to  the  muaion  of  The  Planet,  "  Bert  Islew/'  in  ITie 
Boston  Advocate,  clearlj  enunciates  it  when  she  says :  "  ITie 
Planet  devotes  its  space  in  condemnation  of  the  wrongs  and 
atrocities  committed  upon  the  colored  men  and  women,  in  the 
section  of  the  country  from  which  it  is  issued." 

The  future  is  bright  before  Mr.  Mitchell.  He  enjoys  the 
confidence,  esteem  and  support  of  his  fellow-citizens,  which 
bespeak  for  The  Planet  undisturbed  revolutions. 

Hon.  C.  H.  J.  Taylor,  Editor  Southern  Appeal. 

By  virtue  of  his  political  life,  the  Hon.  Mr.  Taylor  is 
known  far  and  near  as  an  Afro- American  editor  of  daring 
traits  and  excellent  ability.  He  first  saw  the  light  in  a  town 
of  Alabama,  the  2l8t  of  April,  1856.  At  an  early  age  he 
began  to  fit  himself  for  what  afterwards  proved  to  be  a 
brilliant  career  in  law,  politics,  and  journalism.  His  taste 
for  newspapers  was  seen  early  in  his  efforts  as  a  newsboy 
about  Savannah,  Greorgia.  His  training  was  had  under  a 
private  tutor,  at  his  home  at  Beach  Institute,  one  of  the 
American  missionary  schools,  and  at  Ann  Arbor  college, 
where  he  finished  a  literary  and  legal  course  of  study.  He 
immediately  began  the  practice  of  law,  and  in  various  places 
he  held  eminent  positions.  He  is  now  located  at  Atlanta, 
Georgia,  where  he  enjoys  a  lucrative  practice,  his  fees  amount- 
ing to  four  or  five  thousand  dollars  a  year. 

His  political  life  has  been  a  most  popular  one,  in  that 
he  had  the  courage  and  manhood  to  espouse  the  cause  of 
Democracy  and  work  as  speaker  and  editor  for  the  perpetuity 
of  a  Democratic  form  of  government.  As  a  recognition  of 
his  services  along  this  line,  he  was  remembered  by  President 
Cleveland  in  the  portfolio  of  Minister  Resident  and  Consul 
General  to  the  Republic  of  Liberia. 

His  editorial  life  was  brilliant  and  fittingly  serviceaVA^  \.o 


188  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

the  party  with  which  he  claims  identity.  He  was  publisher 
and  editor,  previous  to  his  departure  to  Liberia,  of  The  Worlds 
published  at  Kansas  City.  After  his  return  to  America,  he 
edited  The  Pnhlic  Educator,  which  was  in  the  interest  of  the 
Democrats  in  the  national  contest  of  1888.  His  paper  did 
great  service,  and  the  party  will  yet  recognize  Mr.  Taylor's 
labors.  We  cannot  say  more  of  him  as  an  editor  than  Prof. 
L.  M.  Hershaw,  principal  of  a  school  in  6at«  City,  Atlanta, 
Georgia,  says: 

*'  Mr.  Taylor  is  also  very  well  known  as  an  editor.  His 
efforts  in  this  line  of  work  are  characterized  by  his  usual 
energy,  enthusiasm  and  ability.  His  editorials  are  strong, 
pointed  and  forcible.  In  replying  to  an  adversary,  he  is 
cutting  and  caustic.  However,  as  the  law  is  Mr.  Taylor's 
first  love,  no  other  pursuit  has  been  able  to  lure  him  for  any 
considerable  time  from  its  practice.  Therefore,  his  history  as 
an  editor  is  short,  but  exceedingly  interesting." 

While  in  his  law  practice  at  Atlanta,  his  time  is  limited  for 
newspaper  work;  yet  he  finds  time  to  write  as  a  special 
corres2)ondent  to  The  Kcvisa^  City  Times.  While  the  major- 
ity of  Afro- American  editors  do  not  indorse  or  countenance 
Mr.  Taylor's  editorial  fight  for  Democratic  supremacy,  yet 
they  all  vie  in  recognizing  his  ability  and  worth,  in  what 
some  may  regard  as  a  peculiar  field  for  the  Afro- American 
editor.  Mr.  Taylor  is  at  present  connected  with  The  Southern 
Appeal,  supposed  to  be  his  organ. 

Hon,  John  L.  Waller,  Ex-Editor  Western  Recorder, 

AND  American  Citizen. 

The  life  of  this  eminent  young  man  is  fraught  with 
achievements  as  a  lawyer,  politician  and  journalist.  He  was 
a  slave,  having  been  l^orn  of  slave  parents  in  New  Madrid 
County,   Missouri,   January   12,   1850.      Entering  his  first 


HON.  JOHN  L.  WALLEB. 


190  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

school  in  1863,  he  diligentlj  studied  until  he  graduated 
from  the  Toledo,  Iowa,  high  school. 

Concerning  his  first  intimation  of  the  study  of  law,  Hie 
Capital  Oommonwealth,  (white)  of  Topeka,  Kansas,  says: 
"  In  1874,  Judge  N.  M.  Hubbard,  who  had  been  watching 
the  career  of  young  Waller,  and  who  sympathized  with  a 
plucky,  struggling  youth,  sent  for  John,  who  had  no  acquaint- 
ance with  him,  to  come  to  his  office.  John  was  astonished, 
for  he  could  not  conceive  what  so  eminent  a  man  and  jurist 
as  Judge  Hubbard  wanted  with  him;  but  he  called  as 
requested.  After  being  closely  interrogated  by  the  judge  on 
several  important  literary  subjects,  he  threw  back  the  large 
folding-doors  of  his  commodious  office  and  pointed  John  to 
his  immense  legal  library  and  offered  him  its  free  use,  of 
which  he  availed  himself  for  three  years,  when  he  waa 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  October,  1877. 

"Mr.  Waller  came  to  Kansas  May  1,  1878,  and  waa 
admitted  to  practice  in  Judge  Robert  Crozier's  court  in  the 
First  judicial  district  in  September,  1878,  since  which  time 
the  people  of  Kansas  have  known  him." 

Mr.  Waller  is  an  acknowledged  leader  in  the  Republican 
party  and  has  held  many  prominent  positions  in  that  party. 
He  was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  Republican  electoral 
ticket  in  Kansas,  at  the  last  presidential  election, — an  honor 
never  before  accorded  an  Afro-American  in  this  country. 
Suffice  to  say,  there  were  numbers  of  whites  who  were  crazy 
for  the  honor.  At  the  election  Mr.  Waller  carried  every 
county,  save  two,  in  his  state.  During  the  campaign  there 
was  a  greater  demand  for  his  services  than  for  those  of 
any  other  man  in  the  state,  as  the  fact  that  he  delivered 
fifty-one  speeches  for  the  state  and  national  ticket  will 
demonstrate. 

Mr.  Waller  established  The  Western  Recorder,  March  10, 
1882,  and  published  it  for  three  years.     The  first  few  issaee 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  191 

were- but  a  little  larger  than  a  sheet  of  foolscap ;  but  before 
the  paper  had  been  published  three  months,  the  editor,  Mr. 
Waller,  enlarged  it  to  six  columns,  and  in  August,  1883,  it 
bei-ame  a  seven-column  folio.  The  Recorder  soon  took  rank 
among  many  of  the  leading  weekly  journals  of  the  state,  and 
had  a  large  circulation  all  over  the  South-west.  In  many  of 
the  Southern  states  this  paper  could  be  found.  It  was 
republican  in  politics,  and  was  bold  and  outspoken  upon  all 
public  questions. 

Mr.  Waller  and  his  wife  labored  hard,  night  and  day,  to 
make  The  Recorded'  a  success.  Upon  one  occasion,  the  day 
before  the  issue  of  his  paper,  the  typos,  who  were  white, 
struck  for  higher  wages.  The  editor,  hard  pressed,  was  about 
to  succumb  to  the  demand  of  his  workmen,  when  Mrs.  Waller 
said:  "No,  my  husband,  we  cannot  afford  it.  I  will  get 
the  paper  out.  Let  the  typos  go."  Mr.  Waller  took  her  at 
her  word.  She  seized  a  stick,  mounted  the  printer's  stool, 
and  got  the  paper  out  only  two  days  behind  time.  She 
continued  to  "  set  up"  the  paper  more  than  five  months,  and 
until  the  typos,  who  sought  to  take  advantage  of  them  in 
their  weakness,  were  almost  on  the  verge  of  begging  bread 
in  the  streets. 

During  the  three  years*  existence  of  The  Recorder,  Mr. 
Waller  was  both  traveling  agent  and  editor,  while  Mrs. 
Waller  was  typo  and  local  editor;  but  the  unceasing  labor 
incident  to  the  successful  operation  of  a  negro  journal  at  that 
time,  soon  wore  the  editor  out,  and  on  account  of  ill-health, 
he  was  compelled  to  sell  The  Western  Recorder  to  Mr.  H.  H. 
Johnson  of  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  in  February,  1885.  As  editor 
of  The  Recorder,  Mr.  Waller  attended  the  Press  Convention 
it  St.  Louis,  in  1883,  and  took  an  active  part  in  its  delibera- 
tions. 

As  early  as  1883,  Mr.  Waller  placed  at  the  mast-head  of 
The  Recordtr  the  following  national  ticket :     For  President, 


192  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Hon.  John  A.  Logan  of  Illinois;  for  Vice-President,  Hon. 
John  M.  Langston.  This  ticket  drew  fire  from  the  opponents 
of  the  two  men  named,  from  all  over  the  country ;  but  Mr. 
Waller  gallantly  supported  these  candidates,  so  eminent  as 
statesmen,  until  the  result  of  the  Chicago  Convention,  in 
1884,  when  he  hoisted  the  names  of  Blaine  and  Logan. 

It  has  been  alleged  that  Mr.  Waller's  first  venture  in 
Afro- American  journalism  came  out  of  the  unlawful  hanging 
of  a  colored  man  at  Lawrence,  Kansas.  The  man  in  question 
was  one  Peter  Vinegar,  who  was  suspected  as  being  "  parti- 
ceps  criminis"  to  a  crime  committed  by  two  Afro- Americans, 
King  and  Robinson.  Vinegar  was  out  of  the  city  when  the 
crime  was  committed ;  therefore  could  have  had  nothing  to 
do  with  it,  but  was  hanged,  nevertheless.  Our  subject  was 
employed  in  the  defence  of  Vinegar,  which  shortly  resulted 
in  the  launching  of  Tlie  Western  Recorder.  It  was  called  by 
many  "  the  fearkss  and  sfaunch  friend  of  the  Afro- American 
and  the  paralyzer  of  moh  violence." 

In  P'ebruary,  1888,  Mr.  Waller,  in  company  with  his 
cousin,  Anthony  Morton,  established  The  American  Citizen, 
at  Topoka,  Mr.  Waller  being  editor  and  remaining  at  the 
head  of  the  paper  until  July,  1888,  at  which  time,  he  sold 
his  interest  to  Mr.  Morton.  Those  who  read  The  Citizen 
during  the  canvass  for  the  nomination  of  president,  are 
familiar  with  the  fact  that  Mr.  Waller  hoisted  the  name  of 
John  Sherman  of  Ohio,  for  the  presidency,  early  in  March, 
1888,  and  kept  it  flying  there  until  the  nomination  of  Gen. 
Benjamin  Harrison,  when  he  substituted  his  name. 

As  a  journalist,  Mr,  Waller  is  fearless,  yet  courteous,  and 
earnest  and  decided.  As  a  faithful  exponent  and  defender  of 
his  race,  the  columns  of  the  two  papers  to  which  he  devoted 
so  much  time  and  hard  labor,  speak  volumes,  and  clearly 
show  the  earnest  and  anxious  solicitude  with  which  the  editor 
labored  for  the  advancement  of  the  people.     His  editorial, 


AFRO- AMEBIC  AN  EDITORS.  193 

after  the  defeat  of  the  Republican  party  in  Ohio,  in  1883, 
and  his  warning  concerning  the  probable  defeat  of  the 
national  ticket,  (which  proved  to  be  a  defeat,)  proves  that 
our  subject  is  a  far-seeing  journalist.  He  says :  "  For  Ohio 
to  go  Democratic  upon  the  eve  of  a  great  national  election, 
is  fraught  with  much  cause  for  alarm  on  the  part  of  Repub- 
licans. It  strikes  us  that  the  leaders  of  the  party  will  be 
compelled  to  change  their  base  of  operation,  and  in  the  future 
look  carefully  to  the  men  who  are  to  be  nominated. 

"  It  is  an  undeniable  fact,  that  the  majority  of  the  colored 
men  in  the  Buckeye  State  supported  the  Democratic  ticket. 
The  Afro- American,  the  most  influential  colored  paper  in  the 
state,  gave  all  its  support  to  the  Democratic  ticket.  The 
Republican  nominee  for  governor,  a  Tew  years  since,  reflected 
upon  the  character  of  a  very  worthy  colored  woman,  against 
whom  he  was  prosecuting  a  "civil  rights"  case  in  court;  and 
more — it  is  alleged  that  Mr.  Foraker  abused  the  colored 
race  shamefully  in  his  argument  before  the  jury  and  the 
court,  and  that  he  was  nominated  over  the  protest  of  the 
colored  people  of  Ohio,  who  loudly  clamored  for  the  nomina- 
tion of  Senator  Sherman,  who  would,  as  a  matter  of  course, 
have  swept  the  state. 

"  There  are  eighteen  thousand  colored  voters  in  Ohio,  and 
it  is  to  be  regretted  that  their  admonition  was  not  heeded. 
We  very  much  regret  the  result  in  Ohio,  but  it  need  not 
become  general. — the  defeat  there  need  not  become  a  rout. 
If  the  Republicans  of  the  country  will  be  cautious  and 
discreet  in  their  future  nominations,  the  broken  places  in  our 
ranks  will  receive  the  necessary  reinforcements  to  save  us 
from  defeat  in  1884.  The  colored  men  of  Ohio  are  not 
Denvocrata;  they  only  meant  to  chastise  Judge  Foraker  for 
the  insult  oflFered  the  race  in  a  court  of  justice.  The  Ger- 
mans or  Irish  would  have  done  a  similar  thing.  The  colored 
men  who  are  to  the  front  in  political  aflfairs  now,  are  they 


194  THE  AFKO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

who  were  childreu  during  the  late  war,  and  thousands  of 
them  have  been  born  since  1861.  These  men  view  politics 
as  do  white  men.  We  desire  to  see  Ohio  reclaimed,  and  in 
our  next  issue  we  will  try  to  set  forth  liow  wc  (kink  it  can  be 
reclaimed.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind,  that  this  is  the  second 
sweeping  defeat  the  Republicans  have  suflfered  there  inside 
of  two  years.  The  reasons  for  alarm  for  Republican  success 
in  1884  are  well  founded." 

Such  is  Mr.  Waller  as  a  man  and  a  journalist. 

Rev.  Charles   B.  W.  Gordon,  Editor   National   Pilot. 

The  mills  of  the  theological  schools  grind  slowly  with  us 
as  a  race,  yet  when  tliey  turn  out  men,  in  most  instances 
they  are  highly  capable,  and  have  always  made  their  mark 
in  the  religious  world.  Such  was  the  case  with  our  subject. 
There  is  probably  no  young  man  irrespective  of  color,  whose 
success  in  ministering  to  the  saint.s  and  wiel^ling  the  editorial 
pen  has  been  greater  than  Rev.  Mr.  Gordon's. 

Born  of  humble  parentage,  in  the  state  of  North  Carolina, 

November  1,  1861,  he  luis,  by  i)rayerful  attention  to  word 

and  deed,  made  his  influence  felt  all  over  the  country,  being 

familiarly  known  as  "  the  young  eloquent  divine."     His  early 

life  in  school  was  sj^ent  under  the  guidance  of  Mr.  Thomas 

Mixon,  on  Roanoke  Island.  From  a  boy,  he  has  been  known 
as  a  good  declainier.     A  writer,  speaking  of  his  early  career 

in  this  resj^ect,  says :  "  Friday  afternoon  being  set  apart  by 
the  teacher  for  "  piece  s^^eaking,"  or  speech  making,  the  first 
time  that  Charles  appeared  on  the  programme  was  an  event 
in  the  history  of  the  school  and  an  epoch  in  his  life. 

"He  grew  so  exceedingly  eloquent,  that  he  held  his  audi- 
ence charmed  and  si)ell-bound.  From  that  day  it  became 
known  that  he  possessed  great  oratorical  powers."  From  this, 
he  made  rapid  progress  us  an  orator. 


196  THE  AFRO-AMEMOAN  PRESS. 

Having  professed  faith  in  Christ,  he  determined  to  enter 
the  Richmond  theological  seminary,  at  Richmond,  Va.,  in 
1881.  Completing  a  course  of  three  years,  he  was,  to  his 
surprise,  called  to  the  pastorate  of  a  large  church  in  Peters- 
burg, Va.  His  labors  at  this  church  have  been  highly 
successful.  He  published,  in  1884,  a  book  of  sermons, 
preached  at  various  times.  It  is  a  volume  of  four  hundred 
and  twenty  pages,  and  is  replete  with  evidence  of  his  ability 
as  a  theologian. 

His  journalistic  career  began  with  the  launching  of  live 
Pilot,  a  monthly  religious  sheet,  May  16,  1888,  of  which  he 
was  the  founder,  proprietor  and  editor.  It  was  at  once 
made  the  organ  of  the  Virginia  Baptist  State  Convention. 
After  the  suspension  of  The  Baptist  Companion,  at  Ports- 
mouth, the  Baptists  had  no  organ  through  which  they  could 
speak,  until  the  founding  of  ITie  Pilot,  which  afforded  them 
a  mouth-piece. 

The  Pilot  became  popular  at  once,  and  in  demand.  After 
having  experienced  the  **  troubles  "  of  journalistic  life  one 
year,  Mr.  Gordon  became  so  pleased  with  its  success  that  in 
May,  1889,  it  was  issued  weekly.  It  can  be  said  of  this 
weekly  sheet,  as  can  be  said  of  few  others,  that  it  is  sustained 
by  the  Baptists  of  the  state.  Virginia  is  proud  of  The 
Naiional  Pilot,  and  proud  of  this  young  divine. 

In  closing  this  sketch  of  Rev.  Mr.  Gordon,  we  could  not 
say  more  of  his  present  and  future  career  than  is  said  by  a 
writer  in  The  Indianapolis  Freeman  of  March  30,  1889, 
which  we  here  quote : 

"  To  write  a  full  and  elaborate  estimate  of  the  brilliant 
and  growing  subject  of  this  sketch,  would  be  impossible  in  an 
ordinary  newspaper  article ;  therefore,  suffice  it  to  say,  that 
as  an  author,  orator,  poet,  essayist  and  divine,  the  negro  race 
in  this  country  has  hardly  produced  his  equal,  at  his 
acre,  28." 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  197 

Hon.  John  C.  Dancy,  Editor  Star  of  Zion. 

T?ie  Star  of  Zion,  published  at  Salisbury,  N.  C,  is  one  of 
the  ablest  church  organs  the  Afro- American  can  claim.  Its 
editor,  John  C.  Dancy,  was  born  in  slavery  at  Tarboro,  N.  C, 
May  8,  1857.  He  early  exhibited  a  thirst  for  knowledge, 
and  accordingly  was  put  into  school  after  the  Surrender,  and 
kept  there  until  1873.  He  then  entered  the  printing-office 
of  The  Tarboro  Southerner^  where  he  first  learned  the 
printer  8  trade,  and  afterward  became  very  proficient  as  a 
typo.  Upon  leaving  the  office  of  The  Southerner,  he  entered 
Howard  University,  and  while  there  was  afflicted  by  the 
death  of  his  mother. 

He  has  held  many  positions  of  public  trust.  He  was  clerk 
in  the  Treasury  Department  in  Washington ;  also  Register  of 
Deeds  for  Edgecombe  County.  Being  prominent  in  politics, 
he  has  held  the  most  conspicuous  places  in  his  party's 
organization.  He  was  delegate  to  the  Republican  National 
Convention  in  1884  and  1888.  At  the  Convention  in  1884, 
he  attracted  wide  attention  by  a  speech  he  made,  in  seconding 
the  nomination  of  Hon.  John  A.  Logan.  Dr.  William  J. 
Simmons'  **  Men  of  Mark,"  says :  "  His  eloquent  and  capital 
effort  was  greeted  with  a  volley  of  hand-claps,  and  round 
after  round  of  applause"  He  was  secretary  of  the  convention 
of  Afro-Americans  at  Raleigh,  N.  C,  in  1887 ;  and  president 
of  the  one  at  Groldsboro  in  1881.  He  went  abroad  as  a 
delegate  of  the  Right  Worthy  Grand  Lodge  of  Good  Templars, 
in  1879.  Concerning  his  eflforts  upon  this  occasion  and  his 
actions  abroad.  The  Indianapolis  Frcenxan  says : 

*'  He  spoke  at  the  great  Hengle's  Cirque  in  Liverpool,  with 
Joseph  Malins,  the  well-known  temperance  advocate,  and 
Rev.  George  Gladstone,  of  Scotland,  nephew  of  the  great 
English  statesman,  to  about  5,000  people,  and  at  Crystal 
palace   in   London,   where   40,000   people   were   assembled. 


198  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Palace  in  London  to  about  40,000.     He  lectured  extensively 
in  England,  Ireland,  Scotland  and  Wales. 

As  a  political  speaker  he  is  widely  known,  having  taken 
an  active  part  in  National  and  State  campaigns,  under  the 
direction  of  the  National  Committee.  Mr.  Dancy  delivered 
an  Emancipation  address  at  New  Bedford,  Mass.  The  speech 
was  published  entire  in  The  Daily  Mercury  of  New  Bedford. 
Tlie  Virginia  Lancet,  commenting  on  the  speech  and  the 
man,  says: 

*•  Hon.  John  C.  Dancy,  of  Salisbury,  N.  C,  editor  of  Tfie 
Star  of  Zion,  delivered  the  oration  at  the  Emancipation 
celebration  at  New  Bedford,  Mass.,  on  August  1st.  We  have 
read  the  report  of  the  oration,  as  published  in  The  ^tw 
Bedftrrd  Dai///  Mercury,  and  feel  justified  in  pronouncing  it 
a  splendid,  scholarly  effort.  His  magnificent  periods,  excel- 
lent rhetoric  and  practical  illustrations,  were  truly  wonderful. 
He  is  one  of  the  best  thinkers  of  the  race,  and  his  progress- 
iveness  and  intelligence  will  surely  bring  him  to  the  top." 

His  brilliant  career  as  a  journalist  begins  with  the  editor- 
ship of  2'he  North  Caroluia  Simiincly  at  Tarboro,  N.  C,  which 
he  managed  and  edited  for  three  years.  This  was  only  a 
forecast  of  what  his  journalistic  career  has  since  been. 

Being  a  prominent  layman  in  the  A.  M.  E.  Z.  church,  he 
was  chosen  by  the  Board  of  Bishops,  in  1885,  as  editor  of 
their  organ,  llu:  Star  of  Zion.  This  paper,  under  the 
management  of  Dancy,  has  become  a  powerful  and  self- 
sustaining  light  in  the  Convention.  The  office  is  well 
equipped ;  so  also  is  the  man ;  hence  nothing  can  be  expected 
but  a  well-prepared  paper. 

"Men  of  Mark"  says  of  it:  "Under  his  management, 
the  paper  has  increased  wonderfully  in  subscription  and 
circulation,  and  is  now  considered  the  equal,  in  ability  and 
news,  of  any  religious  paper  published  by  the  race  in 
America." 


HON.  JUIIN  L.  JJASCV. 


200  THE  A  FRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Our  subject  is  a  reader,  and,  it  follows,  can  be  nothing  leas 
than  a  writer.  He  reads  the  best  literature  and  newspapers. 
The  Star  of  Zion  is  authority  for  any  news  it  publishes  con- 
cerning the  race.  It  is  frequently  quoted  by  our  leading 
papers,  as  well  as  by  those  of  the  whites.  As  a  popular 
educator  in  the  religious  and  moral  sphere  of  our  people,  it 
has  successfully  served  as  leaven,  and  will  continue  to  until 
we  shall  rise  in  light  and  power. 

The  Bu^eman  of  August  17,  1889,  said:  ''The  Star  of 
Zion  is  one  of  the  most  liberal  and  progressive  denomin^ 
tional  colored  newspapers  in  the  country.  It  has  a  good 
word  for  every  creed,  and  ite  editorials  are  alway  spicy  and 
pointed."  We  welcome  The  Star  as  one.  bright  and  fixed  in 
the  planetary  system  of  Afro- American  journalism. 

William  E.  King,  Editor  Fair  Play. 

This  brilliant  young  man,  the  editor  of  a  paper  whose 
name  indicates  its  purpose,  was  born  in  Noxumbee  County, 
Mississippi,  June  7th,  1865.  his  parents  being  Richmond  and 
Margaret  King.  Though  he  was  free-born,  his  parents  had 
been  slaves. 

Young  King  was  very  studious  in  his  youth,  and  received 
a  good  English  education  in  the  public  schools  of  his  county, 
and  also  acquired  considerable  knowledge  of  Latin.  He 
engaged  in  toai'hing  from  1881  to  1888.  when  he  began  what 
has  been  his  most  conspicuous  public^  service,  journalism. 
In  1888,  Mr.  King,  at  the  earnest  request  of  the  managers, 
went  to  Helena,  Arkansas,  and  became  business  manager 
and  contributing  editor  of  the  Jacob's  Ff^icnd,  which  position 
he  filled  with  satisfaction  to  his  employes,  and  with  much 
credit  to  himself. 

In  February,  1889,  in  company  with  Mr.  S.  S.  Jones,  a 
prominent  young  man  of  Enterprise,  Mississippi,  Mr,  King 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  201 

began  the  publication  of  a  paper  bearing  the  significant 
name  of  Ibir  Play,  which  he  himself  selected.  It  was  printed 
upon  the  press  of  The  Meridian  (Miss.)  Daily  Ncwb.  For 
certain  reasons,  The  News  failed  to  continue  printing  the 
paper,  when  Mr.  King  showed  a  most  heroic  spirit  in  cutting 
the  paper  from  a  six-column  folio,  to  one  of  four  columns, 
and  printed  it  upon  his  job  press.  The  trouble  between  the 
two  papers  was,  however,  amicably  settled,  and  The  News 
resumed  the  printing.  The  Fair  Play  is  now  an  eight- 
column  folio.  Their  job  outfit  is  worth  over  five  hundred 
dollars,  and  they  do  a  large  job  business. 

Mr.  King  is  a  fluent  and  fearless  writer.  Whatever  he 
conceives  to  be  right,  he  gives  utterance  to,  regardless  of  the 
opinions  or  wishes  of  others.  This  is  an  essential  character- 
istic of  a  good  editor.  His  chief  object  in  life  is  the  elevation 
of  his  race,  and  he  delights  to  write  and  converse  on  that 
subject.  He  is  wedded  to  his  people,  and  is  an  example  for 
young  men  in  morals  and  religion,  being  a  consistent  member 
of  the  Baptist  church 

Rev.  W.  H.  Mixon,  Ex-Editor  Dallas  Post. 

Rev.  Mr.  Mixon,  who  was  born  in  Dallas  County,  near 
Selma,  April  25th,  1859,  (his  parents  being  Andrew  J.  and 
Maria  A.  Mixon,)  was  one  of  the  first  men  to  engage  in 
Afro-American  journalism  in  Alabama.  His  education, 
which  is,  by  the  way,  a  good  one,  was  acquired  in  his  state, 
of  private  tutors,  to  whom  his  father  constantly  sent  him. 
His  theological  training  was  greatly  supplemented  by  a 
course  he  took  in  the  Selma  University. 

He  is  now  a  conspicuous  clergyman  in  the  A.  M.  E.  church, 
having  joined  the  Alabama  Conference,  under  Bishop  J. 
Campbell,  in  1879,  and  ordained  deacon  and  elder  by  Bishop 
A.  W.  Wayman,  before  he  was  twenty-one  years  of  age.     He 


202  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Las  been  a  pedagogue  in  Alabama,  having  last  served  as 
principal  of  the  high  school  at  Decatur,  with  the  irrepress- 
ible R.  C.  0.  Benjamin  as  his  assistant. 

With  credit  to  himself,  he  has  served  several  churches  of 
the  Alabama  Conference,  now  being  Presiding  Elder  of  the 
Selma  District,  comprising  *a  field  four  hundred  miles  in 
length.  To  him  is  accredited  the  completion  of  the  Payne 
University,  at  Selma,  Ala.  As  a  journalist,  he  did  much  to 
foster  and  encourage  the  work  in  his  state.  He  is  a  strong 
supporter  of  The  Suuthern  Christian  Recorder,  by  pen  and 
word.  He  is  the  author  of  '*  The  Moth  of  Ignorance  Must 
be  Destroyed." 

His  associates  on  llie  Dallas  Post  are  well-known  gentle- 
men, now  active  members  of  the  craft,  viz. :  Mr.  Jno.  M. 
Gee  and  Rev.  M.  E.  Bryant.  They  attest  that  he  is  a 
sharp-pointed  and  ready  writer.  Our  subject  loves  his  Grod 
first,  then  his  people.  Such  a  man  is  bound  to  be  of  service 
to  the  country. 

Thomas  T.  Henry,  Esq.,  Ex-Editor  Halifax  Enterprise. 

In  the  early  part  oi  October  of  188G  a  conference,  composed 
of  gentlemen  representing  the  Banister  Baptist  Association 
and  the  Sunday  School  Union  of  Halifax  County,  met  at  the 
First  Baptist  church  of  South  Boj*ton,  for  the  purpose  of 
considering  the  advisability  of  establishing  a  newspaper.  It 
was  decided  it  should  be  done;  whereupon  Mr.  Henry  was 
chosen  as  editor,  and  Rev.  J.  Russell,  Jr.,  business  manager, 
with  instructions  to  prepare  a  prospectus,  at  the  earliest  day, 
setting  forth  the  moral,  educational  and  financial  necessities 
of  the  race,  and  the  line  of  policy  the  paper  should  pursue. 
It  was  also  decided  that  it  should  be  known  as  The  Halifax 
Enterprise,  and  that  it  .should  be  published  in  the  town  of 
South  Boston. 


204  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

The  prospectus  was  well  received,  and  was  closely  followed 
by  500  copies  of  The  Enterprise,  which  greeted  an  anxious 
public  with  the  characteristic  motto :  "  We  will  from  no  duty 
shrink."  On  its  list  of  subscribers  were  soon  some  of  the 
most  prominent  whites,  as  well  as  colored  men,  of  the  county, 
with  some  of  the  best  business  houses  of  Danville,  North 
Carolina,  and  of  Richmond,  as  advertisers.  Many  compli- 
mentary and  substantial  messages  of  appreciation  poured  into 
the  editor's  sanctum.  We  here  insert  one  from  T.  E.  Barks- 
dale,  the  very  efficient  superintendent  of  schools  of  Halifax : 
**  Upon  my  return  home  I  found  the  first  and  second  numbers 
of  your  paper.  This  commendable  eflfort  speaks  well  for  the 
advance  of  your  people  in  the  last  fifteen  years.  A  strict 
adherence  to  the  design  of  the  paper,  as  set  forth  in  your 
prospectus — the  educational  and  religious  improvement  of 
your  race — will,  in  my  humble  judgment,  crown  The  Enier- 
prUe  with  success.  Please  find  enclosed  subscription  for  one 
year." 

Mr.  Henry,  who  was  born  in  Richmond  in  1852,  received 
liis  education  in  the  public  schools  of  that  city,  including 
the  high  school.  He  afterwards  read  law,  and  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1882,  having  as  His  associate  in  the  practice 
tlie  lamented  R.  Peel  Brooks. 

As  a  keen  and  magnificent  writer,  he  proved  himself  equal 
to  the  task  in  the  editorship  of  The  ErUo-prise.  For  six 
months  he  stuck  in  a  most  tenacious  manner  to  the  following 
text,  which  stood  at  the  head  of  its  editorial  columns.  It 
bespeaks  volumes  for  its  mission.  We  here  present  it: 
*•  Educate  your  children;  economize  your  earnings;  acquire 
property;  become  part  owners  of  the  soil  of  your  country. 
We  have  nailed  our  flag  to  this  mast,  and  he  who  would 
attempt  to  haul  it  down,  is  an  enemy  to  the  best  interests  of 
the  negro." 

Mr.  Henry  resigned  the  editorship  when  an  attempt  was 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  205 

made  to  make  it  a  political  paper,  whereupon  Mr.  J.  C. 
darter  assumed  the  position.  Under  Mr.  Carter's  manage- 
ment it  survived  four  weeks,  when  a  suspension  became 
necessary. 

Hon.  S.  J.  Bampfield,  G.  W.  Anderson,  and  I.  Randall 

Reid  :  Managing  Editoe,  and  Associate  Editors, 

Respectively,  of  The  New  South. 

The  above  gentlemen  compose  the  staff  of  The  New  SoiUh, 
a  journal  of  high  repute,  published  at  Beaufort,  S.  C. 
The  managing  editor  was  born  in  Charleston,  the  fifth  day 
of  September,  1849,  and  is  now  clerk  of  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas  and  General  Sessions  for  the  county  of  Beaufort.  Mr. 
Anderson,  the  senior  associate  editor,  was  born  in  New 
London,  Pa.,  December  2,  1856;  while  Mr.  Reid,  the  junior 
member  of  the  staff,  was  born  in  Beaufort,  during  the  latter 
part  of  the  Rebellion.  Mr.  Anderson  is  at  present  a  teacher 
in  the  Beaufort  Normal  and  Industrial  Academy ;  and  Mr. 
Reid,  Deputy  Sheriff  of  Beaufort. 

The  early  training  of  these  gentlemen  was  acquired  in  their 
respective  localities ;  later  on,  at  different  period.^,  they  entered 
Lincoln  University,  where  each  graduated  with  honors.  Mr. 
Bampfield  pursued  a  course  of  law,  until  the  law  department 
of  Lincoln  University  was  abolished  ;  after  which  he  continued 
to  study  law  under  the  lamented  Judge  Pieite  L.  Wiggan, 
and  was  admitted  to  practice  by  the  Supreme  Court  of  South 
Carolina,  in  1874.  They  wield  considerable  influence  in  the 
community  in  which  they  live. 

77ie  New  South,  of  which  these  gentlemen  compose  the 
staff,  is  a  Republican  journal,  devoted  to  education,  politics, 
literature  and  religion,  and  published  weekly  at  Beaufort, 
Beaufort  County,  S.  C,  by  the  New  South  Publishing  Com- 
pany, composed  solely  of  colored  young  men  of  that  county. 


206  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

It  is  issued,  primarily,  in  the  interest  of  the  negro  race,  but 
as  well  for  the  vital  principles  of  the  Republican  party  and 
the  work  of  building  up  and  strengthening  the  material 
resources  of  its  town  and  section.  It  is  also  an  advocate 
of  the  rights  of  all  races  smarting  under  the  rod  of  oppression. 

The  absence  of  a  journal  in  Beaufort,  owned  and  controlled 
by  an  A  fro- American,  and  conducted  with  these  purposes  in 
view,  brought  TJie  New  South  into  the  field.  Its  editors  and 
publishers  realize  that  it  has  met  a  long-felt  want,  and  in 
that  view  they  are  strengthened  by  a  liberal  support  from  the 
better  element  of  their  people,  and  that  growing  class  of 
whites  who  sincerely  desire  to  see  the  Afro- American  rise  in 
the  scale  of  humanity,  and  show  himself  worthy  of  the  great 
boon  of  freedom  that  has  been  conferred  upon  him  by  the 
recent  amendments  to  the  Constitution. 

The  paper  is  published  from  its  own  plant,  at  its  office  on 
Port  Republic  street,  Beaufort,  S.  C.  This  plant  is  valued 
at  $1500,  and  is  entirely  free  from  debt  and  all  encumbrances 
of  every  character  wliatever.  It  includes  a  complete  job 
outfit,  and  the  company  is  prepared  to  do  neat  job  work  at 
short  notice.  The  foreman  of  the  office,  and  all  .the  help, 
are  Afro-Americans.  Tlie  type  and  press  are  of  the  best 
quality,  and  capable  of  doing  first-class  work.  It  is  a  seven- 
column  weekly,  24  by  36  inches,  issued  every  Thursday 
morning,  at  two  dollars  a  year  or  one  dollar  for  six  months. 

Its  motto  is  in  the  words  of  the  martyred  Lincoln — "  With 
malice  toward  none ;  with  charity  for  all."  It  is  in  this 
spirit  that  it  has  entered  the  field  of  journalism,  to  labor 
unselfishly  for  the  object  stated  above,  and  it  is  upon  that 
line  it  proposes  to  fight  it  out,  "  if  it  takes  all  summer."  It 
recognizes  honest  difierences  of  opinion,  in  all  fields  of  labor 
and  among  all  classes  of  laborers,  and  therefore  regards  it 
the  duty  of  the  true  laborers  to  lay  aside  all  malice  and 
exercise  charity  in  all  things. 


G.  W.  ANDERSON. 


208  THE  A  FRO- AMEBIC  AN  PRESS. 

The  future  of  the  Afro-American  in  this  country  will 
depend  infinitely  more  upon  his  own  exertions  than  upon 
any  other  agency  now  at  work  in  his  behalf.  The  real  and 
substantial  work,  therefore,  must  be  done  among  the  race» 
and  by  members  of  it,  and  the  true  Afro- American  journalist 
will  play  no  unimportant  part  in  that  work.  The  deeper 
and  more  intensely  that  impresses  itself  upon  his  mind,  the 
better  will  he  be  prepared  for  the  work  and  the  more  marked 
and  certain  will  be  the  results  in  the  near  future. 

The  first  issue  of  The  New  South  appeared  on  the  23d  of 
May,  and  it  has  been  issued  regularly  each  week  since, 
gradually  improving  alike  in  mechanical  extension  and  edito- 
rial management,  and  with  a  constantly  increasing  subscription 
list. 

The  appearance  of  The  New  South  created  no  little  amount 
of  comment.  Its  salutatory  was  telegraphed  to  The  New 
York  Herald,  and  published  by  that  great  paper  under  the 
caption — "  The  Negro  must  Help  Himself."  In  that  article 
the  following  sensible  words  appeared.  After  citing  the  fact 
of  Afro-American  advancement,  it  says :  "  These  are  familiar 
truths ;  and  yet  it  is  a  fact  too  well  known  to  him,  that  he 
is  denied  the  actual  enjoyment  of  many  rights  under  the 
Constitution  and  laws  that  are  accorded  to  others.  Indeed, 
under  the  laws  of  certain  sections  of  the  country,  he  is  almost 
anything  but  a  free  man, — a  pariah  in  his  own  country. 
Whatever  else  may  have  conspired  to  produce  such  a  condi- 
tion of  things,  every  intelligent,  self-respecting  negro  knows, 
and  freely  admits,  that  the  main  cause  is  as  an  unfortunate 
moral,  material,  and  intellectual  condition, — a  legacy  of  more 
than  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  of  slavery.  Until  that 
condition  is  materially  changed,  no  proper  recognition  of  the 
race  can  reasonably  bo  expected,  etc." 

This  but  serves  to  show  the  spirit  of  the  editor  in  his 
editorial  advice  to  his  race  constituents.      Tlie  South  believes 


I-  BANDAU,  BEID. 


210  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

in  a  peaceable  way  to  settle  the  negro  problem.  The  idea 
advanced  by  many  of  the  North,  in  advocacy  of  racial  protec- 
tion by  an  organized  force  system,  is  dealt  a  blow  by  JTie 
South  in  a  scathing  editorial  on — "Who  will  Bell  the  Cat?" 

These  are  the  closing  lines  of  the  editorial,  which  will 
commend  itself  to  all  intelligent  and  sober-thinking  people : 
"  It  seems  to  ns  that  the  history  of  every  effort  on  the  part 
of  the  colored  people  of  the  South  to  organize  for  self-protec- 
tion, is  of  itself  sufficient  to  satisfy  every  intelligent  mind  of 
the  utter  helplessness  of  such  an  undertaking.  It  has  never 
yet  proved  effective,  and,  so  far  as  we  can  see,  never  will  be 
effective  for  such  a  purpose.  If  for  these  troubles  there  can 
be  no  other  remedy  suggested  by  these  gentlemen,  then  we 
are  of  all  races  the  most  miserable,  indeed." 

These  extracts  prove  the  editorial  ability  of  The  New 
Soidh.  Its  managing  editor,  with  but  little  previous  journal- 
istic training,  is  a  good  writer. 

Prof.  E.  H.  Lipscombe,  Ex-Editor  Mountain  Gleaner. 

This  cultured  gentleman  and  well-known  writer  was  bom 
in  the  famous  tobacco  town,  Durham,  N.  C,  September  29, 
1858.  His  editorial  career  began  while  he  was  a  student  at 
Shaw  University,  of  which  he  is  a  graduate.  He  became 
associated  with  Dr.  H.  M.  Tupper  (president  of  that  institu- 
tion) and  Prof.  N.  F.  Roberts,  in  the  publication  of  The 
African  Expositor,  which  was  then  the  organ  of  the  North 
Carolina  Baptists,  as  well  as  that  of  the  University. 

Though  the  junior  member  of  the  staff,  he  is  accredited 
with  having  been  the  most  classic  writer  upon  ITie  ErposUor, 
The  secret  of  his  success  with  the  paper  was  due  to  the  fact 
that  all  of  his  articles  upon  religion,  education,  temperance, 
and,  occasionally,  politics,  were  prepared  with  the  utmost 
care  and  study,  and  were  said  to  be  of  a  nervous,  concise  and 


^  a,  LIPSOOMBE. 


212  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

lucid  style,  which  fact  always  insured  him  many  admiring 
readers.  Those  of  The  Expositor  always  wanted  to  see  what 
Lipscombe  had  to  say;  this  being  especially  true  of  the 
younger  class  of  men,  who  admired  him  for  the  fearless,  fiery 
dash,  the  convincing  logic  and  the  captivating  rhetoric  of  his 
writings.  His  contributions  to  The  Expositor  were  certainly 
of  that  nature  that  furthered  its  prospects  for  a  successful 
existence.  At  one  time  he  had  special  charge  of  the  temper- 
ance department,  and  being  a  hearty  worker  for  prohibition, 
he  threw  many  hot  shots  into  the  camp  of  the  anti-prohibi- 
tionists. 

In  1882,  he  was  elected  by  the  North  Carolina  Baptist 
State  Convention  as  one  of  the  editors  of  The  Baptist  Stan- 
dard. In  company  with  other  gentlemen  he  established  The 
LigfU  House,  in  1884,  being  its  editor-in-chief.  In  1885, 
the  paper  was  moved  to  Asheville,  when  it  became  The 
Mountain  Oleaner,  he  still  remaining  editor-in-chief,  in  which 
position  he  greatly  distinguished  himself.  The  paper  ranked 
among  the  ablest  edited  of  the  country,  though  by  no  means 
the  largest. 

The  Gleaner  worked  zealously  for  the  betterment  of  the 
A  fro- American  8  condition,  and  likewise  took  a  part  in 
everything  looking  to  the  development  of  North  Carolina, 
particularly  the  city  in  which  it  was  published.  Editor 
Lipscombe  was  always  invited  to  the  public  meetings,  regard- 
less of  the  color  of  those  who  called  them,  and  freely 
expressed  his  sentiments  upon  the  matters  at  issue.  These 
invitations  were  the  result  of  the  ability  and  influence  of  his 
paper.  Though  editor  of  a  publication  whose  voice  was  never 
smothered  in  political  battle,  or  silent  when  matters  of  public 
interest  were  discussed,  he  was  elected  to  his  present  position, 
that  of  principal  of  the  graded  school  No.  1,  in  Asheville. 

In  his  work  as  publisher  and  journalist,  he  owes  a  debt 
of  gratitude  to  his  white  brethren  of  the  journalistic  turn. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  213 

▼hoee  kindness  can  never  be  forgotten  hj  him.  The  prin- 
cipal of  these  are  the  Rev.  Dr.  0.  J.  Bailey  of  The  Biblical 
Recorder,  Raleigh,  N.  C,  Mr.  Theodore  Hobgood  of  The 
AshevUle  Advance,  and  Mr.  R.  M.  Furman  of  TTie  Asheville 
Oiizen.  These  gentlemen,  while  fully  according  him  the 
right  to  hold  opinions  diflfereut  from  their  own,  notably  in 
politics,  have  nevertheless  aided  him  in  standing  upon  his 
feet,  when,  without  the  assistance  of  strong  men,  he  could  not 
have  done  so.  Though  holding  a  situation  under  a  Demo- 
cratic school  board,  his  fair  and  conservative  expressions  of 
opinion  have  given  him  a  right  to  declare  himself  upon  the 
stump,  as  to  his  political  preferences. 

In  his  paper,  The  Olea?ier,  he  made  a  manly  fight  for 
J.  C.  Matthews  as  Recorder  of  Deeds,  whose  appointment 
was  made  by  President  Cleveland,  and  was  pending  confirma- 
tion in  a  Republican  Senate.  His  editorials  upon  the  subject 
were  read  far  and  wide,  and  clipped  by  Washington  papers. 
A  republican,  on  reading  one  of  his  editorials,  is  said  to  have 
remarked:  This  is  fair  and  manly,  and  should  remind  us 
that  however  good  republicans  the  colored  men  may  nat- 
urally be,  no  policy  of  political  coercion  can  be  a])j)lied  to 
them  with  success." 

Messes.   William   F.   Simpson,   Secret  Society   Editor, 

AND  Abel  P.  Caldwell,  Business  Manager, 

OF  The  Monthly  Echo. 

Mr,  Simpson  was  born  March  15,  1842,  in  Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  his  parents  being  Charles  and  Delphine  Simpson.  He 
is  the  Secret  Society  editor  of  The  Monthly  Echo,  He  was 
sent  to  the  public  schools  of  Philadelphia  until  the  Friends 
opened  a  school  called  The  Institute  for  Colored  Youths, 
under  the  principalship  of  Prof.  E.  D.  Bassett,  where  he  was 
then  placed.     He  here  continued  his  studies  with  a  view  to 


214  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

graduation  in  1858,  bat  for  some  cause  he  was  not  permitted 
to  do  so. 

While  in  school  he  acquired  the  trade  of  boot  and  shoe 
maker,  also  that  of  a  barber,  in  which  he  is  now  engaged. 
He  is  a  great  Society  promoter.  His  career  as  editor  of 
the  Secret  Society  department  of  The  Echo  dates  from  1883, 
which  he  has  filled  with  credit  and  ability.  He  has  proved 
a  most  valuable  accession  to  the  editorial  staff  of  The  EcJio, 
and  being  well  informed  as  to  the  workings  of  various  secret 
orders,  he  is  good  authority  in  matters  of  that  kind.  Tlie 
Echo  regards  him  as  essential  to  its  existence. 

Abel  P.  Caldwell,  the  business  manager  of  The  Echo,  was 
born  in  Chapel  Hill,  N,  C,  January  1,  1865.  His  training 
was  had  through  many  difficulties,  at  the  North,  as  well  as 
South.  He  is  a  young  man  of  fine  sense  and  business  ability. 
While  managing  editor  of  The  Echo,  he  was  selected  by  the 
U.  S.  Director  General  of  the  American  Exhibition,  held  in 
London,  England,  to  represent  the  young  Afro-Americans, 
which  he  did  with  credit. 

Responding  to  an  inclination  to  do  something  to  his  liking, 
with  three  others,  he  began  the  publication  of  The  Echo  in 
1882.  It  was  then  a  small  quarter-sheet,  with  Charles  W. 
Simpson  as  editor,  while  Mr.  Caldwell  became  business 
manager.  Thus  The  Echo  commenced  what  has  proved,  after 
more  than  seven  years'  experience,  a  staunch  champion  of 
the  rights  and  privileges  of  the  Afro-Americans.  Mr.  Cald- 
well assumed  control  as  editor  and  proprietor,  with  his 
brother,  in  1884. 

Dr.  B.  T.  Tanner,  formerly  editor  of  Tfic  Christian 
Recorder,  and  now  Bishop  Tanner,  says:  "In  more  ways 
than  one,  Tlie  Echo  is  a  model  which  larger  and  more  pre- 
tentious journals  of  our  people  could  imitate  to  their  advan- 
tage. With  the  motto^'  To  preserve  an  equable  mind,' — it 
pursues  the  even  tenor  of  its  ways,  as  though  it  came  to  stay." 


ABEL  P.  CALDWELL. 


216  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

The  Naticmal  Baptist  said  of  Uie  Echo, — '*  It  is  evidently 
well  edited  for  an  amateur  paper,  and  we  are  glad  to  see 
that  it  contains  nothing  trashy  and  sensational." 

The  Echo  warmly  endorsed  the  Industrial  School  project 
of  Mrs.  F.  M.  Coppin.  In  recognition  of  Tlie  EcJioa  services 
in  behalf  of  this  institution,  Mrs.  Coppin  addressed  a  letter 
to  the  editors,  thanking  them  for  the  interest  taken  in  the 
enterprise.  It  reads  as  follows:  "I  am  very  much  obliged 
to  you  for  your  excellent  editorial  on  Industrial  Education, 
in  your  last  issue.  It  is  impossible  to  calculate  how  much 
good  is  done  by  a  newspaper,  in  enlightening  the  minds  of 
the  people  upon  great  subjects,  and,  surely,  an  education 
in  the  use  of  tools  is  of  first  importance  in  a  civilized  country. 
Vii'gil  says:  *I  sing  arms  and  the  hero.*  Carlyle  says: 
*  Tools  and  the  man  are  a  far  wider  kind  of  epic* 

"  Young  men,  like  yourselves,  Messrs.  Editors,  are  just  the 
ones  to  speak  iijDon  this  subject.  The  man  that  the  ^J]loe 
pinches  is  the  one  to  hollow.  The  mechanical  too  of  ours  is 
very  decidedly  cramped  and  pinched  by  lack  of  opportunities 
for  growth  and  improvement." 

With  a  view  to  enlarging  the  influence  and  scope  of  The 
Echo,  the  editors  constituted  themselves  a  stock  company 
in  1888,  with  Dr.  L,  J.  Coppin  and  William  F.  Simpson 
editors,  and  Abel  P.  Caldwell  business  manager.  This  led 
to  an  increaiSe  in  the  f^ize  of  the  paper,  and  also  in  the 
circulation,  and  to-day,  under  the  management  of  an  able 
corps  of  editors,  it  enjoys  a  rapidly  increasing  subscription 
list. 

Rev.  W.  J.  White,  Editor  Geoegia  Baptist. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Missionary  Baptist  Convention  of 
Georgia,  in  May,  1880,  at  Maeon,  Ca.,  it  was  decided 
that  the    Convention  rliould    establish   a   newspaper,  and  it 


Bzv.  L.  J.  mms. 


218  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

accordingly  appointed  a  committee  of  three  to  perfect  tinB 
requisite  arrangements.  These  decided  that  the  publicatioii 
should  be  known  as  T/ie  Ghorgia  Baptist^  and  designated 
Rev.  W.  J,  White  as  corresponding  secretary  and  general 
manager,  with  power  to  issue  the  paper. 

The  Convention  having  appropriated  nothing  for  the  ven- 
ture, Mr.  White  organized  a  stock  company,  and  bought  an 
outfit  for  the  paper  and  job  office,  at  an  expenditure  of  $2000. 
Soon  he  became  proprietor  and  editor,  which  positions  he 
still  holds.  The  religious  conventions,  associations,  etc., 
adopted  it  as  their  organ,  and  for  nine  years  it  has  defended 
them  in  their  creed  and  doctrine. 

The  first  issue,  October  28,  1880,  consisted  of  one  thousand 
copies,  which  have  gradually  increased  until  the  average  for 
the  succeeding  three  months,  ending  January  1,  1889,  waa 
three  thousand  two  hundred  and  forty.  This  paper  goes  all 
over  the  country  and  is  circulated  more  extensively  in  remote 
sections  of  the  state  than  any  other  journal.  It  goes  also  to 
England  and  Africa. 

The  Baptist  is  not,  like  some  other  Afro- American  journals, 
a  tri-weekly,  but  a  weekly,  and  has  not  missed  an  issue  from 
the  beginning.  It  lias  never  used  a  patent  outside,  nor  does 
it  use  any  plate  matter.  This  is  of  course  due  to  Mr.  White's 
exalted  idea  of  journalism.  The  paper  has  never  changed 
hands,  he  having  been  editor  and  business  manager  nine 
years. 

Mr,  White  w^as  born  in  Elbert  county,  Ga.,  December  25, 
1831,  and  is  accordingly,  at  this  writing,  fifty-seven  years  old. 
His  education  in  the  schools  was  acquired  when  he  was 
quite  young,  but  he  is  ever  a  constant  student  of  men  and 
measures. 

He  served  as  an  apprentice  under  W.  H.  Goodrich,  an 
extensive  house  builder,  and  he  worked  at  the  carpenter's 
trade  for  seven  years,  after  which  he  learned  cabinet  making 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  219 

under  the  Piatt  Brothers,  for  whom  he  worked  until  Januaiy, 
1867. 

In  the  early  part  of  1866  the  Republicans  of  Augusta 
started  a  newspaper  called  The  Oolored  American,  which 
was  the  first  colored  paper  ever  published  in  Georgia.  John 
T.  Shufien  was  its  editor  and  proprietor,  but  W.  J.  White 
assisted  him  in  getting  it  out.  After  a  few  issues  were 
published,  a  stock  company  was  organized  and  the  name  of 
the  paper  changed  to  ITie  Loyal  Oeorgtian,  W.  J.  White 
was  elected  secretary  ot  this  company,  and  took  active  part 
in  the  publication  of  this  paper  for  about  two  years,  the  time 
it  was  published. 

Another  company  was  now  organized  and  The  Loyal 
Oeorgian  merged  into  The  Georgia  Republican,  W.  J.  White 
was  its  correspondent  and  canvasser  as  long  as  published. 
After  the  suspension  of  The  Loyal  Georgian  he  acted  as 
correspondent  for  The  Atlania  Republican  and  occasionally 
for  other  papers.  Since  The  Georgia  Baptist  has  been  in 
existence  he  has  confined  himself  solely  to  its  publication, 
the  editorials  being  written  exclusively  by  him. 

Mr.  White  is  pastor  of  Harmony  Baptist  church,  Augusta, 
Ga.,  and  treasurer  of  the  Shiloh  Baptist  Association.  His 
pastorate  of  this  church  has  been  continuous  since  May  10, 
1868,  when  the  church  was  organized.  He  is  trustee  of  the 
Atlanta  University,  at  Atlanta,  Ga.,  and  for  eighteen  years 
has  taken  an  active  part  in  its  management.  He  is  trustee 
for  the  Atlanta  Baptist  Seminary,  a  theological  school  for 
young  men  of  Atlanta,  Ga.  He  is-  a  trustee  of  Spelman 
Seminary  and  vice-president  of  the  board.  This  is  a  school 
for  the  training  of  young  ladies  at  Atlanta,  Ga. 

Mr.  White  is  a  strong  prohibitionist  and  has  taken  an 
active  part  in  the  prohibition  contests  that  have  arisen  in 
his  own  and  adjoining  states.  From  January,  1867,  to 
January,  1869,  he  was  an  agent  for  the  Freedmen  s  Bureau 


220  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

and  was  assigned  to  the  duty  of  organizing  schools  in  all 
parts  of  Georgia  for  the  colored  children.  He  encountered 
many  dangers  in  the  prosecution  of  the  duties  pertaining  to 
this  office. 

In  the  spring  of  1869  Mr.  White  was  appointed  assistant 
assessor  in  the  Internal  Revenue  service  by  Captain  Edwin 
Belcher,  the  first  Afro- American  assessor  appointed  by  Presi- 
dent Grant.  When  the  a.sse88or8'  and  collectors'  offices  were 
united  by  a  change  in  the  law,  Mr.  White  was  appointed  by 
Col.  Isham  S.  Farnin  deputy  collector,  with  headquarters  at 
the  collector's  office,  a  position  that  gave  him  charge  of  all 
revenue  matters  connected  with  distilleries  and  tobacco 
factories.  For  three  years  he  had  charge  of  a  large  division, 
with  headquarters  at  Milledgeville,  Ga.  He  served  under 
Col.  Farnin,  Col.  E.  C.  Wade  and  Col.  W,  H,  Johnson,  as 
deputy  collector,  and  resigned  voluntarily,  January  Ist, 
1880.  He  has  taken  an  active  part  in  public  afiairs  and 
has  been  closely  identified  with  the  Republican  party  ever 
since  the  war. 

The  Afro- Americans  of  Georgia  have,  during  the  last  ten 
years,  held  conventions  that  were  intended  solely  for  the 
advancement  of  their  interests  in  state  affairs.  The  first  of 
these  met  at  Macon,  Ga.,  the  second  at  Atlanta,  and  the 
third  at  Macon.  These  conventions  have  been  productive 
of  much  good  to  the  Afro- Americans  of  Georgia.  Mr.  White 
was  president  of  them  all.  The  last  convention  met  January 
25,  1888,  and  among  other  things  of  importance  done  was 
the  organization  of  the , Union  Brotherhood  for  the  unifying 
of  the  Afro-American  voters  of  Georgia  for  better  state 
government.     He  is  president  of  this  organization. 

He  was  chosen  by  the  Republicans  of  his.  state  as  delegate 
from  the  state  at  large  to  the  last  National  Republican 
Convention,  and  was  the  only  delegate-at-large  from  Georgia 
that  went  over  to  Benjamin  Harrison  before  his  nomination. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  221 

(Joining  back  to  oar  8ubject*8  jonmaJistic  life,  we  ascertain 
that  nothing  was  more  lucrative  and  more  helpful  to  him  in 
the  business  than  a  job  office,  in  connection  with  the  publica- 
tion of  The  Baptist  Mr.  White  saw  this  at  the  very 
beginning,  and  determined  that  it  should  be  a  first-class  one. 
He  also  determined  to  employ  colored  printers,  as  far  as 
possible.  This  was  a  hard  task,  because  of  the  scarcity  of 
SQch,  He  was  fortunate  enough  to  secure  the  services  of 
Mr.  George  W.  Gardner,  now  editor  of  The  Philadelphia 
Sentinel,  whom  he  made  foreman  of  the  office.  Prof.  A.  R. 
Johnson,  one  of  Georgia's  best  young  men,  to  whom  he  was 
deeply  devoted,  rendered  him  invaluable  aid  in  keeping  his 
books.  John  T.,  George  D.,  Lucian  H.,  and  W.  J.  White, 
Jr.,  four  sons  of  W.  J.  White,  were  put  in  the  office  to  learn 
type-setting.  John  L.  Blocker,  Esq.,  who  has  since  moved 
to  Texas  and  engaged  in  the  newspaper  business,  was  also 
employed  by  Mr.  White  as  canvasser  and  general  helper. 
Gabriel  B.  Maddox,  Esq.,  who  has  since  been  foreman  of  the 
printing  department  at  the  Tuskegee  Normal  and  Industrial 
school,  Tuskegee,  Ala.,  and,  later,  associate  editor  of  The 
Cblumbus  (Ga.)  Messenger,  was  first  devil,  with  W.  J.  White, 
Jr.,  as  a  good  second. 

Overcoming  many  difficulties  Mr.  White  has  persevered 
until  ITie  Oeorgia  Baptist  job  office  has  taken  a  place  in  the 
front  rank.  A  large  amount  of  pamphlet  work  is  turned 
out ;  and  in  addition  to  the  force  of  eight  to  ten  men  in  the 
building,  four  to  six  ladies  are  employed  at  Mr.  White's 
house,  of  whom  Mrs.  White  has  the  oversight.  Three  of 
his  daughters,  Mary  B.,  Claudia  T.,  and  Emily  Josephine, 
have  learned  to  bind  and  stitch  pamphlets. 

The  entire  plant  has  cost  about  three  thousand  dollars, 
and  the  capital  employed  in  the  business  is  about  six  thou- 
sand. Thus  it  is  seen  that  The  Georgia  Baptist  and  its 
editor  have  had  a  most  prosperous  career. 


222  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

The  IndiaTiapoUa  FreeTnan  says,  in  regard  to  The  Baptist : 
"  From  ten  to  fifteen  hands  are  employed  upon  it  continually, 
the  pay-roll  reaching  from  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and 
fifty  dollars  a  week.  Take  it  for  all  in  all,  The  Oeorffia 
Baptist  is  one  of  the  positively  successful  newspaper  prop- 
erties in  the  country,  owned  by  colored  men." 

Levi  E.  Cheisty,  Editoe  Indianapolis  Woeld. 

One  of  the  leading  spirits  of  Indiana  journalism  is  Levi 
E.  Christy,  editor  and  senior  proprietor  of  The  Indianapolis 
World.  He  was  born  at  Salem,  Ind.,  1851,  but  became  a 
resident  of  Xenia,  0.,  in  1865,  leaving  Salem  on  account  of 
the  gross  mistreatment  by  the  whites  of  the  colored  people 
there. 

After  spending  some  time  in  the  public  schools  of  Xenia, 
he  went  to  Indianapolis,  when  he  immediately  entered  the 
employ  of  General,  now  President  Harrison.  Young  Christy, 
knowing  fully  the  value  of  an  education,  attended  a  night 
school,  and  afterwards  took  private  lessons,  paying  as  high 
as  $1  per  lesson. 

His  industry  and  perseverance  were  not  without  reward, 
for  so  well  had  he  advanced  that  in  1870  he  was  appointed 
principal  of  one  of  the  leading  public  schools  in  Indianapolis. 
After  teaching  some  years  at  this  place,  he  accepted  a  good 
school  in  Arkansas,  intending  to  complete  a  special  line  of 
study  to  which  he  had  devoted  himself.  He  finally  returned 
to  Ohio  and  became  a  student  at  Wilberforce  University. 

In  1872,  Mr.  Christy  was  married  to  Miss  Ella  M. 
Roberts,  a  cultured  and  handsome  young  lady  of  Xenia,  O., 
and  again  he  went  to  Arkansas  and  began  teaching.  He 
took  an  active  part  in  Grant's  second  campaign,  and  evinced 
considerable  talent  as  a  speaker.  Returning  to  Indianapolis, 
he  was  appointed  principal  of  a  school,  and  held  the  position 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  223 

until  1885,  when  he  retired  from  that  profession,  and  has 
aince  given  his  entire  time  to  The  World,  which  passed  to 
his  control  five  years  ago. 

After  fifteen  years  in  the  confines  of  a  school-room,  the 
active  and  invigorating  life  of  a  newspaper  man  was  a 
welcome  change.  At  that  time  Afro- American  journalism, 
was,  to  a  great  extent,  an  experiment;  but  Mr.  Christy  had 
unbounded  faith  in  its  ultimate  success,  and  devoted  himself 
to  his  new  labor  with  all  the  zest  of  his  enthusiastic  nature. 

Under  his  guidance,  though  at  the  cost  of  many  sacrifices 
and  much  personal  discomfort,  ITie  World  has  become  a 
firmly  established  enterprise,  and  ranks  with  the  best  in  the 
land.  All  its  mechanical  work  is  done  by  Afro-American 
hands,  and  besides  being  a  leader  in  the  intellectual  arena, 
it  furnishes  an  avenue  for  the  employment  and  training  of 
colored  men  and  women  as  printers.  It  has  introduced  more 
new  Afro-American  writers  to  the  reading  public  than  any 
other  journal  published  by  our  people. 

As  an  editor,  Mr.  Christy  is  cool  and  conservative,  and 
demands  for  the  Afro- American  the  same  chances  and  oppor- 
tunities accorded  to  other  American  citizens.  He  appeals  to 
the  reason  and  better  judgment,  rather  than  to  the  passions 
or  emotions. 

The  World  is  enjoying  a  season  of  unprecedented  success, 
and  is  an  illustration  of  what  can  be  accomplished  by 
patience  and  industry,  supplemented  by  confidence  and  a 
strict  adherence  to  the  best  business  principles. 

Rev.   a.   E.   P.  Albert,  D.  D.,   Editor  South-Western 

Christian  Advocate. 

Rev.  Dr.  A.  E.  P.  Albert,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  a  writer 
of  national  reputation  upon  religious  subjects,  is  of  French 
descent,  his  father  being  Pierre  Albert,  of  Bordeaux,  France, 


224  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

and   his    mother  a   slave,    the    property   of  a  Frenchman. 

When  the  Union  army  captured  New  Orleans,  our  subject 
ran  away  from  home,  reaching  the  Union  lines  safely.  He 
was  then  but  poorly  able  to  speak  English ;  so  he  entered  a 
private  school,  taught  by  Mr.  William  Earner.  After  gaining 
some  knowledge  of  English,  he  attended  the  Freedmans 
Bureau  school,  the  public  schools  of  Atlanta,  the  Congrega- 
tional Theological  school,  and  Clark  University. 

Entering  the  Straight  Congregational  University  at  New 
Orleans,  he  graduated  as  Bachelor  of  Divinity  in  1881.  Four 
years  afterwards  the  honorary  title  of  D.  D.  was  conferred 
upon  him  by  the  alma  mater,  and  by  the  Rust  Methodist 
Episcopal  University  of  Holly  Springs,  Miss.  At  present, 
Dr.  Albert  is  president  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  New  Orleans 
University,  chairman  of  the  executive  committee,  and  lecturer 
on  theology  in  the  same  institution.  He  is  also  secretary  of 
the  Louisiana  Conference  Board  of  Church  Extension  and 
statistical  secretary  of  the  Louisiana  Conference.  He  was 
for  a  number  of  years  District  Dept.  Worthy  Grand  Templar 
for  Louisiana,  I.  0.  G.  T. ;  was  a  member  of  the  book  commit- 
tee of  the  M.  E.  Church;  secretary  for  Eastern  Section  for 
four  years ;  a  member  of  the  General  Conference  and  secretary 
of  committee  on  the  state  of  the  church,  at  the  General 
Conference  held  in  Philadelphia  in  1884,  and  also  chairman 
of  the  colored  delegation  to  the  same  body. 

After  Dr.  Taylor's  declination,  he  was  desired  by  the 
majority  of  the  board  of  bishops  to  go  as  bishop  to  Africa. 
At  the  last  meeting  of  the  bishops,  he  was  appointed  fraternal 
delegate  to  the  General  Conference  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Zion 
Church. 

Like  many  other  subjects  treated  in  this  work,  his  life  in 
journalism  has  not  been  as  extensive  as  in  that  of  the 
ministry.  It  begins  with  an  appointment  as  assistant  editor 
to  Drs.  Hartzell  and  Cushman,  from  1882  to  1884.     At  the 


S^-  A-  E  P.  ALBEKT,  D.  D. 


226  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

General  Conference  in  1884  he  received  one  hundred  and 
seventeen  votes  for  the  position  of  editor.  Upon  the  death 
of  Dr.  Marshall  W.  Taylor,  Dr.  Albert  was  chosen  to  fill  the 
unexpired  term.  This  he  did  with  so  much  credit,  that  at 
the  General  Conference  in  1888  he  was  elected  editor  without 
an  opposing  vote. 

Concerning  the  power  and  force  of  The  South-  Western 
Advocate^  TJie  Freeman  says :  '*  The  South-  Western  Christian 
Advocaie,  of  which  Dr.  Albert  is  now  editor,  is  a  great  and 
powerful  church  organ,  having  the  largest  circulation  of  any 
paper  in  New  Orleans."  The  honor  of  being  editor  of  such 
a  powerful  religious  journal,  owned  by  the  General  Conference 
of  the  M.  E.  Church,  is  one  that  no  other  Afro- American  has 
the  pleasure  to  possess;  and  no  one  is  more  able  than  he 
to  wear  the  honor  befittingly. 

Dr,  Albert  is  a  reliable,  pointed,  and  pleasing  writer.  The 
editorial  columns  of  Th^  Advocate  are  always  bright  and 
cogent.  His  ready  acquaintance  with  all  questions  makes 
Lim  able  to  write  in  the  most  inviting  way  upon  any  subject 
he  may  see  fit  to  tackle.  The  best  thing  about  his  succeae 
in  life  is,  that,  personally,  he  had  to  earn  everything  with 
which  to  educate  and  make  himself  a  man.  Learned  in  the 
Bible,  as  the  lawyer  is  in  the  law,  he  is  able  to  present 
Scripture  truths  unto  a  dying  generation,  with  that  ready 
vehemence  and  force  that  none  could  do  who  were  less  well 
informed.  With  his  practical  knowledge  and  the  memory 
of  the  treatment  he  was  subjected  to  in  his  onward  march  to 
success,  he  can,  in  a  most  prepossessing  manner,  advise  his 
fellow-men  what  to  do  in  meeting  the  difficulties  incident  to 
their  religious,  moral  and  social  life.  Since  his  journal 
represents  thousands  of  white  Methodista,  as  well  as  thou- 
sands of  Afro- American  Methodists,  it  is  read  by  the  whites 
more  than  is  any  other  Afro- American  journal  in  the  Union. 
While  he  is  ready,  at  all  times,  to  picture  the  Afro- American  s 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  227 

success  in  the  most  vivid  and  enchanting  manner,  yet  he 
points  out  the  many  snares  and  dangers  along  the  paths  of 
life,  which,  if  a  race  fall  into,  proves  fatal  to  its  existence. 

In  every  way  Dr.  Albert  has  proven  himself  duly  qualified 
to  honor  the  race  as  a  knight  of  the  quill,  and  his  journal 
deserves  the  most  hearty  support  at  the  hands  of  a  liberty- 
loving  and  free  people. 

In  noticing  Tfui  South-  Western  Christian  Advocate  and  its 
present  editor,  its  history  would  be  manifestly  incomplete 
if  we  failed  to  allude  to  Rev.  Marshall  W,  Taylor,  D.  D.,  a 
former  editor,  who  is  acknowledged  to  have  been  one  of  the 
most  gifted  writers  and  eloquent  ppeakei*s  the  race  has  yet 
produced,  especially  in  the  M.  E  Church.  Dr.  Taylor  has 
been  connected  with  some  journalistic  work  ever  since  his 
service  as  a  preacher  began.  In  1872,  while  pastor  of  Coke 
Chapel,  Louisville,  Ky.,  he  edited  The  Kentucky  Methodist, 
which  was  looked  upon  as  an  able  sheet.  He  was  honored 
with  the  degree  of  D.  D.  by  the  Central  Tennes.see  College. 
In  1879  and  in  1880  he  was  elected  editor  of  The  Souih- 
Western  Ch^tian  Advocate,  a  position  never  before  held  by 
an  Afro- American.  He  is  author  of  several  works,  viz. : 
"Universal  Reign  of  Jesus,"  "Life  of  Donney,"  "The  Negro 
Evangelist,"  "  Plantation  Melodies,"  and  "  Life  of  Mrs. 
Amanda  Smith,  the  Missionary."  As  one  says :  "  He  was 
famous  as  an  eloquent  preacher,  a  safe  teacher,  ready  speaker, 
and  an  earnest  writer ;  and  we  will  add,  a  polished  writer. 
Few,  if  any,  can  peruse  his  books  without  being  impressed 
with  the  deep  earnestness  of  the  man,  and  his  evident  desire 
to  lift  his  readers  to  a  higher  plane.  He  presents  his 
matter  in  such  a  way,  that  none  can  lay  his  books  aside 
without  the  consciousness  of  having  been  helped  by  them. 
Previous  to  his  death  at  Indianapolis,  in  June,  1888,  he  was 
mantioned  for  the  bishopric  of  the  M.  E.  Church.  Dr. 
Albert  justly  holds  high  the  mark  set  by  this  worthy  man. 


228  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Messrs.  R.  Jf.  Littlejohn  and  D.  A.  Williams,  Editors 

OF  The  New  Light. 

In  Warren  County,  North  Carolina,  July,  1855,  was  born 
Richard  D.  Littlejohn,  whose  work  in  Afro-American  journal- 
ism has  been  marked  by  many  sacrifices,  and  much  diligent 
application.  He  is  well  educated,  having  spent  considerable 
time  in  these  universities :  Lincoln,  in  Oxford,  Pa. ;  Fisk,  in 
Nashville,  Tenn. ;  and  Oberlin,  in  Ohio.  He  has  since  taught 
in  Mississippi.  Fpr  eight  years  he  has  been  a  member  of  the 
teachers*  examining  board  for  his  county.  He  is  also  promi- 
nent in  society  circles,  particularly  among  the  Odd  Fellows 
and  Free  Masons.  Mr.  Littlejohn  has  often  made  use  of  the 
expression :  "  The  destiny  of  the  negro  race  in  the  South 
rests  in  secrecy  and  brotherly  love." 

When  Messrs.  Littlejohn  and  Williams  began  the  publica- 
tion of  T/ie  New  Light  in  1886,  the  community  said  that  it 
tould  not  continue  longer  than  two  or  three  months,  the 
assertion  being  based  on  the  fact  that  so  many  papers  had 
been  commenced  by  our  people,  which  seemed  to  flourish  a 
short  while,  only  to  die.  Many,  who  really  sympathized  with 
the  new  and  enterprising  project,  subscribed  for  only  three 
or  four  months. 

The  paper  proved  to  be  a  burden  to  the  publishers  for 
two  years,  their  disbursements  for  that  time  reaching  $1160, 
and  the  receipts  $489.  But  things  have  changed  since,  and 
now  the  monthly  receipts  exceed  the  expenditures.  ITie  Hew 
Light  has  passed  its  crisis,  and  the  dawn  of  a  prosperous  day 
has  come. 

During  all  its  trying  and  perplexing  times,  when  it  seemed 
that  both  courage  and  perseverance  would  inevitably  fail, 
Mr.  Littlejohn  held  up  the  flag  with  untiring  fortitude.  All 
the  responsibility  rested  upon  him,  but  he  never  shrank  firom 
duty,  nor  did  he  labor  in  suspense ;  for,  encouraged  by  the 


R-  D.  UTTIEJOIIN. 


230  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

maxim  that  temperance,  justice,  and  fortitude  conquer  all 
things,  he  fought  to  the  end. 

The  New  Light  is  now  three  years  old,  and  is  a  noble 
reflector  of  Afro- American  sentiments,  being  the  only  paper 
published  in  Mississippi  in  an  office  the  outfit  of  which  ia 
owned  by  A  fro- Americans. 

Mr.  Littlejohn  was  associated  with  the  lamented  Rev.  Dr» 
Williams  in  the  editorship  of  The  New  Lights  to  whose 
popularity  and  influence  the  success  of  the  paper  is  greatly 
due. 

Dr.  Williams  was  born  in  Virginia,  February  3,  1839,  and 
lived  until  a  few  months  since,  when  he  fell  triumphant 
in  the  arms  of  the  blessed  Savior,  having  fought  in  war  and 
in  peace,  first  for  God  and  then  for  his  race. 

He  published  and  edited  The  Peoples  Advisery  in  Jackson, 
Miss.,  which  was  a  religious  and  an  educational  journal.  It 
was  a  strong  advocate  of  temperance  and  prohibition. 

In  1885  he  and  Editor  Littlejohn  associated  themselves 
together  in  the  publication  of  The  New  Light,  to  the  success 
of  which  Dr.  Williams  never  failed  to  contribute,  until  called 
from  labor  to  reward.  He  was  widely  known  in  the  M.  E. 
church,  to  which  he  belonged. 

J.  Dallas  Bowser,  Editor  Gate  City  Press. 

Among  the  many  weekly  journals  published  in  the  West^ 
none  carries  with  it  such  great  influence,  and  none  is  so 
powerful  in  the  maintenance  of  right  principles,  as  The  OcUe 
CUy  Press,  published  at  Kansas  City,  Mo.  It  is  one  of  ihe 
largest  sheets  published  by  the  A  fro- American,  and  one  of 
the  most  substantial.  Papers  may  come  and  go,  but  The 
Oate  City  Press  seems  "  to  have  come  to  stay." 

Its  editor  is  J,  Dallas  Bowser,  who  was  born  in  the  Tar 
Heel  State,  (North  Carolina,)  at  Weldon,  February  15,  1846. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  231 

His  career  as  a  good  citizen,  educator,  and  particularly  as  a 
journalist,  has  been  marrelous.  He  early  enjoyed  the  benefits 
of  an  excellent  public  school  training,  which  his  parents  were 
enabled  to  afford  him  by  moving  to  Ohio.  Remaining  there 
in  the  schools,  he  grew  up  well-educated  and  well-fitted  for 
practical  life,  and  as  an  upright  citizen. 

He  moved  to  Kansas  City  when  quite  young,  possibly  22, 
succeeding  Hon.  J.  Milton  Turner  as  principal  of  the  largest 
school  in  that  city.  He  held  this  position  for  ten  years,  until 
1881  finds  him  a  mail-route  agent,  which  place  he  filled  until 
President  Cleveland's  policy  "to  turn  the  rascals  out"  reached 
him,  and  out  he  went.  In  1887  he  was  sealer  of  weights 
and  measures  for  Kansas  City.  These  positions  he  filled  with 
credit. 

Mr.  Bowser  is  now  a  journalist.  He  has  been  successful  in 
all  of  his  journalistic  work,  and  can  be  relied  upon  as  being 
the  hardest  newspaper  worker  in  Missouri,  among  the  Afro- 
Americans.  He  has  been  constantly  engaged  thus  for  nine 
years,  contributing  largely  to  the  success  which  now  attends 
Afro- American  journalism. 

In  1880  H.  H.  Johnson  founded  The  Free  Press  in  Kansas 
City.  Before  the  second  number  was  issued,  Mr.  Johnson 
came  to  Mr.  Bowser,  whom  he  knew  to  be  a  wide-awake, 
vigilant  writer  and  business  man,  and  stated  that  he  was  in 
lack  of  means  to  continue  the  publication  of  The  Press.  Mr. 
Bowser,  disliking  to  see  the  effort  fail,  immediately  took  hold, 
and  in  a  few  weeks  he  had  organized  a  substantial  stock 
company,  which  took  control  of  the  paper,  changing  it  to  its 
present  name,  ITie  Oate  City  Press.  This  paper,  under  Mr. 
Bowser's  editorial  management,  has  become  a  household  word 
in  the  West,  and  its  columns  are  quoted  from  by  the  leading 
journals  of  the  land. 

Mr.  Bowser  is  an  editor  whose  writings  command  the  most 
careful  consideration.     He  is  a   fierce  antagonist  of  quacks. 


232  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

humbugs,  and  political  mountebanks.  A  writer,  speaking  of 
The  Press f  says :  "  The  Oate  CUy  Press  is  one  of  the  strongest 
papers  in  the  United  States."  The  same  writer,  in  referring 
to  its  editor,  says:     *'  His  paper  thoroughly  reflects  the  man." 

Mr.  Bowser  pursues  a  line  of  duty  in  his  writings  as  editor 
which  he  regards  as  right,  without  fear  or  favor. 

Another  thing  that  has  tended  to  make  his  paper  a 
successful  sheet  is,  the  polished  writers  and  astute  thinkers 
who  are  with  him  upon  its  staflP.  Such  men  as  Profs.  W.  W. 
Yates  and  G.  N.Gresham.so  well  known  in  the  literary  world, 
are  his  associate  editors. 

Mr.  Bowser's  editorials  always  betray  him  as  a  defender  of 
true  Republican  principles.  The  author  regards  his  paper  as 
one  of  the  most  successful  effort.s  in  the  pioneer  work  of 
Afro- American  journalism.  Having  amassed  a  little  fortune, 
he  is  enabled  to  "  soap"  his  Press,  which  is  a  mighty  lever  ia 
the  work. 

Not  only  is  Mr.  Bowser  an  able  writer,  but  he  is  an  orator 
as  well.  In  addition  to  his  journalistic  business,  he  is  a  largo 
coal  and  grain  dealer. 

Hon.   James   J.    Spelman,    Editor    Baptist    Messenger, 

Mr.  Spelman  was  born  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  January  18, 
1841,  and  was  educated  in  the  public  schools  of  Connecticut. 
He  entered  upon  newspaper  work  in  1858,  in  New  York 
City,  by  opening  a  newspaper  depot  on  Thompson  street,  near 
Amity,  now  West  Third  street.  A  year  later  he  became  a 
contributor  to  The  Anglo- African,  published  by  the  Hamilton 
Brothers,  and  afterwards  to  The  Pine  and  Palm,  its  successor, 
edited  by  James  Redpath.  He  was  a  frequent  contributor  to 
the  New  York  daily  press,  through  the  influence  of  Horace 
Greeley,  George  All'red  Townsend,  Charles  Fulton,  Charles  G. 
Halpin,  William  Caldwell,  and  his  partner,  Mr.  Whitney. 


W 


liOX    .JAMliS  J.  SPKLMAN. 


234  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

During  this  time,  he  was  also  a  regular  correspondent  of 
The  Ulevator  of  San  Francisco,  over  the  nom  de  plume  of 
Private  L.  Overture;  of  ITie  CbBred  Citizen  of  Cincinnati, 
edited  by  Prof.  John  Oorbin,  now  of  Arkansas;  and  of  I%e 
Zwna  StaTidard  and  Weekly  Seview  of  New  York,  edited  by 
Prof.  Howard  Day,  having  with  the  last-mentioned  paper  the 
nom  de  plume  of  Paul  Pickwick. 

On  going  to  Mississippi  in  1868,  he  became  the  special 
correspondent  of  The  Neio  York  Tribune,  and  wrote  to  other 
papers  in  the  North  diving  the  period  of  Reconstruction. 
His  letters  to  I'fie  Trilmne  afterwards  attracted  considerable 
attention,  and  were  frequently  copied  into  the  columns  of 
other  papers.  Mr.  Greeley,  on  his  way  to  Texas,  stopped 
over  at  Canton,  Miss.,  especially  to  pay  Mr.  Spelman  a  visit; 
but,  unfortunately,  he  was  not  at  home,  and  he  never  after- 
wards saw  his  benefactor  alive. 

In  1870,  he  was  elected  vice-president  pf  the  Repablicaik 
Press  Association,  the  only  colored  man  who  was  a  member; 
and  subsequently  he  became  its  president.  He  has  been 
connected,  as  editor  and  proprietor,  with  the  following  papers 
in  Mississippi :  Peoples  Journal,  T%e  Messenger  and  The 
Mississippi  Republican.  He  was  as.sociated  with  the  late 
Hon.  James  Lynch  in  the  publication  of  The  Cblored  Citizen 
and  T?ie  Jackson  Tribune;  and  with  the  Baptist  denomination 
in  the  publishing  of  TJie  Baptist  Signal  and  The  Baptist 
Messenger,  of  which  papers  he  was  editor. 

At  the  National  Republican  Convention  of  1884,  Mr. 
Spelman  was  the  special  correspondent  of  The  Evening  Post^ 
a  Democratic  daily  paper  published  in  Vicksburg,  Miss. 
He  is  still  a  frequent  telegraph  contributor  to  the  press,  for 
which  he  is  daily  compensated.  He  contributes  an  occasional 
letter  to  the  A  fro- American  press,  on  matters  pertaining  to 
the  race  in  the  South. 

Mr.  Spelman 's  connection  with   the  press  has  been  of  a 


APRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  285 

nature  to  secure  compensation  rather  than  to  gain  promi- 
nence, and  in  this  he  has  succeeded  admirably.  His  work 
has  been  constant,  unceasing,  and  quietly  done.  He  has 
brought  dignity  and  position  to  Afro- American  journalism  by 
his  efforts. 

He  has  occupied  excellent  political  positions,  being  now 
in  the  service  of  the  government  as  special  Lumber  Agent  of 
the  General  Land  Office. 

Rev.  Wm.  B.  Johnson,  D.  D.,  Editoe  Wayland. Alumni 

Journal. 

Dr.  William  B.  Johnson,  the  editor  of  The  Wayland 
Alutnm  Journal y  was  born  in  the  city  of  Toronto,  December 
11,  1856.  He  spent  the  major  portion  of  his  youthful  days 
in  the  schools  of  Buffalo,  New  York,  and  in  the  city  of  his 
birth,  subsequently  attending  Wayland  Seminary,  where  he 
graduated  with  honors  in  the  class  of  1879. 

In  1872  he  was  converted,  and  was  baptized  by  the  Rev. 
J.  W.  Mitchell,  pastor  of  the  Queen  Street  Baptist  church, 
Toronto.  In  1875,  fired  by  a  desire  to  work  for  God,  he 
entered  the  ministry,  choosing  the  South  as  his  place  of 
labor.  Upon  graduating  from  the  Wayland  Seminary,  fully 
equipped  as  an  expounder  of  divine  truth,  he  was  called  to 
the  pastorate  of  the  First  Baptist  church  of  Frederick,  Md. 
After  serving  the  church  successfully,  and  building  a  fine 
edifice,  he  left  it,  beloved  by  all  who  knew  him,  especially  by 
thie  congregation.  Immediately,  he  was  appointed  by  the 
American  Baptist  Home  Mission  Society  to  be  general  mis- 
sionary for  the  states  of  Maryland,  Virginia,  West  Virginia, 
and  the  District  of  Columbia. 

While  young  Johnson  had  a  very  good  education  on 
leaving  the  seminary,  his  ambition  led  him  to  continue  his 
studies,  and  to  a  special  course  in  mathematics,  metaphysics. 


236  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

and  the  languages,  under  Prof.  Rhoan  of  the  Ck)lumbiaii 
University,  which  resulted  in  his  election  to  the  chair  of 
mathematics  and  science  of  government  in  Wayland  Semi- 
nary, where  he  now  is,  having  the  esteem  of  the  faculty 
and  the  students  for  his  ability  and  worth.  Thus,  he  stands 
as  a  remarkable  pillar  in  the  Baptist  Convention. 

Dr.  Johnson  has,  in  his  time,  read  some  of  the  ablest 
papers  before  deliberative  bodies  it  has  been  our  pleasure  to 
hear.  When  the  Baptist  State  Convention  was  in  session 
at  Lynchburg,  Va.,  in  1887,  we  heard  with  untiring  interest 
his  paper  on  the  "  Religious  Status  of  the  Negro,"  which  so 
forcibly  impi-essed  the  convention  that  it  was  ordered  to  be 
published.  The  paper  proved  his  high  qualifications  and 
and  worth  as  a  journalist,  and  his  ready  ability  to  present 
matters  as  they  are, — to  condemn  or  defend  the  race  as 
circumstances  might  require. 

In  1889,  upon  the  retirement  of  the  editor  of  TJie  Baptist 
Ooy>ij)a?iion,  the  organ  of  the  Afro-American  Baptists  in 
Virginia,  he  was  chosen  as  his  successor.  His  management 
of  T/ie  Companioti  showed  considerate  tact  and  newspapaper 
strategy,  and  undoubtedly  he  would  have  made  that  journal 
one  of  the  best  religious  newspapers,  had  it  not  been  destroyed 
by  fire.  This  was  his  first  experience  as  a  writer,  which  was 
acknowledged  by  the  fraternity  to  have  been  productive  of 
good  fruit. 

Recognizing  his  merit  as  a  **  quill  man,"  Dr.  Johnson  was 
chosen  by  the  alumni  of  Wayland  Seminary  editor  of  their 
journal,  which  was  known  as  27ie  Wayland  Alumni  Journal, 
which,  under  his  editorial  survey,  has  done  much  for  the 
seminary. 

The  State  University  of  Kentucky  has  conferred  upon  him 
the  honorary  degree  of  D.  D.,  making  him  the  youngest  man 
in  our  country  with  such  a  title. 

As  a  preacher,  student  and  writer,  "he  is  able,  diligent  and 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  237 

forcible.**  Says  The  American  Baptist:  "His  services  are  in 
•onstant  demand  at  home,  in  the  interest  of  every  good 
work." 

The  Journal  and  its  editor  have  done  much  in  battling  for 
the  race,  and  will  continue  to  supply  the  yearning  of  many  a 
thirsty  mind  for  editorial  literature. 

John  Q.  Adams,  Esq.,  Editor  Western  Appeal. 

Louisville,  blessed  in  its  many  worthy  sons,  is  the  bii'th- 
place  of  a  man  whose  prominence  in  Afro- American  journalism 
is  familiar  to  all, — John  Q.  Adams,  who  has  stood  through 
the  blasts  of  forty  winters  and  the  heat  of  as  many  summers. 
He  acquired  an  early  training  in  the  private  schools  of 
Fon-du-lac,  Wis.,  and  Yellow  Springs,  0.,  finishing  at  Oberlin. 

Not  unlike  many  A  fro- American  graduates,  he  entered  the 
pedagogic  profession,  remaining  in  it  until  1873,  when  he 
was  elected  engrossing  clerk  of  the  Arkansas  Senate,  and, 
later  on,  assistant  superintendent  of  Public  Instruction. 
Shortly  after  this  he  served  as  deputy  commissioner  of  Public 
Works.  So  great  has  been  the  journalistic  career  of  this 
gentleman,  and  so  eager  are  we  to  direct  the  attention  of  the 
reader  to  it,  that  we  will  make  no  further  comment  on  the 
aucce.ss  attending  his  service  in  these  positions  than  to  say 
it  was  great. 

In  1879,  he  and  his  younger  brother  launched  The  Bulletiny 
a  weekly  paper,  to  battle  on  the  sea  of  journalism  with  the 
torbulent  waves  that  might  come  against  it.  The  Bulletin 
•ontinued  to  sail,  making  a  successful  run  until  1885,  when 
it  was  disposed  of  to  The  American  Baptist. 

Dor  subject  was  wielding  the  politicaf  ax  in  the  quiet 
dialing  the  life  of  The  Bulletin^  resulting  in  the  occupancy 
•f  a  responsible  position  under  the  Garfield- Arthur  adminis- 
tration,— ^that  of  United  States  storekeeper. 


238  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Upon  going  to  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  in  1886,  Mr.  Adams 
accept od  the  pcsition  ol"  editor  of  The  Western  Appeal,  which 
wiifs  then  in  a  very  weak  condition.  A  writer  says  this  of 
27(c  Ajfj)cai:  "  Under  hia  management  the  paper  has  thrired, 
and  has  become  a  power  in  the  country."  In  1888,  Mr. 
Adam.s  moved  the  headquarters  of  The  Appeal  to  Chicago, 
where,  as  one  says,  it  has  had  "  phenomenal  Buccesa."  The 
Indianapolis  Freeman  says  this  of  The  Appeal^  which  ex- 
pres^ses  our  own  sentiment,  and  cannot  be  bettered:  "From a 
circulation  of  thirty-eight  copies,  it  has,  in  twelve  months, 
increased  to  over  two  thousand."  Tlie  Appeal  is  published 
simultaneously  in  Chicago,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis  and  Looia- 
ville.  Mr.  Adams  has  been  continuously  engaged  in 
journalism  since  1879,  and  unless  lightning  should  strike 
him  under  the  j^resent  Republican  administration,  he  will, 
in  all  probability,  i'or  years  to  come,  be  counted  among  the 
*  pencil  pushers'  of  the  country." 

Mr.  Adams'.s  journalistic  turn  of  mind  led  to  the  calling 
of  tho  first  Colored  National  Press  Convention,  and  he  was 
honored  as  its  first  president. 

But  what  of  his  rojaitation  as  a  writer?  The  success  which 
has  attended  his  eli'orts  would  very  probably  suggest  this 
inquiry.  By  way  of  i-eply,  we  produce  a  clipping  from  the 
editorial  columns  of  The  Appeal,  which,  while  it  shows  his 
style,  manifests,  also,  his  spirit  in  defence  of  the  race. 
He  refutes,  in  no  uncertain  tones,  the  insult  daily  put  upon 
the  colored  j^eople  in  classifying  them  with  the  vile  and 
degraded.  "  If  a  colored  man  steals  a  hog,  commits  a  rape 
or  nim*der,  or  engages  in  a  riot,  he  at  once  takes  a  conspicu- 
ous ]>osition  in  the  eyes  of  the  white  community  and  is 
regarded  with  great  interest.  The  court  house  is  thronged 
when  he  is  tried,  and  even  when  he  passes  along  the  street 
in  custody  of  an  officer,  there  is  great  curiosity  to  know  what 
he  has  been  doing.     Thus  the  white  community  is  constantly 


JOHN  y-  AbAMS. 
■2Hif 


240  THE  AFRO-AMERJCAN  TRESS. 

being  brought  in  contact  with  offcaste  and  outcasts  of  the 
colored  people,  and,  naturally  enough,  forms  its  conceptions 
of  all  from  the  bad  conduct  of  a  few.  But  the  refined  and 
pleasant  homes,  the  thousands  of  benevolent  and  Christian 
enterprises  that  are  in  constant  operation  among  colored 
people,  the  well-conducted  churches,  schools,  colleges,  socie- 
ties, and  other  civilizing  and  humanizing  instrumentalities, 
attract  almost  no  attention  from  the  whites,  and,  consequently, 
exert  almost  no  influence  upon  their  idea  of  their  progress. 
It  is  a  misfortune  to  both  races,  that  the  white  people  are 
so  constantly  forced  to  witness  and  learn  of  the  bad  conduct 
of  the  saloon-loafers  and  criminals  of  the  colored  race,  and 
that  they  take  such  pains  to  keep  themselves  from  witnessing 
the  decent  and  creditable  performances  of  the  intelligent, 
virtuous,  and  industrious  ones." 

The  truth  of  the  above  is  unmistakable;  and  with  such 
presentation  of  facts,  the  Afro- American  editor  may  live  to 
do  great  good,  and  the  world  will  be  the  better  for  the 
influence  he  exerts. 

Prof.  Julian  Talbot  Bailey,  Editor  Little  Rock  Suy. 

Prof.  Julian  T.  Bailey,  widely  known  as  a  journalist,  was 
born  March  22,  1859,  in  Warren  County,  Georgia.  His 
parents  were  Pierce  and  Adeline  Bailey  of  Georgia  and 
Virginia,  respectively.  His  sister  and  father  having  died 
when  he  was  a  lad,  he  was  left  with  his  mother  alone,  who, 
knowing  Julian's  desire  for  an  education,  promptly  resolved 
that  she  would  do  what  she  could  to  enable  him  to  obtain  it 

In  due  time  he  was  placed  in  the  common  schools  of  his 
county,  and  having  completed  the  prescribed  courses  in  these, 
he  was  sent  to  the  Atlanta  University,  and  entering  the 
college  preparatory  class,  he  graduated  from  the  institution 
with  first  honors,  at  the  age  of  seventeen.     He   then  went 


PEOF.  JDLIAS  TALBOT  BAILEY. 


242  THE  AFRO-AMERTCAN  PRESS. 

to  Howard  University,  where  he  completed  the  college  coarse. 

Since  leaving  school,  he  has  been  an  earnest  student,  and 
few  can  equal  him  in  the  sciences,  mathematics,  and  lan- 
guages. He  is  known  as  a  scholar  and  teacher  of  the  ablest 
kind.  He  never  fails  to  instill  into  his  pupils  the  highest 
principles,  with  pureness  of  character.  He  has  been  actively 
engaged  in  the  school-room  during  his  career.  He  has  had 
the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  conferred  upon  him  by  Howard 
University. 

Soon  after  leaving  college,  he  accepted  the  principalship 
of  the  Roanoke  Normal  and  Collegiate  Institute,  in  North 
Carolina.  He  has  since  been  professor  of  natural  sciences 
and.belles-lettres  in  the  Philander  Smith  University  of  Little 
Rock.  He  has  been  professor  of  higher  mathematics  and 
astronomy  in  the  Mississippi  State  Normal  College  and  presi- 
dent of  Bethel  University  of  Little  Rock. 

In  speaking  of  his  political  life,  a  writer  in  The  New  Yo^'k 
Fixcman  had  the  following  to  say :  "  In  politics  he  is  an 
independent  thinker  and  actor,  and  as  such  holds  a  free, 
strong,  and  independent  political  position.  He  has  always 
labored  to  make  ai^parent  the  folly  of  the  present  inclination 
in  politics,  and  has  advocated  free,  independent,  thoughtful 
action.  He  bends  to  no  party,  and  bows  to  no  apparent 
kindness;  but  stands  concientiously  upon  principle  and  fitness 
to  accomplish  the  highest  good. 

"  Prof.  Bailey  has  always  taken  an  active  part  in  the  politics 
of  his  adopted  states.  As  a  speaker,  he  is  pleasing,  interest- 
ing, and  eloquent.  He  is  a  man  of  strong  convictions,  tender 
synqmthies,  great  firmness  and  decision  of  purpose,  with  high 
personal  character.  He  possesses  severe  earnestness,  pluck, 
manly  courage;  aims  high,  is  ambitious  and  far-reaching, 
with  great  self-reliance  and  self-respect." 

Since  leaving  the  school-room.  Prof.  Bailey  has  been  ac- 
tively engaged   in   the  practice  of  law,  in  addition  to  his 


AFRO-AMERIOAN  EDITORS.  243 

editorial  duties.  He  is  one  of  the  few  of  his  race  who  have 
been  admitted  to  practice  before  the  Supreme  and  United 
States  Courts  in  his  state.  He  has  a  large  and  growing 
practice. 

While  Prof.  Bailey  has  been  wonderfully  successful  as  a 
lawyer,  yet  his  career  and  experience  have  been  so  large 
and  varied  in  the  journalistic  field,  one  might  think,  to  look 
at  his  work  in  this  direction,  that  he  had  no  time  for  any 
other.  He  has  been  marvelously  progressive  in  journalism. 
Certainly,  few  writers  have  been  associated  with  as  many 
papers,  at  different  intervals,  as  Mr.  Bailey,  and  filled  such 
positions  so  acceptably. 

As  to  his  course  in  journalism  before  the  publication  of 
JTie  Sun,  we  call  attention  to  a  clipping  from  The  Induin- 
apolis  Freeman  of  February  2d,  1889:  "Soon  after  leaving 
college  he  went  to  North  Carolina,  where  ho  was  principal, 
for  some  time,  of  a  school  known  as  the  Roanoke  Normal 
and  Collegiate  Institute.  He  also  published  and  edited  The 
National  Enquirer,  in  the  same  state,  until  the  spring  of 
1884,  when  he  was  offered  the  editorial  chair  of  The  Arkcuisas 
Herald.  Considering  Arkansas  a  more  inviting  Held,  he 
accepted  the  offer.  His  editorial  management  of  The  Herald 
was  marked  by  signal  ability  and  success,  in  consequence 
of  which  he  at  once  received  encomiums  from  the  leadiriLT 
men  and  papers,  both  white  and  colored,  thronghout  lia.' 
state.  Such  was  the  effect  of  his  ability  upon  Arkansas  as  a 
journalist,  that  scarcely  had  he  edited  The  Herald  a  month 
before  it  was  decided  by  the  members  of  the  Arkansas  Herald 
and  Mansion  publishing  companies,  to  consolidate  the  papers. 
He  was  then  elected  editor  of  the  consolidated  paper,  which 
was  at  once  regarded  as  one  of  the  leading  ncgio  journals 
of  the  country.  He  continued  to  edit  The  Heraid- Mansion 
until  the  fall  of  1884,  when  he  was  elected  professor  of 
mUaral  9C]#ao9  wd  beUea-l^ttres  in  the  Philander  Smith 


244  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

University  of  Little  Rock.     This  position  he  fills  with  g^eat 
credit  to  himself,  as  well  as  to  the  institution  employing  him. 

As  expressed  by  the  author,  as  well  as  by  our  most 
eminent  men  in  their  opinions  in  this  work,  there  is  little 
pecuniary  benefit  to  be  reaped  from  Afro-American  journals, 
in  the  earlier  stage  of  their  existence.  This  Prof.  Bailey 
knew,  and  so  he  accepted  a  professorship  in  a  college,  in 
addition  to  his  labors  as  editor  of  The  LUile  Rock  Sun.  Thus 
he  is  enabled  to  support  himself  comfortably,  and  have  at 
his  command  increased  means  for  the  publication  of  his 
journal. 

T/ve  Sun  began  publication  in  1885,  an  independent  paper, 
with  Prof.  Bailey  as  editor.  This  independent  stand  it  has 
since  maintained,  and  it  is  noted  for  its  out-spoken  senti- 
ments in  advocacy  of  the  rights  of  the  race.  On  January 
1st,  1889,  it  entered  upon  its  fifth  volume. 

Since  September  1st,  1888,  Prof.  Bailey  has  published  two 
other  papers,  27ie  Hot  Springs  Sun  and  The  Texarkana  Sun, 
(Texas,)  three  separate  and  distinct  papers,  the  combined 
weekly  "bona  fide"  circulation  of  which  is  over  six  thousand. 
The  Little  Eock  Sun  has  as  large  a  circulation  as  any  other 
Afro- American  journal  in  the  country,  and  it  is  doubtless  safe 
to  assert  that  it  outranks  all  others  in  the  number  of  its 
readers  and  the  weight  of  its  influence. 

Prof.  Bailey  is  a  newspaper  man,  "to  the  manor  bom." 
His  success  in  the  work  is  due,  first,  to  his  ability,  and, 
second,  to  his  energy  and  great  zeal.  As  a  journalist,  a 
writer  sums  him  up  thus :  **  He  has  shown  from  childhood 
an  insatiable  thirst  for  knowledge  and  an  immeasurable 
ability  for  grasping  and  retaining  the  most  profound  truths. 
While  at  college  he  distinguished  himself  as  a  linguist  and 
mathematician.  As  a  literary  man,  many  know  him.  His 
clear,  logical,  conclusive,  unique,  though  graceful  style,  is 
well  known  to  most  publishers  and  readers  of  the  leading 


AtnO-AMEftlCAN  EDiTOftS.  245 

papera  of  the  day.  His  articles  are  sought  eagerly,  and  are 
published  and  read  with  both  pleasure  and  benefit."  The 
question  with  the  fraternity  is  now — "Where  can  another 
Bailey  be  found  ?** 

David  C.  Carter,  Ex-Editor  Virginia  Critic. 

The  Critic  wielded  such  an  influence,  and  strove  so  hard 
to  extend  justice  and  fair  play  to  both  the  people  it 
represented  and  to  others,  that  we  would  not  fail  to  give  it 
space  in  this  volume. 

The  8iiJ)ject  of  this  article  was  born  in  Staunton,  October 
25,  1862,  and  was  educated  in  the  public  and  private 
schools  of  that  city,  and  is  to-day  a  trusted  teacher  in  one  of 
the  Staunton  public  schools. 

His  connection  with  The  Chitic  began  in  1884,  and  was 
continued  for  four  years  as  managing  editor.  His  paper  was 
regarded  as  one  of  the  most  telling  sheets  ever  published  in 
Virginia  by  the  Afro-American.  Since  its  suspension,  he 
has  been  writing  constantly  for  Anglo-Saxon  papers,  as  well 
as  for  various  Afro- American  journals. 

His  articles,  and  especially  his  editorials,  were  often  found 
in  the  columns  of  other  journals,  either  quoted  in  full  or  in 
part.  Mr.  Fortune,  in  his  *'  Negro  in  Politics,"  clips  from 
the  editorial  columns  of  The  Oritic,  The  people  of  Virginia 
lost  an  able  and  progressive  medium,  when  The  Critic  failed 
to  criticise  the  faults  of  the  Afro- American  or  laud  his  good 
deeds. 

William  Buford,  Editor  Arkansas  Dispatch. 

The  editor  of  The  Dispatch  dates  his  entrance  into  the 
world  September  10,  1855,  his  parents  being  George  and 
Clara  A.  Buford  of  Pulaski  County,  Arkansas. 

When  he  was  eight  years  old,  his  father  died,  leaving  him 


246  THE  APRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

dependent  upon  a  poor  mother.  They,  however;  sunrived 
the  harduhips  to  which  they  were  subject,  and  William 
received  a  good,  practical  education  in  the  schools  of 
Arkansas.  He  taught  in  the  public  schools  of  the  state  for 
years,  always  meeting  with  marked  success,  as  shown  at  the 
examinations. 

Retiring  from  the  service  of  a  pedagogue  in  1884,  he 
became  editor  of  The  Herald- Mansion,  published  in  Little 
Rock.  This  is  known  to  have  been  the  first  Afro-American 
journal  published  in  Arkansas;  which  makes  him  a  pioneer 
in  the  newspaper  field,  in  that  state.  He  served  as  editor 
of  that  journal  for  two  years,  when  a  dissolutidn  of  TTie 
Herald  and  Mansion  was  efTected,  the  paper,  though,  continu- 
ing, under  the  name  and  style  of  The  Mansion,  and  he  as  its 
editor  and  manager. 

The  company  publishing  ITie  Mansion  sold,  in  1887,  all 
the  good  will  and  material  to  Editor  Buford,  and  he  then 
launched  upon  the  journalistic  sea  The  Arkansas  Dispatch, 
In  politics,  The  Dispatch  is  Republican.  It  is  a  six-column 
folio,  with  the  motto:  "Hew  to  the  line,  let  the  chips  fall 
where  they  may.'' 

Rev.  W.  H.  Anderson,  D.  D.,  Ex-Editoe  Baptist  Watch- 
tower. 

The  race,  the  pulpit,  and  the  press,  vie  in  their  respect 
for  the  above  gentleman,  who  was  born  in  Lash  Creek 
Settlement,   Vigo  County,  Indiana,  May  8,  1848. 

His  life,  which  has  reached  forty-one  years,  has  been 
marked  with  hardships  and  achievements,  which  occur  in  the 
experience  of  every  one  who  attains  to  any  degree  of  eminence 
in  the  world.  He  is  the  possessor  of  a  good  English  educa- 
tion, obtained  by  persistent  attention  to  books  without  the 
aid  of  an  instructor,  the  foundation  having  been  laid  in  a 


BEV.  W.  H,  ANDEBSON,  D.  D. 


248  THE  APRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

school  which  he  attended  in  his  own  state.     He  is  now  pastor 
of  McFarland  Chapel,  of  Evansyille,  Ind. 

His  prominence  in  political  circles  has  won  for  him  world- 
renowned   fame.     The  press,   bbth  white  and  black,  have 
given  him  the  palm  for  his  speeches  in  behalf  of  the  green- 
back party,  whose  cause  he  espoused.     He  was  several  times 
delegate  to  the   convention  of  that  party.     Relative  to  an 
address  delivered  at  Kansas  City  once,  in  the  interest  of  his 
party,  the  press  of  that  city  said :     "  He  handled  his  subject 
in  a  calm,  dignified,  and  logical  manner.     Keep  him  on  the 
stump;  he  will   do  good."     The  Standard  of  Leavenworth, 
Kan.,  says:     ^'He  is  a  man  of  considerable  ability,  and  a 
fluent  talker."     Concerning  his  ability  as  a  preacher,  The  Terra 
Saute  Express  says :     "  His  delivery  is  good,  his  pronunciation 
is  distinct,  and  remarkably  accurate."     "  He  is  also  a  writer," 
says  one.     This   fact  was  evinced   by  his  editorship  of  the 
Indiana  Baptist  Watch- Tower,  published  at  Evansville,  Ind,, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Baptist  Association,     This  paper, 
being  well  edited,  took  high  rank  among  the  best  journals  of 
the  race.     The  faculty  of  the  State  University  of  Louisville, 
Ky.,  gave  him  the  degree  of  D.  D.,  at  its  commencement  in 
1889.    Both  in  speaking  and  in  writing,  Dr.  Anderson  is  seen  as 
a  man  of  quick,  keen  perceptions,  and  broad  views.     He  is 
deeply  concerned  in  all  moverrents  having  for  their  object 
the  development  of  a  higher  and  a  nobler  civilization  among 
his  people. 

Rev.  0.  C.  Stumm,  Editor  Philadelphia  Depabtment 
OF  The  Brooklyn  National  Monitor. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  at  Airdrie,  near 
Paradise,  on  Green  River,  Muhlenburg  County,  Ky.,  April 
11,  1848.  His  early  life  was  spent  in  Ohio  County,  on  a 
fiarmi  where  the  only  education  one  could  get  was  what  he 


BBV.  c.  C.  ST0MM,  D.  D. 


260  THE  APRO-AMERIOAN  PREjsS. 

learned  on  rainy  days  and  winter  evenings,  and  in  what  was 

called  a  subscription  school. 

After  the  training  as  such  facilities  afforded  he  entered 
school  at  Grenville,  where  he  spent  three  terms.  He  then 
went  to  a  white  school.  This  aroused  such  bitter  opposition, 
he  soon  had  to  withdraw  from  the  school,  and  receive  private 
instruction.  After  this  he  entered  Berea  College,  Madison 
County,  Ky.,  in  the  spring  of  1871,  where  he  continued  but 
one  year,  when  he  went  to  the  Baptist  Theological  Institute, 
Nashville,  Tenn. ;  but  ill-health  compelled  him  to  leave  school 
for  a  few  years.  In  the  meantime,  however,  he  continued  to 
study  under  private  instruction. 

After  his  health  was  restored  he  returned  to  Nashville, 
Tenn.  The  Ba2>tist  Theological  Institute  had  undergone  a 
change  in  the  interval  of  his  absence  and  was  now  called  the 
Roger  Williams  University.  Things  were  all  new  when  he 
re-entered  the  university,  but  he  was  soon  installed  again 
in  his  classes,  with  the  expectation  of  completing  the  regular 
course.  Other  hindrances,  however,  unfortunately  arose  to 
prevent  this,  though  he  was  in  the  higher  classes,  and 
making  rapid  progress.  Again  was  he  compelled  to  avail 
himself  of  private  instruction,  receiving  lessons  in  Latin, 
Greok  and  Hebrew,  which  were  given  by  some  of  the  best 
teachers  of  Boston,  such  as  Profs.  Perkins,  Mitchell  and 
Harper. 

Mr.  Stumm  assumed  charge  of  his  first  school  in  the  spring 
of  1869,  at  the  age  of  20,  in  Christian  County,  Ky.  He 
continued  to  teach,  at  intervals,  for  fifteen  years,  in  private 
and  public  schools  in  Tennessee  and  Kentucky.  The  people 
of  Hartsville  and  Lebanon,  Tenn.,  knew  him  well  as  a 
teacher.  The  superintendent  of  schools  of  Trousdale  County, 
Tenn.,  had  such  confidence  in  Mr.  Stumm,  he  looked  to  him 
to  furnish  teachers  for  the  colored  schools  of  the  countv,  and 
received  much  valuable  aid  from  him  by  so  doing. 


APftO-AMEtHCAU  EblTOtlS.  25l 

A  school  was  successfully  taught  by  Mr.  Stumm  at  Chap- 
laintown,  Ky.,  in  the  fall  and  winter  of  1870.  He  and  his 
wife  conducted  a  successful  school  at  Elizabethtown,  Hardin 
County,  Ky.,  in  the  fall  and  winter  of  1877  and  1878.  In 
January,  1881,  he  was  selected  as  president  of  the  Bowling 
Green  academy,  with  Prof.  C.  R.  McDowell,  Miss  M.  V. 
Cook,  Miss  A.  M.  Stepp,  and  Mrs.  C.  C.  Stumm,  as  assistants. 
Prof.  G.  R.  McDowell  has  since  entered  the  ministry,  and  is 
the  successful  pastor  of  a  Baptist  church  at  Hartford,  Ky. 
Miss  M.  V.  Cook  is  now  Prof.  Mary  V.  Cook,  at  the  State 
University  at  Louisville,  Ky.  Mrs.  C.  C.  Stumm  has  since 
taught,  and  has  been  the  matron,  at  the  Hearne  academy, 
Hearne,  Texas,  and  is  at  present  connected  with  The  Naimial 
Monitor  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  having  the  management  of  its 
business  at  Philadelphia.  This  closes  Mr.  Stumm's  career  as 
a  teacher,  with  the  exception  of  his  instructing  a  few  young 
men  privately,  who  are  preparing  for  the  ministry,  whom  he 
attends  to  each  winter. 

While  we  are  directing  our  readers  more  particularly  to 
Rev.  Mr.  Stumm's  journalistic  career,  we  would  not  omit 
mention  of  his  experience  as  a  pastor.  His  success  in  this 
useful  department  of  life's  work  has  been  glorious  and  grand. 
Beginning  with  the  care  of  small  churclies,  he  worked 
untiringly  for  the  Master,  until  October  4,  1885.  He  then 
became  pastor  of  the  Union  Baptist  church  at  Philadelphia, 
one  of  the  largest  churches  in  the  city. 

To  show  how  the  people  looked  upon  him  as  a  preacher, 
we  reproduce  a  portion  of  an  article  concerning  him  which 
we  have  clipped,  calling  the  attention  of  our  readers  more 
particularly  to  what  Dr.  H.  L.  Way  land,  editor  of  The 
NaiUmal  Baptist,  says  of  him :  "  The  ability  and  high  stand- 
ing of  Rev.  C.  C.  Stumm  caused  him  to  be  selected  to  preach 
a  sermon  to  the  Odd  Fellows  of  this  city,  which  elicited 
much  favorable  comment  both  from   the  press  and  from 


252  THE  AFRO-AMEMOAN  l>feES8. 

prominent  individuals.  He  preached  one  of  the  re-opening 
sermons  at  Shiloh,  and  also  at  the  First  African  Baptist 
church.  He  has  frequently  spoken  at  the  Baptist  Ministers* 
Conference,  which  is  composed  of  the  leading  white  ministers 
of  the  denomination.  The  paper  he  read  before  this  body, 
entitled  *The  Mission  of  the  Negro  Baptists,'  received  the 
highest  praise  from  the  Conference  and  the  press.  On  May 
10,  1889,  Dr.  H.  L.  Wayland,  editor  of  The  NcUianal  Baptist, 
says :  '  I  take  great  pleasure  in  introducing  to  all  members 
of  the  Baptist  denomination,  and  to  other  friends  of  a  good 
cause,  the  Rev.  C.  C.  Stumm,  pastor  of  the  Union  Baptist 
church  in  this  city.  Mr.  Stumm  studied  at  Roger  Williams 
University,  at  Nashville,  and,  more  recently,  at  Boston, 
Mass.  He  is  a  highly  esteemed  member  of  the  Baptist 
Ministers'  Conference,  and  is  a  faithful  and  wise  pastor  and 
a  good  preacher  of  the  Word.  The  Conference  has  com- 
mended him  and  his  church,  in  their  present  enterprise  of 
building,  to  all  our  brethren.  I  sincerely  hope  that  his 
appeal  for  aid  will  meet  with  a  favorable  response.* "  He  was 
several  times  president  of  Baptist  conventions  and  associa- 
tions, and  has  always  acted  promptly  and  well  on  these 
occasions, 

Mr.  Stumm*s  success  in  the  ministry  has  not  interfered  at 
all  with  his  progress  in  the  glorious  work  of  journalism,  as 
will  be  seen  in  the  following  account  we  give  of  it:  His 
career  as  an  editor  was  begun  in  1873,  while  he  was  a  student 
at  Nashville,  Tenn.  Pursuant  to  an  adjournment,  the  Baptist 
Convention  met  with  the  First  Baptist  church  of  that  city, 
and  an  editor  of  one  of  the  papers  asked  the  pastor.  Rev. 
N.  G.  Merry,  to  have  some  one  appointed  as  reporter,  and 
the  choice  fell  on  Mr,  Stumm,  who  accepted  the  position  with 
some  diffidence,  but  succeeded  in  reporting  the  proceedings 
of  the  meeting,  though  not  in  the  most  satisfactory  way  to  all. 

Subsequently,   he   became  a  writer  for  The  Standard^  a 


HON,  C.  H.  I.  TAYLOE. 


254  THE  AFRO-AMEEICAN  PRESS. 

paper  publiebed  by  Elder  N,  G.  Merry;  for  Ute  Bapluz 
Berald,  published  at  Paducah,  Ky.,  by  Rev.  G.  W.  Dupee; 
The  Ptlot.  published  at  Nashville,  Tenn.;  7%e  Ammcan 
Bapliat,  Louisville,  Ky. ;  TIte  Tribune,  a  Republican  paper, 
published  at  Danville,  Ky. ;  and  for  The  Baptist  Cbrnpanton, 
published,  at  fii-st,  at  Kooxville,  Tenn.,  by  Rev.  J.  M. 
Armstead,  and  then  moved  to  Portamouth,  Va. 

The  children's  column  of  17ie  American  Baptist  was  edited 
by  him  for  a  while,  in  which  be  was  known  as  "Uncle 
Charles."  A  column  for  the  colored  people  was  conducted 
by  him  in  2Re  Bowling- Qreen  Democrat,  until  some  of  the 
Bourbons  got  behind  the  editor  and  caused  him  to  discontinue 
it.  The  Bovtlivg-Oreen  Waichman  was  originated  by  Messrs. 
Stumm  and  C.  B.  McDowell,  and  successfuliy  published  by 
them  for  a  few  years. 

In  June,  1887,  he  was  engaged  by  the  board  of  managers 
of  the  New  England  Convention  as  editor-in-chief  of  The 
Baptist  Monitor,  and  held  the  place  until  the  paper  was  sold 
to  Dr.  R.  L.  Ferry.,  after  which  he  became  associate  editor, 
a  position  he  still  occupies. 

As  a  matter-of-fact  writer,  Mr.  Stumm  ranks  high.  He 
has,  with  hundreds  of  others,  endeavored  in  every  possible 
way  to  prevent  the  banner  of  Afro-American  journalism  from 
trailing.  He  is  an  earnest  pastor  and  teacher,  and  a  vigorous 
wielder  of  the  pen,  in  any  one  of  which  poeitiona  he  eierta  a 
commanding  influence. 

The  Chrislian  Banner,  a  four-column,  eight-page,  religioufl 
home  journal,  was  commenced  by  Rev.  and  Mrs,  C.  C. 
Stumm,  Januaiy  2,  1890,  the  former  being  editor  and  the 
latter  its  bufiness  manager. 

The  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  was  conferred  upon  Mr. 
Stumm  May  13,  1890,  by  the  State  University  of  Louisville, 
Ky.,  Rev.  Wm.  J.  Simmons,  A.  M.,  D,  D„  LL.  D.,  presi- 
dent. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  255 

Rev.   E.   W.   S.    Peck,   D.    D.,    Ex-Editor    Conference 
Journal  and  Contributor  to  Prominent  Journals. 

Dr.  Peck,  a  Christian  minister  of  high  repute,  and  a 
writer  of  good  standing,  was  born  of  devout  parents,  Rev. 
Nathaniel  and  Lydia  Peck,  in  Baltimore,  October  31,  1843. 

He  received  his  educational  training  in  the  public  schools 
of  Baltimore,  Ashmore  Institute,  (now  Lincoln  University) 
and  under  the  private  tuition  of  Rev.  B.  F.  Crary,  D.  D.,  in 
St.  Louis.  He  puts  his  intellectual  training  to  excellent  use, 
and  is  to-day  one  of  the  foremost  scholars  in  the  land.  New 
Orleans  University  conferred  the  honorary  title  of  D.  D.  upon 
this  worthy  divine. 

From  1865,  he  served  some  of  the  most  learned  and 
conspicuous  congregations  of  the  M.  E.  Church  in  the 
Missouri  and  Washington  Conferences.  At  this  writing,  he 
leads  the  Washington  Conference  in  point  of  popularity, 
intellectual  ability,  and  knowledge  of  Christian  ethics.  He 
has  been  secretary  of  the  same  Conference  for  five  years ;  was 
its  representative  in  several  General  Conferences,  and  went 
abroad  as  its  delegate  to  the  Ecumenical  Conference,  which 
met  in  London,  in  1881.  During  his  stay  in  the  Old  World, 
he  traveled  extensively  in  England,  France  and  Ireland.  In 
all  the  walks  of  life,  he  has  rendered  invaluable  service  to 
his  church  and  race. 

In  journalism  he  has  been  a  success.  While  in  St.  Louis 
filling  a  pastorate  in  1870,  he  edited  a  local  paper  called  The 
Welcome  Friend,  in  behalf  of  the  religious  and  educational 
interests  of  his  people.  It  had  a  good  circulation  and  was 
warmly  received.  The  Washington  Annual  Conference 
haying  established  an  organ  in  1886,  unanimously  elected 
him  editor,  with  Revs.  Benj.  Brown  and  Griffin,  associates. 
The  organ  was  known  as  The  Washington  Conference  JourrtaL 
Jte  cplumna^  week  after  week,  teemed  with  live,  original,  and 


256  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

instructive  articles;  while  its  editorials  were  apt,  able, 
progressive,  and  full  of  the  mind  and  heart  of  its  editors. 
The  Journal  is  no  more,  but  its  editor,  whose  work  still 
goes  on,  reminds  us  that  a  serviceable  publication  was 
gathered  into  the  arms  of  its  projectors. 

Me.  S.  B.  Tuener,  Editoe  State  Capital. 

The  Oapitcd  has  become  one  of  the  most  reliable  papers 
edited  by  the  Afro- American,  which  is  largely  due,  finan- 
cially and  editorially,  to  the  management  of  him  whose  career 
we  now  present.  Adhering  to  the  motto — "We  advocate 
justice  to  all ;  On  this  principle  we  stand  or  fall,'*  it  has  been 
successful  in  being  a  welcome  visitor  to  the  homes  of  the 
masses  of  Afro- American  citizens  in  and  around  the  capital 
of  Illinois. 

The  editor,  Mr.  S.  B.  Turner,  was  born  July  12,  1854,  at 
West  Feliciana,  La.  At  the  age  of  fourteen,  he  was  master 
of  the  rudimentary  English  branches,  having  given  close  and 
diligent  study  to  his  books.  He  worked  as  an  apprentice  in 
a  confectionery  shop  at  the  age  of  which  we  speak,  but 
afterward  became  a  baker,  and  a  very  excellent  one.  He 
has  worked  at  his  trade  with  considerable  success. 

For  years  he  conducted  a  wood  and  coal  yard,  as  well  as 
being  a  trusted  worker  in  the  office  of  the  secrftary  of  state, 
Hon,  H,  D.  Dement,  at  Chicago.  At  this  place  he  entered  a 
business  college,  completing  the  course  of  study,  which  has 
led  to  his  financial  success  in  journalism.  Few  men  make 
journalism  a  success,  financially. 

When  at  Springfield  he  took  an  active  part  in  politics, 
and  received  recognition  at  the  hands  of  his  party  for  faithful 
service.  It  was  on  this  account  he  was  induced  to  enter  the 
journalistic  field,  and  in  1886,  though  under  adverse  circum- 
stances, to  establish  The  State  Capital^  said  to  be  the  leading 


REV.  E.  W.  B.  PECK,  D.  D. 


25d  THE  AFRO-AMEEIOAN  I>ftESS. 

organ  of  the  race,  west  of  the  Ohio  river.  It  is  the  recog- 
nized organ  of  the  Afro- Americans  of  Illinois,  and  wields  a 
potent  influence  in  politics. 

Three  Afro- American  journals  have  been  started  at  Spring- 
field, but  with  ill  success.  Mr.  Turner  has  succeeded,  because, 
as  he  himself  states :  "  Energy,  perseverance  and  individual 
attention  to  the  enterprise,  will  eventuate  in  success.  Any 
man  with  good  business  habits,  a  fair  education,  and  pleasing 
'address,  who  will  not  subordinate  his  advertising  columns  to 
trashy  local  news,  can  bring  to  his  support  a  reasonable  share 
of  business  patronage,  which  always  pays  well.  Short  edito- 
rials, brief  correspondence  from  other  cities  and  towns,  a  high 
moral  tone,  condemning  wrong,  defending  right,  urging  the 
payment  of  subscriptions  due,  dropping  from  the  list  the 
always-promising   and   never-paying   subscribers,  will  insure 


success." 


Mr.  Turner  resides  with  his  family  at  Springfield,  where 
he  is  known  for  his  strict  business  integrity ;  the  best  evidence 
of  which  is,  his  word  commands  any  simi  of  money  desired 
in  the  management  of  his  business  enterprise.  About  the 
Afro-American  in  politics  and  in  business,  Editor  Turner 
says  truthfully :  "  When  the  negro  in  America  begins  busi- 
ness for  himself,  and  accumulates  wealth  and  intelligence, 
the  race  problem  then  will  be  solved.  Business  must  be  first 
and  politics  last." 

Rev.  Joseph  A.  Booker,  A.  B.,  Editor  Baptist  Vanguard. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  near  the  little  hamlet 
of  Portland,  Ashley  County,  Arkansas,  December  26,  1859. 
His  mother  died  when  he  was  only  one  year  old.  Two  years 
afterward,  his  father,  having  some  knowledge  of  books,  was 
whipped  to  death  for  teaching  and  "spoiling  the  good 
niggers." 


8.B.TURSER. 


260  THE  APftO-AMERlCAN  PRESS. 

Upon  the  death  of  his  father,  he  was  placed  in  the  hands 
of  his  maternal  grandmother,  who  carefully  nurtured  him 
^nd  looked  after  his  educational  interests  with  true  motherly 
zeal.  When  the  free  school  system  was  inaugurated,  she  saw 
that  Joseph  was  one  of  the  fii*st  pupils  to  be  enrolled. 
Remaining  at  school  until  seventeen,  he  then  became  a 
teacher,  afterward  entering  the  branch  Normal  School  of 
the  University  at  Pine  Bluff,  Ark.,  under  Prof.  J.  C.  Corbin, 
the  linguist.  He  also  attended  Roger  Williams  University. 
Having  been  licensed  to  preach,  he  here  attempted  a  theo- 
logical course,  but  relinquished  it  after  one  year,  and 
continued  the  regular  college  course  until  graduation,  which 
occurred  May  26,  1886,  when  he  received  the  degree  of  A.  B. 

On  returning  home  from  school,  he  was  appointed  state 
missionary  of  Arkansas,  under  the  joint  commission  of  the 
State  Mission  Board  and  the  Executive  Board  of  the  Ameri- 
can Baptist  Home  Mission  Society.  He  was  engaged  in  this 
only  twelve  months  before  he  was  appointed  president  of 
Arkansas  Baptist  College.  As  the  Convention  Board  had 
already  decided  to  have  a  denominational  organ  in  the  school, 
(which  would  be  an  advantage  to  the  paper  and  the  school 
alike)  this  brought  Mr.  Booker  in  direct  connection  with  the 
paper,  in  the  fall  of  1887.  He  was  at  once  made  its 
managing  editor.  This  position  he  filled  creditably,  and 
with  profit  to  the  paper,  notwithstanding  the  overburden  of 
work  the  young  school  necessitated,  with  its  very  small  corps 
of  teachers. 

The  paper  was  at  first  known  as  TJie  Arkamas  Baptist; 
but  the  white  Baptists  of  the  state  presuming  to  name  their 
paper  The  Arka7isas  Baptisty  brought  on  a  business  collision 
between  the  two,  and  in  March,  1889,  The  Arkansas  Baptist 
(colored)  changed  its  name  to  TJie  Baptist  Vanguard. 
Under  this  new  title  it  continued  to  advance  and  flourish, 
gaining  in  popularity  and  material  work. 


262  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

The  Vanguard  is  issued  bi-weekly,  first  as  a  general 
religious  journal,  and  then  as  a  denominational  organ ;  but, 
at  the  same  time,  it  is  a  strong  advocate  of  education,  Christian, 
industrial,  and  general.  Notwithstanding  its  religious  char- 
acter, it  does  not  scruple  to  discuss  such  political  issues  as 
are  likely  to  enhance  the  welfare  of  its  race  or  the  general 
progress  of  the  country.  It  has  a  large  circulation,  there 
being  no  other  paper  of  its  kind  in  the  state  to  compete  with 
it.  It  gives  special  attention  to  inquiries  made  for  lost 
kinsfolk,  separated  from  their  families  in  slavery  days.  It 
is  the  highest  ambition  of  Rev.  Joseph  A.  Booker  to  make 
The  Vanguard  one  of  the  best  papers  in  the  South-west. 

Rev.  Richard  De  Baptiste,  Ex-Editoe  Consekvatob  and 
Correspondinq  Editor  Brooklyn  Monitor. 

77i€  Conservator,  now  published  at  Chicago,  with  Mr. 
Barnett  as  editor,  began  its  existence  the  first  of  1878.  It 
changed  hands  about  the  latter  part  of  that  year,  when  Rev. 
R.  De  Baptiste  assumed  editorial  control,  being  then  pastor 
of  the  Mt.  Olivet  church.  Rev.  Mr.  Boothe  was  associate 
editor.  It  was  at  that  time  one  of  the  representative  journals 
edited  by  the  Afro-American,  both  for  news  and  editorial 
ability. 

Mr.  De  Baptiste  is  from  Old  Virginia  stock,  born  and 
educated  in  the  Old  Dominion,  and  has  proved  a  valuable 
acquisition  to  the  paper  in  pushing  it  into  the  houses  of  the 
masses  and  in  satisfying  the  thirsty  intellects  of  the  intelli- 
gent Afro- Americans. 

When  he  assumed  control  of  TTve  Oonservator,  he  said  of 
the  paper:  '*  It  will  discuss  in  a  fair  and  liberal  spirit  those 
questions  that  agitate  and  cause  an  honest  difference  of 
opinion  among  citizens,  whose  aims  are  alike  patriotic;  but 
will  sive  special  prominence  to  such  matters  as  appertain 


BEV.  RICHARD  DE  BAPTISTE. 


264  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

to  the  intellectual,  moral,  and  social  development  and  business 
prosperity  of  the  colored  people,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
keep  its  columns  open  to  a  fair  and  courteous  discussion  of  all 
important  subjects.  *  Progress  in  all  right  directions,'  shall 
be  its  motto."  With  tliis  in  view,  Rev.  De  Baptiste  labored 
zealously  for  the  principles  he  had  enunciated. 

As  pastor,  editor  and  citizen,  he  did  a  work  in  Chicago 
that  will  h)ng  be  felt.  He  has  now  the  pastoral  charge  of 
the  church  at  Galesburg.  He  is  also  statistical  secretary  of 
the  National  Baptist  Association.  The  State  University  con- 
ferred "  D.  D."  upon  him  at  its  commencement,  1887. 

Some  of  his  best  editorials  while  editor  of  The  Conservator 
are:  "The  Negro  in  Debt;  but  who  owes  him?"  *' Colored 
voters  and  the  Republican  Party;"  "The  Emigration  Ques- 
tion;" and  "Social  Equality."  Upon  these  questions,  he 
wrote  in  that  style  peculiar  to  the  true,  able  and  vigorous 
writer. 

After  withdrawing  from  The  Co7iservator,  September,  1884, 
he  began  the  publication  of  The  Wesieim  Herald,  a  religious 
journal,  which  ran  until  December,  1885.  After  this  he  was 
for  several  years  upon  the  editorial  staff  of  The  Brooklyn 
Monitoi'  with  Dr.  R.  L.  Perry. 

Among  the  ablest  articles  appearing  in  The  Monitor  from 
his  pen,  are:  "  Are  we  Doing  our  Duty?"  having  reference 
to  Christians;  and  "Christian  Co-operation."  He  is  a  jour- 
nalist whom  the  race  admire  and  love.  The  influence  he 
has  been  able  to  exert  through  the  medium  of  his  pen  has 
been  uplifting  and  highly  spiritual.  The  inspiration  to  a 
better  life  has  been  imparted  to  many  a  soul  by  a  perusal 
of  his  writings,  and  many  a  one  cheered  and  comforted 
thereby.  His  work  in  this  direction  is  missed.  Unlike  many, 
Rev.  Dr.  De  Baptiste  possesses  the  power  to  write  and  talk. 

He  has  three  children,  one  of  whom  partakes  of  the  father's 
journalistic  nature. 


REV.  T.  \Y.  COFFKK 


266  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAH  FBEBS. 

&K?.  T.  W.  OoFTSB,  EonoB  YntDicATtm. 

The  labjeot  of  this  aketoh  fint  ntw  the  light  on  the  4lii 
Abj  of  Jolj,  1868,  in  Lauderdale  County,  AUKmha  hJs 
mother  was  a  slave,  and  the  fetters  of  bondage  held  him 
daring  the  first  eleven  years  of  his  life;  but  so  great  was  his 
horror  of  servitude,  that  he  ran  away  twice  before  he 
attained  the  age  of  twelve.  Cruel  treatment  and  his  ex- 
treme hatred  of  slavery  caused  him  to  renew  his  efibrto  to 
obtain  freedom,  and  in  1864  he  succeeded  in  finding  refuge 
with  his  father  and  mother. 

At  the  age  of  thirteen  he  became  an  orphan,  and  grew  up 
under  the  most  adverse  circumstances,  with  few  advantages, 
being  in  one  of  the  most  benighted  regions  of  the  state.  At 
the  age  of  twenty  this  child  of  misfortuue  was  unable  to 
write  his  name ;  but,  with  the  strong  determination  "  to  find 
a  way  or  make  one/'  he,  by  the  assistance  of  a  paid  instructor, 
soon  learned  to  write  legibly. 

In  course  of  time  he  entered  Le  Moyne  Institute,  at 
Memphis,  Tenn.,  and  by  close  application  was,  in  a  short 
time,  enabled  to  pass  a  creditable  examination.  He  began 
teaching,  which  calling  he  followed  for  several  years,  with 
great  benefit  to  his  pupils,  as  well  as  credit  to  himself  and  to 
his  profession.  In  1878,  he  joined  the  A.  M.  £.  Conference, 
and  has  had  some  of  the  best  appointments  in  Alabama. 

His  first  journalistic  effort  was  as  editor  of  The  Christian 
Era,  in  1887.  Though  occupying  the  position  of  associate 
editor  of  the  paper,  he  was  regarded  by  many  as  being  the 
actual  editor-in-chief.  The  Era  was  first  published  exclu- 
sively as  a  religious  journal;  but  owing  to  the  fiedlure  of 
other  Afro- American  papers  to  discuss  boldly  the  issues  of 
the  day,  Mr.  Coffee  entered  the  arena  of  controversy,  and  his 
keen  and  polished  shafts  of  logic  and  sarcasm  arrested  the 
f^ttention  of  the  leading  dailies  of  the  state.    After  a  time 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  267 

the  name  of  his  paper  was  changed  from  The  Christian  Era 
to  The  Birmingham  Era. 

In  1888,  Mr.  Coffee  was  appointed  pastor  of  a  church  in 
Mobile,  where  he  commenced  the  publication  of  a  sheet 
known  as  The  Methodist  Vindicator,  which,  as  the  name 
indicated,  was  a  religious  paper,  but  it  did  not  fail,  ou 
occasion,  to  give  voice  to  those  great  race  issues  which  were 
and  are  now  agitating  the  public  mind.  The  publication  of 
this  paper  was  suspended  on  account  of  the  great  demand 
upon  the  editor's  time  by  urgent  church  business,  and  by  his 
subsequent  removal  to  Eufala.  As  soon  as  he  became  settled 
in  the  latter  city,  he  commenced  the  publication  of  a  sheet 
known  as  The  Vindicaior,  an  unsectarian  paper  devoted  to 
news  and  the  general  interests  of  the  Afro- American  race. 

As  a  writer,  Mr.  Coffee  is  caustic  and  fearless,  though  dis- 
creet. He  knows  the  right,  and  dares  to  maintain  it.  He  is 
destined  to  become  one  of  the  most  brilliant  journalistic 
lights  of  the  country,  and  is  a  man  of  whom  his  race  has 
reason  to  be  proud,  especially  in  his  vocation  as  a  journalist. 

Rev.  S.  D.  Russell,  Editoe  Torchlight  Appeal. 

The  motto,  "  Find  a  way  or  make  one,"  seems  to  have  beon 
the  principle  instilled  into  Rev.  S.  D.  Russell,  the  brilliant 
young  editor  of  the  only  religious  paper  published  at  present 
in  Texas.  Born  in  the  city  of  Natchez.,  Miss.,  August  3, 
1862,  of  pious  parents,  he  was  early  imbued  with  the  idea 
of  doing  work  for  the  Master.  After  his  conversion  he 
identified  himself  with  the  A.  M.  E.  church,  in  which  connec- 
tion he  grew  up  well  educated,  and  is  at  present  a  minister 
of  high  standing  in  that  denomination. 

But  we  are  to  speak  of  him  more  particularly  as  a  jour- 
nalist. In  this  sphere  he  is  making  rapid  headway.  He 
^^eyes,  as  do  most  Afro-Americans  in   like  positions,  thc^f 


268  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

he  cannot  afiford  simply  to  labor  in  the  pulpit  for  his  race, 
but  must  be  an  editorial  agitator,  also ;  which  is  well,  since  in 
this  capacity  he  is  an  acknowledged  power. 

He  began  a  career  as  journalist  in  1885,  when  he  published 
a  "  red  hot"  semi-monthly  paper,  called  The  Herald  of  TnUh. 
This  he  edited  with  untiring  zeal  for  two  years.  As  editor  of 
this  paper,  he  never  wavered  in  contending  for  the  truth  and 
right,  which  are  priceless  to  his  people.  Having  been  pro- 
moted to  the  presiding-eldership  of  his  churfch,  the  name  of 
the  paper  was  changed  and  became  The  College  JomTial  of 
Paul  Quinn  College, 

The  editorship  of  The  Soxdheni  Guide,  a  progressive  and 
live  sheet,  in  Texas,  has  been  tendered  Mr.  Russell,  at  a  fair 
salary.  Whether  he  has  accepted  the  position  the  author 
is  unable  at  this  writing  to  say.  He  is  now  editor  of  The 
Torchlight  Appeal,  which  is  the  only  paper  published  in  the 
state  by  an  Afro- American,  with  Confederate  sympathies.  It 
was  started  in  1888  a  very  minute  sheet,  but  under  the 
journalistic  management  of  Mr.  Russell,  it  is  now  a  four- 
column,  eight-page  quarto,  being  one  of  the  popular  religious 
journals  published  by  an  A  fro- American. 

Mr.  Russell  is  a  journalist  whose  plans  are  all  original, 
and  when  set  into  action  they  take  well.  As  a  writer,  he 
can  hold  his  own  by  the  side  of  the  best.  He  has  published 
a  treatise  on  Infant  Baptism  and  has  a  lecture, — Why  the 
negro  is  black ;,  which  are  highly  commended  by  his  people. 
The  journalistic  fraternity  is  proud  of  him  as  a  fearless 
editorial  writer,  and  an  energetic  paper-man  who  is  deter- 
mined to  further  the  cause,  and  at  the  same  time  contend  for 
the  rights  of  his  people.  His  ready  courage  in  seeking  to  do 
this  endears  him  to  all. 

N.  B.  Since  the  above  was  written,  Rev.  Mr.  Russell  has 
removed  to  Denison,  Texas,  where  he  now  edits  The  Texas 
Jieformer^ 


D.  BUSSELL. 


270  TflE  AFHO-AMEfilCAN  PRESS. 

W.  G.  Smith,  Editor  Charlotte  Messekgeb. 

William  Caswell  Smith  was  bom  in  Cumberland  County, 
N.  C,  February  12,  1856,  his  parents  being  Alexander  and 
Violet  Smith,  both  slaves  of  unmixed  negro  blood.  Alex- 
ander, or  Sandy,  as  he  was  called,  was  coachman  for  a 
wealthy  family,  and  thereby  had  more  privileges,  and  saw 
more  of  the  world,  than  the  ordinary  slave.  He  was  also 
known  as  the  neighborhood  fiddler.  He  was  very  proud,  and 
was  popular  with  the  females. 

William  was  the  youngest  of  three  children.  He  entered 
a  public  school  in  1866,  and  learned  very  rapidly,  standing 
at  the  head  in  nearly  all  of  his  classes.  His  school  training 
was  limited  to  about  five  years, — ^a  part  of  this  time  being 
spent  in  school  and  a  part  on  the  farm.  Nevertheless,  what 
opportunities  he  had  to  learn  were  so  well  improved,  he 
was  afterward  able  to  teach,  and  was  thus  employed  in  the 
public  schools  of  his  own  and  adjoining  counties. 

In  1873  he  entered  the  printing-office  of  The  Statesman, 
where  he  learned  to  set  type.  He  learned  the  trade  rapidly, 
and  at  the  end  of  the  first  year  he  took  charge  of  the  office, 
having  learned  to  **  make  up  forms"  and  do  any  other  work 
about  the  office. 

He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  The  FayetieviUe  Educator, 
the  first  newspaper  edited  and  published  by  colored  men  in 
North  Carolina.  This  paper  was  published  by  Waddell  & 
Smith  one  year,  they  doing  their  own  type-setting,  writing, 
and  everything  about  the  office.  Smith  acting  foreman.  After 
publishing  this  paper  fifty-two  consecutive  weeks,  it  was 
suspended,  and  Mr.  Smith  was  employed  on  The  Memphis 
(Tenn.)  Planet  several  months,  but  disliking  the  West  he 
returned  to  Washington  City,  where  he  was  employed  as 
compositor  on  The  Peoples  Advocate,  In  1879,  he  returned 
to  North  Carolina  and  was  put  in  charge  of  The  Star  of  Zion 


272  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

printing-ofiSce,  the  second  in  the  state  run  by  one  of  our  race. 
He  did  the  mechanical  work  on  tliis  paper  in  Charlotte,  N.  C, 
under  the  editorship  of  Rev.  J.  A.  Tyler ;  also  in  Concord, 
under  A.  S.  Richardson,  Esq. 

In  1882  he  established  in  Charlotte,  N.  C,  The  CharhtU 
Mesaengei',  which  has  met  with  fair  success,  though  by  hard 
fighting  against  intemperance,  immorality,  and  all  other  evils 
coming  in  its  way.  The  Messenger  is  very  popular  with  the 
better  class  of  our  people  and  a  terror  to  evil  doers.  It  has 
experienced  some  very  heavy  tilts  with  contemporaries, 
preachers  and  others,  but  has  carried  off  the  palm  in  every 
instance. 

Among  the  most  prominent  of  the  controversies  in  which 
its  editor  has  been  engaged  was  one  with  the  late  Prof. 
Robert  Harris  of  Fayetteville  on  Sunday  excursions,  which 
he  condemned.  Another  was  on  secret  societies,  which 
he  condemned  also,  and  engaged  in  a  lengthy  and  bitter 
controversv  with  Rev.  C.  S.  Brown  of  the  Good  Samaritan 
order.  Brown  was  driven  to  the  wall,  also.  Another  was 
tlie  figlit  be  made  for  a  college  for  the  colored  youth,  sup- 
ported by  the  state.  Another  was  the  strong  and  memorable 
tight  he  made,  and  is  still  making,  for  a  female  seminary 
for  his  church.  In  this  fight  he  completely  demolished  the 
brilliant  Dancy  and  all  others  who  dared  oppose  it.  The 
heaviest  fight,  and  the  most  signal  victory  this  editor  boasts 
of,  wa5  iho  controversy  between  Bishop  S.  T,  Jones  and 
himself.  Ho  dared  to  criticise  certain  remarks  in  a  sermon 
delivered  by  the  Bishop,  which  he  r(»garded  as  calculated 
to  injure  his  race  and  church.  The  Bishop  called  him  to 
account,  at  some  length,  in  his  usual  sarcastic  way;  but  after 
this  he  will  inform  himself  as  to  the  size  of  the  game  before 
he  makes  another  attack  on  a  Smith. 

Mr.  Smith  is  a  conscientious  man,  and  means  to  be  honest 
in  all  things.     He  tries  to  take  the  right  side  of  every 


APRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  273 

question,  no  matter  how  unpopular  it  is.  He  is  strictly 
temperate,  having  signed  a  pledge  in  his  youth  against  the 
use  of  intoxicating  drinks  and  tobacco,  and  has  kept  it  to 
this  day.  He  is  always  on  the  side  of  temperance,  and  an 
advocate  of  prohibition,  local  option,  or  anything  that  aims 
at  the  destruction  of  the  rum  traffic. 

He  has  used  the  columns  of  his  paper  against  the  practice 
of  Sunday  excursions,  and  the  holding  of  camp-meetings  and 
festivals,  and  endeavors  to  impress  upon  his  people  the 
importance  of  improving  their  morals,  educating  their  chil- 
dren, and  of  the  ownership  of  land. 

Mr.  Smith  is  a  member  of  the  Methodist  church,  and  while 
not  much  of  a  society  man,  he  has  held  prominent  offices  in 
the  State  Grand  Lodge  of  Odd  Fellows  and  Good  Templars. 
He  took  an  active  part  in  politics  in  1888,  and  represented 
his  county  in  the  district  and  state  Republican  conventions. 
He  was  elected  bv  acclamation  in  the  state  convention  as 
alternate  delegate-at-large  to  the  Republican  National  Con- 
vention at  Chicjigo,  in  1888. 

For  several  years  Mr.  Smith  was  the  only  negro  printer 
in  the  state,  during  which  time  he  started  many  colored  boys 
in  the  trade  he  was  following.  In  1880,  he  adopted  Char- 
lotte, N.  C,  as  his  home,  after  having  spent  a  few  years  in 
traveling. 

At  the  beginning  of  1890  he  gave  up  The  Char  lode 
Messenger  he  was  then  publishing,  and  accepted  a  position  in 
the  government  printing-office  at  Washington,  where  he  is 
now  employed. 

Mr.  Smith  may  be  regarded  as  a  pioneer  journalist  of  the 
•*Tar  Heel"  state,  and  is  certain  to  do  credit  to  himself  and 
to  his  race  in  any  position  he  may  assume,  for,  once  taken, 
he  will  work  conscientiously  and  diligently  to  discharge 
acceptably  the  duties  of  his  office.  He  is  a  man  to  be 
depended  on,  at  all  times  and  in  all  places. 

18 


/ 


274  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Hon.  Richabd  Nelson,  Editoe  Freeman's  Journal. 

The  above  gentleman,  who  is  editor  of  the  most  influential 
paper  published  in  Texas,  was  born  at  Key  West,  Fla.,  June 
16,  1842.  He  obtained  his  education  in  the  schools  of  Key 
West,  Fla.  He  moved  to  Atlanta  in  1850,  and  to  Texas  in 
1859,  where  he  has  since  resided. 

Settling  in  Galveston  in  1866,  he  went  into  business,  and 
here  it  was  that  his  active  mind  and  great  energy  soon 
brought  him  conspicuously  before  his  own  people,  and  the 
public  generally,  on  the  question  of  Reconstruction.  His  life 
has  been  one  of  prominence  in  politics,  as  a  speaker  and 
writer. 

Mr.  Nelson  has  held  important  positions  in  political  life, 
such  as  justice  of  peace  and  notary  public  for  Galveston; 
postmaster  at  Highland  Station,  in  Galveston  County;  and 
inspector  of  customs  for  the  district  of  Galveston.  He  was 
prominently  mentioned  as  a  Republican  candidate  for  Congress 
in  1871,  and  ran  on  an  independent  ticket  for  Congress  in 
1884. 

Mr.  Nelson  is  a  public  speaker  of  wide  reputation,  and  a 
writer  of  well-earned  repute.  He  is  a  race  man  every  inch. 
Concerning  his  life  in  this  respect,  Flake's  Bulletin  says  of 
him :  '*  His  highest  ambition  is  the  elevation  of  his  ra^e  from 
their  former  despondency  and  de^rndntion,  to  high  attain- 
ments in  education  and  the  proper  discharge  of  their  duties 
of  citizenship  in  this  great  and  free  republic."  He  was 
several  times  delegate  to  the  state  and  national  conventions 
of  his  party. 

His  experience  in  journalism  has  been  long  and  effective. 
In  1873,  he  began  the  publication  of  The  Weekly  Spectator, 
being  sole  proprietor  and  editor.  The  Spectator  must  have 
wielded  considerable  influence.  Ex-Gov.  E.  J.  Dana  speaks 
of  it  as  a  leading  Republican  paper  in  the  state. 


HON.  RICHARD  NELSON. 


i 


276  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

The  Freanayis  Journal  took  the  place  of  The  SpectcUer, 
March  19,  1887.  It  is  recognized  as  the  leading  Republican 
newspaper  in  the  state.  Mr.  Edwin  Smith,  a  reputable  citizen 
of  Texas,  writes  about  Tfie  Journal  aa  follows :  "  Temperate 
in  tone  and  conservative  in  politics,  it  has  gained  for  the 
colored  people  of  this  stat^  a  consideration  for  their  wants 
and  a  recognition  of  their  rights,  on  the  part  of  their  white 
fellow-citizens,  that  were  never  before  accorded.'*  Trained 
by  experience,  he  is  enabled  to  make  such  a  wise  use  of  his 
abilities  as  to  render  his  paper  a  recognized  power  for  good 
among  all  classes. 

His  editorial  writings,  as  possibly  may  be  the  case  with 
a  few  other  A  fro- American  editoi*s,  are  commented  on  fre- 
quently by  the  leading  white  organs  of  the  state.  There 
appeared  in  llic  Journal,  shortly  after  the  beginning  of  the 
pro.«ent  administration,  an  editoriaUon — "The  Administration 
and  the  Colored  Man.  Merit  and  Worth  before  Political 
Jugglery."  This  editorial  created  a  stir  all  over  the  country, 
both  white  and  black  papers  commenting  and  criticising  the 
editor,  favorably  or  unfavorably.  A  portion  of  the  editorial 
we  publish  below,  which  was  freely  commented  on,  as  the 
reader  will  see,  by  27ic  San  Anfonio  Express,  San  Antonio 
Liqht,  and  TJic  Fort  Worth  Gazette,  all  white  papers  of  Texas. 
Editor  Nelson  writes  thus:  "The  negro  must  learn  one 
great  fundamental  truth  and  act  upon  it,  that  his  color  or 
previous  condition  is  not  a  recommendation  to  office;  that 
when  the  great  Republican  party  knocked  the  shackles  from 
his  limbs,  raised  him  to  citizenship  and  made  him  the  equal 
of  the  white  man  under  the  Constitution,  and  threw  around 
him  the  full  protection  of  law,  its  functions  cea.«ed,  because 
it  could  do  no  more ;  and  it  expected  him  to  work  out  his 
own  salvation  the  same  as  the  white  man,  and  to  expect 
no  special  legislation  or  favors  to  his  race  that  were  not 
accorded  the  white  race." 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  277 

Concerning  the  editorial  in  full,  Tlie  Fort  Worth  Gazette 
says:  "The  utterance  of  The  Freeman's  Journal  of  Gal- 
veston on  the  relation  of  the  negro  to  the  Federal  offices,  as 
telegraphed  The  Gazette  of  yesterday,  is  worthy  the  hearty 
approval  of  those  who  sincerely  wish  for  a  solution  of  the 
negro  problem.  ITie  Journal,  as  its  name  indicates,  is  an 
organ  of  the  colored  people.  Coming  from  such  a  publication, 
the  following  is  full  of  significance:"  (Here  The  Gazette 
inserts  the  editorial  we  have  alluded  to.) 

ITie  San  Antonio  Light  says:  "An  amendment  to  the 
Constitution  emancipated  the  negroes  from  physical  bondage, 
but  left  them  in  a  condition  of  social  and  political  tutelage 
and  dependence,  where  they  will  remain  until  they  emanci- 
pate themselves  by  accepting  the  truth  and  acting  upon  the 
wise  suggestion  contained  in  the  following  sentences  from 
ITie  Journals  editorial:"  Here  The  Light  introduces  the 
editorial  and  comments  further  by  saying:  "These  words 
are  words  of  wisdom,  by  whomsoever  uttered.  It  were  well 
for  white  and  colored  alike  to  heed  them.  The  colored  man 
is  made  the  political  equal  of  the  white  man  under  the  law ; 
his  place  as  an  office-holder  he  must  make  good  for  himself." 

The  San  Antonio  Express  says:  " The  telegraphic  columns 
of  The  Express  yesterday  contained  the  text  of  an  editorial 
which  appears  to-day  in  Uie  Freeman  s  Journal.  This  paper 
is  published  in  Galveston  and  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
influential  journals  of  the  state,  devoted  to  the  interests  of 
£he  negro  race."  Then  2'he  Express  quotes  the  editorial,  and 
wisely  adds  the  following  words  of  approval :  "  The  only 
political  or  social  recognition  which  the  negro  deserves,  or 
will  ever  get,  is  that  to  which  his  own  worth  as  a  man 
entitles  him." 

Other  prominent  papers  have  commented  on  Editor  Nelson's 
writings,  notably  The  a2.  Louis  Globe- Democrat-,  which,  for 
lack  of  space,  we  cannot  publish.     If  we  say  no  more,  the 


i 


278  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

editorial  and  its  valuable  comments  will  suflSce  to  prove  our 
subject  a  terse,  able,  and  thoughtful  writer.  He  is  an  honored 
member  of  the  journalistic  corps. 

Rev.  F.  M.  Hamilton,  Editor  Christian  Index. 

The  most  prominent  man,  exclusive  of  the  bishops  of  the 
C.  M.  E.  church,  is  Rev.  Mr.  Hamilton.  He  was  born  near 
Washington,  Arkansas,  September  3,  1858.  He  attended  the 
schools  of  his  state,  private  and  public,  and  afterwards  spent 
sixteen  months  in  the  Theological  Institute  at  Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama. 

He  was  licensed  to  preach  Nov.  9,  1878.  He  has  served 
in  several  of  the  most  prominent  positions  in  his  denomination, 
among  which  has  been  that  of  Presiding  Elder  of  the 
Wa^jliington  district.  He  had  contemplated  the  practice  of 
medicine,  and  to  this  end  devoted  two  years'  study  to  fit 
himself  for  it,  but  gave  it  up  to  accept  the  positions  he  now 
holds, — editor  of  The  Christiayi  Index  and  agent  of  the  book 
department  of  his  ehurch.  To  these  he  was  elected  in  May, 
1886,  at  the  General  ConIoronce,*which  met  at  Augusta,  Ga. 
His  prominence  in  church  circles  has  been  the  cause  of  his 
being  its  representative  in  many  of  its  conspicuous  gatherings. 
The  Index,  of  which  he  is  now  editor,  was  the  origin  of  the 
C.  M.  E.  Cliurch.  He  lias  issued  two  books,  with  reference 
to  the  church  of  which  he  is  a  member,  viz.:  "Conversations 
on  the  C.  IM.  E.  Church,"  and,  "A  Plain  Account  of  the 
C.  M.  E.  Church." 

When  he  took  charge  of  TJ^e  Index,  it  was  is.sued  monthly, 
while  the  outfit  for  its  publication  was  very  limited,  the 
entire  material  l>eing  worth  but  seventy-five  dollars.  Since 
assuming  control,  and  managing  the  business  for  three  years 
or  more,  he  has  put  in  one  thousand  dollars'  worth  of 
material,  and  established  a  job  department,  in  which  the 
entire  work  is  done  by  Afro- Americans, 


EEV.  F.  M.  HAMILl-^ 


280  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Mr.  Hamilton  uses  The  Index  office  in  fitting  young  men 
to  become  printers.  At  this  writing  he  has  five  apprentices, 
whose  work  is  very  neatly  done.  His  paper  has  the  reputa- 
tion of  being  one  of  the  best  edited  and  neatly  printed  of  our 
religious  journals.  It  contends  for  the  religious  rights  of  its 
people,  while  forgetting  not  their  civil  and  political  rights. 

Mr.  Hamilton  possesses  great  aptitude  for  business;  and 
being  a  quick  thinker  and  a  ready  writer,  he  always 
expresses  himself  in  a  style  that  has  drawn  to  The  Index  a 
large  number  of  readers. 

H.  C.  Smith,  Editoe  Cleveland  Gazette. 

One  of  the  best  Afro- American  papers  published  in  Ohio, 
and  one  of  the  best  edited  in  the  United  States,  is  The 
Cleveland  Gazette,  whose  success  has  been  achieved  by  the 
persistent  efforts  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  whom  we  are 
proud  to  record  as  its  editor  and  proprietor. 

Mr.  Smith  was  born  at  Clarksburg,  West  Va.,  January  28, 
1863,  and  is  therefore  now  a  very  young  man.  He  waa 
taken  to  Cleveland  in  1865,  where  he  attended  the  schools, 
finishing  his  course  successfully  in  1882. 

The  next  year  he  devoted  his  efforts  to  the  study  of  band 
and  orchestral  music.  His  diligent  efforts  in  the  direction 
of  journalism  and  music  have  gained  for  him  the  place  he 
occu])ies  to-day,  '*  facile  princeps"  (as  a  writer  says)  among 
the  first  colored  citizens  of  Ohio.  He  is  now  leader  and 
musical  director  of  the  Excelsior  cornet  band.  His  musical 
compositions  have  found  ready  sale,  especially  his  song  and 
chorus — "  Be  True,  Bright  Eyes." 

His  life  since  1880  has  been  spent  mostly  in  journalism. 
In  connection  with  three  others  he  launched  TJie  Cleveland 
Gazette,  in  August,  1883, — and  afterward  became  sole  pro- 
prietor.    Few  Afro- American  journals  have  proved  absolutely 


282  THE.AFRO.AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

a  success,  but  it  can  be  said  that  this  one  has  been  so  from 
its  very  beginning,  until  now  its  power  and  influence  are 
recognized  by  all. 

This  success  is  not  so  much  due  to  the  abundance  of  news- 
matter  in  the  paper,  as  to  the  vigorous  and  able  editorial 
writings  of  Mr.  Smith.  He  is  known  among  the  white  and 
black  press  as  a  fearless  and  brilliant  writer.  His  paper, 
Republican  to  the  core,  always  defends  Republican  principles. 

To  impress  our  readers  as  we  desire  in  regard  to  Mr. 
Smith's  editorial  career  in  politics,  we  will  insert  what  the 
Hon.  Fred  Douglass  wrote  to  him  in  commendation  of  his 
course.  Said  Mr.  Douglass:  "In  the  midst  of  hurried 
preparations  for  a  long  tour  in  Europe,  I  snatch  my  pen, 
and  spend  a  few  iiioiiients  in  telling  you  how  completely  I 
sympathize  with  yon  in  your  political  attitude.  I  do  exhort 
your  readers  to  stand  bv  you  in  your  effort  to  lead  the 
eulored  citizens  ot  Ohio  to  wise  politieal  aetion." 

About  our  subject's  course  in  politics  and  other  matters, 
another  representative  scholar  and  thinker,  Prof  W.  S. 
Scarborough,  says:  "  Tliough  at  times  Mr.  Smith  ha.s  been 
severely  criticised,  he  has  never  vari«*d  from  what  he 
considered  his  duty.  He  believes  that  the  Republieau  party 
conserves  best  the  interests  of  the  nrgro,  an<l  thereupon  he 
becomes  its  able  and  active  detenJer.  lie  believes  that 
mixed  schools  are  the  best  for  all  concerned,  and  especially 
for  the  negro — as  separate  schools  imply  race  prejudice  and 
race  inferiority — and  therefore  he  becomes  the  relentless 
enemy  to  the  color  line  in  schools.  His  articles  are  read 
with  both  plea.sure  and  profit,  to  which  fact  is  largely  due 
the  increased  and  increasing  circulation  of  Tlie  Gaztiic." 

Judge  J.  B.  Foraker,  it  is  said,  owed  his  first  election  as 
governor  of  Ohio  more  to  The  Gazette  than  to  any  other 
newspaper,  white  or  colore<l.  As  evidence  of  the  gov- 
ernor's recognition  ul  Mi'.  Smith's  work,  he  secured  him  an 


AFRO-AMEEICAN  EDITORS.  283 

appointment  as  deputy  state  oil  inspector,  the  first  case  of 
the  kind  North.  A  bond  of  $5000  being  required,  this  was 
quickly  furnished,  three  colored  men  signing  it.  He  has 
discharged  with  credit  the  functions  of  this  office  for  four 
years, — two  terms. 

One  of  the  youngest  editors  of  the  country,  he  is  probably 
the  only  Afro- American  who  has  been  a  member  of  a  white 
press  association.  All  the  Afro- American  members  of  the 
Ohio  Legislature  have  been  his  ardent  supporters,  and  rely 
absolutely  upon  The  Oazetie  for  information  on  matters  of 
special  import  to  them. 

In  January,  1888,  when  Hon.  Mr.  McGregor,  Democratic 
representative  in  the  Ohio  Legislature  from  Muskingum 
County,  introduced  a  bill  to  re-enact  Section  4008,  which 
replaced  upon  the  Ohio  statutes  a  portion  of  the  "black 
laws,"  Hon.  Jere  A.  Brown  wrote  Mr.  Smith  as  follows: 
A  bill  was  introduced  this  forenoon  by  Mt.'Gregor,  of  Muskin- 
gum county,  a  Democrat,  to  re-enact  Section  4008.  Sound 
the  alarm!  Let  the  friends  of  equality  for  all,  know  that 
again  the  enemy  seeks  to  re-enact  obnoxious,  discriminating 
and  unjust  laws.  When  the  time  comes,  I  propose,  with  the 
aid  of  our  friends,  to  oppose  it  to  the  death.  I  write  hastily, 
so  that  our  friends  may  be  aroused  through  our  race  advocate, 
77i^  Gazeiter 

Editor  Smith  sounded  the  alarm,  which  rang  out  all  over 
the  **  Buck-eye  State."  Said  he,  commenting  on  the  letter: 
"  The  above  was  received  as  we  were  going  to  press.  It  tells 
every  race-loving  colored  man  his  duty.  Let  every  Afro- 
American  in  the  state  of  Ohio  who  values  his  rights  as  an 
American  citizen,  write  the  Senator  and  Representatives  of 
his  county,  if  he  cannot  see  them  personally,  and  importune 
them  to  fight  this  McGregor  bill  to  the  death.  We  cannot 
afford  to  lose  a  particle  of  the  ground  gained  by  the  wiping 
out  of  Ohio's  infernal  '  black  laws,*     Let  us  fight  as  a  unit 


f 


284  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

the  effort  of  this  Democrat  to  re-enact  any  portion  of  th% 
infamous  laws  wiped  from  the  statute  books  by  the  last 
Assembly.  Now  is  the  time,  and  here  is  the  opportunity,  for 
every  colored  man  (and  woman)  in  Ohio  to  show  his  loyalty 
to  the  race  and  himself.  Eternal  vigilance,  and  good  hard 
work,  is  to  be  the  price  of  our  liberty  and  freedom  as 
American  citizens." 

The  Virginia  Lancet,  edited  by  Hon.  W.  W.  Evans  of 
Petersburg,  Va.,  pays  a  glowing  tribute  to  Mr.  Smith,  which 
we  cannot  fail  to  insert:  "  The  Washington  Bee  of  last  week 
contained  the  portrait  of  Mr.  H.  C,  Smith,  the  very  able 
editor  of  The  Cleveland  Oazette.  Mr.  Smith  has  shown 
himself  to  be  an  unselfish  leader  of  his  people.  His  editorials 
are  among  the  brightest  and  most  sensible  that  come  to  our 
sanctum.  If  he  desires  anything  under  the  present  adminis- 
tration he  should  have  it." 

The  author  remembers  having  received  a  copy  of  The 
Gazette  shortly  after  the  first  issue,  and  having  noticed  its 
progress,  is  prepared  to  say  that  it  is  highly  deserving  of  the 
continued  support  of  the  Afro- American. 

We  cannot  better  close  this  article  upon  Editor  Smith  and 
Tlie  Gazette  than  by  quoting  what  Rev.  J.  W.  Gaza  way, 
D.  D.,  pastor  of  Allen  Temple,  Cincinnati,  0.,  says  about 
them:  "The  most  healthful  signs  of  life  and  a  highly  useful 
career  are  indicated  in  the  existence  of  TJie  Clevelayid  Gazette. 
That  it  is  a  paper  of  brain  and  culture  can  not  be  doubted, 
when  the  fact  is  remembered  that  in  its  columns  are  found 
communications  from  the  wisest  and  best  minds  of  our  race. 
It  is  a  paper  for  the  people  it  represents,  and  can  be  relied 
upon  as  a  friend  of  every  colored  man,  though  his  face  may 
be  of  ebony  hue.  The  Oazette  is  a  practical  demonstration 
of  what  can  be  done  by  the  young  men  of  our  race.  The 
editor  is  a  young  man  who,  by  dint  of  industry  and  economy 
and   fair  dealing,  has   succeeded   in   giving  to   the   colored 


'■>     r 


HON    CHA8    HENDLEY 


286  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

people  of  Ohio  and  the  country  a  paper  worthy  the  patronage 
of  all.  Having  been  a  reader  of  The  Oazetie  since  its  first 
appearaiice,  and  having  watched  its  coarse,  I  feel  that  in 
justice  to  the  paper,  the  editor,  and  the  race,  I  should  urge 
upon  the  people  generally  to  support  the  paper  that  is 
practically  identified  with  the  colored  people,  and  is  in 
harmony  with  the  interests  and  success  of  all,  without  regard 
to  complexion." 

Hon.  Chas.  Hendley,  Editoe  Huntsville  Gazette. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  is  among  the  foremost  gentle- 
men who  are  now  engaged  in  the  editorial  work;  and 
in  various  ways  has  labored  untiringly  for  the  intellectual 
and  moral  good  of  his  people. 

Born  in  December,  1855,  the  youngest  child  of  Charles  and 
Polly  Ilendley,  his  education  was  derived  in  the  schools 
about  Huntsville  and  at  the  Rust  Institute.  He  began  to 
teach  in  the  common  schools,  and  finally  became  principal 
of  the  graded  school  in  Huntsville,  whore  he  remained  until 
President  Harrison  appointed  him  receiver  of  public  moneys. 
He  is  a  mason,  and  occupies  a  high  position  in  that  fraternal 
order. 

As  a  journalist,  he  enjoys  the  reputation  of  being  the 
editor  of  the  oldest  journal  now  published  in  the  South.  In 
1879  the  Huntsville  newspaper  company  was  organized,  and 
Charles  Hundley  selected  as  editor  and  manager  of  27ie 
JIuntsvillc  Gazette,  a  weekly  Republican  newspa])er,  estab- 
lished by  the  company.  It  has  been  a  successful  venture 
from  the  first,  its  continued  success  being  due  to  Mr. 
Hendley 's  able  management  and  editorial  skill.  The  OazciU 
has  a  rapidly  increasing  circulation.  It  has  no  hot-headed 
editorials.  The  editor  is  a  vivid  and  soul-stirring  writer, 
and  is  among  the  few  stars  on  the  journalistic  stage. 


APHO-AMEHICAN  EDITORS.  287 

William  Galvih  Ghase,  Esq.,  Editor  Washington  Bee. 

"What  is  there  in  a  name,"  one  asks.  Observing  the 
matter  closely,  we  are  sometimes  compelled  to  say  there  is 
Bometbing,  after  all,  in  a  name.  The  Bee  and  its  editor,  in 
that  respect,  are  fair  illustrations.  Nothing  stings  Washington 
City,  and  in  fact,  the  Bourbons  of  the  South,  as  The  Bee. 

William  Calvin  Chase,  the  alert,  progressive  editor  of  The 
See  was  born  in  the  city  of  Washington,  February  2,  1854. 
His  father,  William  H.  Chase,  having  died  wh^n  he  was  quite 
young,  the  burden  of  his  mother's  support  partly  fell  upon 
the  son,  who  took,  as  means  to  aid  her,  the  selling  of 
newspapers.  This  he  continued  to  do  successfully,  until  he 
came  to  be  a  popular  ciier  of  the  news.  From  this  he  seems 
to  have  got  a  journalistic  inspiration;  for  it  was  not  long 
after,  before  we  find  him  upon  the  editorial  stool.  His 
educational  privileges  were  furnished  him  by  the  private 
school  of  John  F.  Cook  and  by  Howard  University  of 
Washington  City. 

During  his  youth  he  was  a  resident  of  Methuen,  Mass., 
for  a  while,  where  he  learned  the  printer's  trade,  Mr.  Chase, 
at  this  early  age,  was  strongly  inclined  to  the  use  of  the 
quill.  He  became  very  proficient  in  the  printing  business, 
and  was  accordingly  appointed  to  a  position  in  the  govern- 
ment printing-office  at  Washington,  just  al)ont  the  time  he 
was  to  enter  the  college  department  of  Howard  University. 

He  has  held  other  important  positions  in  the  public  service, 
in  office  of  recorder  of  deeds,  under  Hon.  Fred  DnuirlnsH. 
resigning  the  position  to  accept  a  better  place  in  tlie  War 
Department,  at  the  instance  of  Ex-Senator  B.  K.  Bruce.  Mr. 
Chase  is  a  prominent  lawyer,  having  been  admitted  to  the  bar 
of  Virginia  to  practice,  July  23,  1889, 

His  life-work,  which  appears  to  be  that  of  a  literary 
character,  begins  with   the  position  of  reporter  and  society 


288  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

editor  of  The  Wttshiuffton  Plaindealer,  published  by  Dr.  King. 
In  this  position  he  was  considered  a  valuable  acquisition. 
He  resigned,  however,  not  being  satisfied  with  the  policy  of 
the  paper. 

His  next  journalistic  move  was  his  acceptance  of  the 
editorship  of  Tfte  Argus,  at  Washington,  to  succeed  Mr. 
Charles  N.  Otey.  About  Mr.  Chase's  course  in  this  new  field, 
a  writer  says :  "He  changed  the  name  of  the  paper  to  TIic 
Free  Lance.  This  change  of  name  excited  great  feeling 
among  the  people,  as  they  knew  of  the  vindictiveness  and 
determination  of  Mr.  Cliase  to  expose  a  fi*aud,  and  get  even 
with  those  whom  he  considered  enemies." 

Nor  did  he  disappoint  them.  His  first  attack  was  made  on 
Senator  John  Sherman,  then  Secretary  of  the  Treasury.  The 
schools  and  the  police  force  received  attention  from  his  pen, 
as'did  also  the  National  Republican  committee  for  taking  so 
little  notice  of  colored  men  in  the  presidential  campaign. 
So  great  was  the  feeling  of  the  Republicans  against  him, 
that  the  board  of  directors,  who  were  all  ofiice-holders,  not 
daring  to  remove  him,  sold  out  the  paper  to  L.  H.  Dougliiss, 
H.  Johnson,  M.  M.  Holland  and  othei-s,  who  were  likewise 
ofTu^'e-hoKlers,  and  regarded  by  Mr,  Chai»e  as  his  enemies. 

He  next  assumed  the  publication  of  The  Washingion  Bee, 
of  which  he  is  the  pros«Mit  editor  and  proprietor.  Many  of 
^Ir.  Chaso's  friends  have  regarded  him  as  occasionally  being 
very  indiscroot;  but  a^^  Burns  says,  "for  a*  that"  he  ha.s  never 
failed  to  exp()St\  in  the  most  condemnatory  manner,  any  fraud, 
unjust  attack  or  (^vil,  that  caught  his  vigilant  eye. 

Men  are  not  all  ^like,  and  whetlnr  we  approve  or  disap- 
prove of  Mr.  Chase's  idea  of  the  mission  of  the  Afro- American 
editor,  we  commend  and  admire  him  for  his  boldness  of 
thouuht  and  fearlossnefjs  of  speech. 

The  Bcc  is  read  by  all,  and  can  be  found  in  nearly  every 
house   in  Washington,  from   the  Executive  Mansion    to  the 


VILUAU  CALVJS  CHAB£. 


290  THE  AFBO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

most  humble  hut.  It  is  related,  that  on  one  occasion  when 
Mr.  Chase  called  on  President  Cleveland,  he  showed  him  a 
copy  of  The  Bee,  in  which  he  (Chase)  had  said  that  in 
consideration  of  the  number  of  outrages  pei-petrated  in  the 
South  upoQ  the  AfrO- Americans  by  the  whites,  it  would  cost 
the  lives  of  millions  to  inaugurate  Grover  Cleveland,  if  ekcied. 
Mr.  Chase  did  not  deny  being  the  author  of  the  article. 
Although  Cleveland  was  elected  and  inaugurated  without 
any  bloodshed,  and  Chase  supported  in  a  measure  his 
administration,  yet  he  received  his  discharge  a  few  weeks 
afterward,  at  the  instance  of  the  president  and  Secretary  of 
War  Endicott,  from  the  position  he  held  in  the  government 
printing-office. 

He  has  since  given  his  whole  time  to  Hie  Bee,  which  stings 
in  no  uncertain  manner.  His  fearless  statements  have  more 
than  once  brought  him  into  the  courts  of  justice,  having  been 
^\Q  times  indicted  for  libel,  and  acquitted  in  every  case 
except  one,  in  which  he  was  fined  fifty  doUai-s.  In  the.se 
experiences  he  has  a  record  not  held  by  any  one  else  of  the 
fraternity. 

Mr.  Chase  delights  in  newspaper  controversies,  and  seldom, 
if  ever,  comes  out  of  one  worsted.  His  Bee  is  known  by 
every  A  fro- American  editor,  correspondent,  or  writer,  and 
while  many  do  not  agree  with  him,  they  all  admire  the 
fltcjulfastness  with  which  he  holds  to  what  he  thinks  is  right. 
One  has  said  of  Mr.  Chase :  "  He  will  never  give  up,  as  long 
as  there  is  a  figliting  chance." 

He  has  read  several  papers  at  the  various  press  conventions, 
th^  most  noted  ot*  which  was  the  one  on  Southern  Outrages, 
which  was  favorably  commented  upon  by  the  Philadelphia 
Pres5.     He  is  now  historian  of  the  National  Press  Convention, 

It  \n  our  hope  that  Tlie  Bee  will  live  long,  and  ita  editor 
continue  to  be  honored  ft«  a  triie  specimen  of  the  Afro^ 
American  journalist, 


AUOUSTL3  M  HODGES 


292  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Augustus  Jtf.  Hodges,  Editor  Brooklyn  Sentinel. 


Augustus  M.  Hodges  is  the  son  of  Willis  A.  Hodges,  one 
of  the  early  pioneer  Afro-American  journalists,  and  evidontlv 
inherits  liis  fathers  journalistic  taste.  He  was  born  in 
Williiimsburg,  Va.,  March  18,  1854,  and  attended  the 
Ilanipion  Normal  and  Agricultural  Institute,  from  whicli  he 
gradutited  in  1874. 

Mr.  Hodges  is  one  of  the  prominent  young  men  of  the 
race.  He  has  few  superiors  in  the  journalistic  field.  He 
was  a  trusted  and  ready  writer  on  The  New  York  Globe,  and, 
more  recently,  on  llie  Indianapolis  Freeman.  Lately,  he  has 
issued  a  journal  of  his  own,  called  The  Brooklyn  SentimL 
which  is  meeting  with  much  favor.  The  Ncxu  York  Press 
of  September  15,  1889,  pays  him  this  tribute:  **He  was 
elected  to  the  Virginia  House  of  Delegates  in  1876,  bur 
was  counted  out  by  the  Democrats.  He  was  connected  with 
The  New  York  Globe  a  few  years  later,  and  is  at  present 
upon  the  staff'  of  Tlie  India7iapolis  Freeman,  the  leadiin^ 
oolored  papor  of  the  United  States.  He  was  a  candidate  loi- 
the  position  of  minister  to  Hayti,  receiving  the  indorsement 
of  509  leading  Republicans  of  the  United  States.  He  is  a 
French  student,  a  poet,  and  writer.  He  stands  head  and 
shouldors  above  many  colored  men  who  have  received  more 
reward.  As  a  political  leader,  he  has  few  equals;  as  a 
colored  journalist,  none," 

R.  A.  Jones,  Editor  and  Proprietor  Cleveland  Globe. 

Richard  A.  Jones  was  born  July  16,  1847,  in  'Randolph 
County,  Georgia.  At  the  age  of  twelve  he  was  taken  to 
Rochester,  Minnesota,  and  being  very  apt  with  books,  was 
sent  to  the  public  school  at  Rochester,  where  he  received  a 


li  ^/^" 


iA-;L>^ 


294  THE  APRO-AMERtCAN  t^RSSS. 

good,  thorough  training.  While  at  Rochester,  he  was  taken 
into  the  family  of  Hon.  0.  P.  Whitcomb  and  wife,  who  cared 
for  him  until  he  was  able  to  provide  for  himself.  He  came 
to  Cleveland  in  1873,  after  having  traveled  extensively 
through  the  South  and  West. 

Mr.  Jones  is  a  thoroughly  self-made  man,  and  exact  and 
shrewd  in  his  business  relations.  The  thoughtful  precision 
and  self-reliance  with  which  he  is  possessed,  indicate  that 
perseverance  and  push  were  his  chief  instructors. 

He  figures  prominently,  not  only  in  political  but  in  the 
social  and  literary  circles  of  Cleveland,  and  is  well  known 
throughout  the  state  of  Ohio  as  an  earnest  and  intelligent 
advocate  of  race  principles.  He  became  a  mason  in  Pioneer 
Lodge,  No.  5,  St.  Paul,  Minn.;  was  ma«lc  a  royal  arch  mason 
in  1877,  in  Cleveland,  by  St.  John's  Cliapter;  and  in  the 
same  year  was  dubbed  and  created  a  knight  templar  in  the 
Ezekial  Commandery.  He  afterward  withdrew  from  the 
Ezekial  Commandery  and  entered  the  Red  Cross,  where  he 
has  proved  a  faithful  member,  giving  good  counsel  on  all 
questions  of  material  interest  in  the  lodge.  He  has  held 
nearly  all  the  important  positions  in  these  bodies,  with  which 
he  has  been  connected,  and  is  now  a  member  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  and  Grand  Cha])ter  of  Ohio,  in  which  he  has  been 
very  active  and  prominent. 

Mr.  Jones  was  tendered  by  President  Cleveland  the  office 
of  minister  to  Liberia,  but  owing  to  his  urgent  duties  at 
home,  he  was  forced  to  decline  the  honor.  Some  time 
afterward  he  was  appointed  United  States  deputy  marshal 
for  the  Northern  District  of  Ohio,  which  position  he  filled 
with  much  ability  and  credit. 

Mr.  Jones  is  a  self-made  man,  possessed  of  a  strong  deter- 
mination to  pursue  to  the  very  end  anything  he  undertakes 
in  the  interest  of  his  race.  He  is  the  father  of  the  Forest 
City  Afro-American  League   of  Cleveland,  0.,  which  has  a 


AFRO-AM£RiCAN  fiDITOHS.  i^i 

membership  of  abont  one  hundred,  and  which  he  represented 
in  State  League  Convention  at  Columbus,  0.,  in  1890.  He 
is  now  vice-president  of  Ohio  State  League,  and  is  one  of  the 
organizers  for  the  state,  and  acknowledged  to  be  one  of  the 
mDBt  prominent  negroes  in  Ohio;  and  before  him  lies  a 
brilliant  career. 

He  wa:-*  one  of  the  founders  of  the  St.  Andrews  Episcopal 
church  of  Cleveland,  0.,  and  has  made  faithful  effort  through 
the  columns  of  The  Olobe^  of  which  he  is  editor  and  sole 
proprietor,  to  further  the  cause  of  Christian  principles  and 
right.  He  now  publishes  The  Clevelayid  Globe,  and  has,  by 
his  pen,  done  much  to  bring  about  the  civil  and  political 
rights  of  the  negro  in  Ohio.  He  has  made  for  The  Olobe 
an  everlasting  reputation  as  a  strong  defender  of  law,  rights, 
and  Christianity. 

John  T.  Morris,  M.  A.,  Associate  Editor  Cleveland 

Globe. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch,  born  at  Marietta,  Ohio,  January 
19,  1863,  was  the  son  of  Thomas  J.  and  Susan  Morris, 
whose  parents  were  among  the  earlier  settlers  of  Ohio. 

Young  Morris  attended  the  public  school  of  Marietta,  and 
becoming  possessed  of  a  desire  for  a  liberal  education,  at  the 
age  of  twelve  he  entered  Marietta  College,  the  oldest  and 
most  thorough  college  in  the  state.  His  studies  were  soon 
somewhat  impeded  by  the  sudden  death  of  his  father,  which 
threw  much  of  the  care  of  the  family  upon  his  shoulders. 
He  was  about  to  give  up  the  idea  of  continuing  his  collegiate 
course,  when  the  corporation  came  to  his  aid  and  furnished 
him  with  a  scholarship,  which  did  away  with  many  obstacles. 
By  the  aid  of  his  mother,  and  by  his  own  efforts,  he  was 
reinstated  in  his  cla&s,  and  completed  the  whole  collegiate 
ooiine,  graduating  with  the  class  of  1883,  with  honor  to  his 


> 


296  THE  AFBO-AMERIGAN  PRESS. 

mother,  himself,  and  to  his  race.  He  was  the  only  negro 
student  in  the  college  at  that  time,  and  the  third  negro 
graduate.  After  graduation,  he  went  to  Washington,  D.  C, 
and  at  once  secured  a  position  in  the  office  of  the  register 
of  wills,  remaining  there  until  a  change  of  administration. 

He  always  exhibited  a  fondness  for  literary  work,  espe- 
cially for  newspapers.  Besides  contributing  frequently  to  his 
home  papers,  he  was  Washington  correspondent  for  Tfie 
Kentucky  Republican,  of  Lexington,  Ky.  His  articles  were 
much  sought  after  by  the  negroes  of  the  South. 

Leaving  Washington  he  went  to  Alabama,  where  he  taught 
for  several  sessions  until  his  health  became  impaired.  He 
went  to  Cleveland  in  1887,  and  was  immediately  given  a 
position  on  the  editorial  staiOf  of  The  Cleveland  Olobe.  Finding 
his  duties  on  T/te  Globe  could  be  properly  attended  to 
without  the  expenditure  of  much  time,  he  secured  a  good 
position  in  the  office  of  The  Brightman  Furnace  Company 
of  Cleveland  as  draughtsman  and  stenographer,  which  he 
now  holds  with  great  credit  to  himself  and  his  race. 

Young  Morris  has  contributed  much  to  the  daily  papers 
of  Cleveland  and  elsewhere,  and  has  written  for  several 
magazines.  As  a  reward  for  his  earnest  efforts  in  behalf  of 
himself  and  race,  his  alma  mater  has  conferred  upon  him  the 
degree  of  Master  of  Arts.  He  is  one  of  Ohio's  successful 
young  men,  and  is  very  popular  throughout  the  state.  He 
represented  the  Cleveland  constituency  in  the  National 
Afro- American  Convention,  held  at  Chicago,  January,  1890, 
and  filled  the  position  satisfactorily. 

Aside  from  his  other  duties,  he  still  holds  his  relations  as 
associate  editor  of  27te  Cleveland  Olobe,  and  is  now  corre- 
sponding secretary  of  the  Ohio  State  Afro-American  League. 
He  is  also  corresponding  secretary  and  executive  committeeman 
of  the  local  Forest  City  Afro-American  League,  Cleveland, 
0.,  and  has  figured  prominently  as  one  of  the  founders  of  the 


2dd  1?Hfi  At'RO-AMEBIOAi}  PtUSSd. 

St.  Andrews  Episcopalian  church  in  the  city  of  Clevelaud. 
Mr.  Morris  may  well  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  popular 
men  of  Ohio. 


The  GLEVELAin)  Olobe. 

I7i€  Cleveland  Olobe  came  into  existence  April  4,  1884, 
with  R.  A.  Jones  as  editor  and  proprietor.  During  the 
political  controversies  that  were  going  on  in  Ohio  over  the 
mixed  schools  and  other  questions  of  great  importance  to  the 
negro,  The  Olobe  was  always  for  the  highest  interests  of  the 
race,  and  as  a  firm  defender  of  right  and  justice  has  been 
successful  throughout  its  whole  career. 

Tlie  Olobe  has  never  been  pledged  to  any  particular  party, 
and  has  never  sacrificed  any  of  the  principles  with  which  it 
so  boldly  began  its  career.  Nothing  could  induce  it  to  divert 
from  the  path  of  usefulness  and  right  and  go  blindly  into 
issues  for  mere  financial  gain.  It  has  stood  firmly  for  the 
race;  has  waged  bitter  warfare  against  Southern  outrages, 
murders,  and  bulldozing,  and  has  done  this  in  a  strictly 
non-partisan  manner. 

During  the  short  interval  in  which  Mr.  Jones  withdrew 
from  The  Globe,  owing  to  the  severe  illness  of  his  wife  who 
subsequently  died,  its  management  fell  into  the  hands  ot  uu 
different  parties  who  made  complete  failures,  when  he  again 
assumed  charge  of  it.  He  now  became  its  editor  and  sole 
proprietor,  and  it  has  ever  since  been  under  his  supervision. 

It  has  been  the  advocate  of  everything  that  looked  to  the 
success  and  prosperity  of  the  race.  It  is  well  known  in  Ohio 
for  its  non-partisan  cast,  it  always  placing  race  before  party. 
It  is  the  ofiicial  organ  of  the  Forest  City  Afro-American 
League  of  Cleveland,  and  also  of  the  State  League,  which 
numbers  about  twentv  thousand   members.     It  is  the  only 


l^&O-AMERIOAN  EblTOM  29^ 

]paper  in  Cleveland  that  is  thoroughly  identified  with  the 
various  negro  churches,  and  in  good  standing  with  them. 
It  supports  all  literary  and  social  organizations,  and  does 
what  it  can  to  aid  the  efforts  of  the  young  people.  It  is  a 
general  referee  in  matters  pertaining  to  race  interests. 

The  Globe  is  the  oldest  negro  journal  in  Ohio,  and  has 
worked  itself  into  popularity  by  its  own  diligent  efforts, 
fair  dealing  and  generosity.  It  has  a  larger  circulation  in 
Cleveland  than  any  race  paper  published.  It  advocates  the 
principles  it  has  set  forth,  and  is  heartily  supported  by  such 
men  of  the  race  as  Bruce,  Douglass,  Langston,  Alexander 
Clark,  McCabe,  John  P,  Green,  Fortune,  Price,  C.  H.  J. 
Taylor,  Geo.  Fields,  C.  A.  Cottrill,  H.  A.  Clark  and  a  host  of 
others.  The  Olobe  goes  to  Europe,  Asia,  Africa,  and  Italy, 
as  well  as  all  over  the  United  States.  It  was  one  of  the  first 
to  favor  the  formation  of  a  National  Afro- American  League, 
and  has  ever  since  been  pushing  its  cause. 

Rev.   D.  J.   Saundebs,  Editor  Afro-American   Presby- 
terian. 

The  Afro- American  Presbyterian  is  a  weekly  religious 
sheet  published  at  Wilmington,  N.  C,  with  Rev.  D.  J. 
Saunders  as  its  editor.  The  subscription  list  reaches  nearly 
two  thousand,  with  a  daily  increasing  patronage. 

Mr.  Saunders  was  born  in  Winnsboro,  S.  C,  February  15, 
1847,  and  educated  in  the  Brainerd  Institute  at  Chester, 
S.  C,  and  in  the  Western  Theological  Seminary,  Allegheny 
City,  Pa.,  graduating  therefrom  April  24,  1874. 

From  May,  1877,  to  January,  1879,  he  was  the  associate 
editor  of  The  Souihem  Evangelist.  He  founded  The  Afro- 
American  Presbyterian^  January  1,  1879.  It  has  been  pub- 
lished weekly  since,  and  steadily  grown  in  favor.  The  editor 
ia  a  bright,  cool,  and  level-headed  writer. 


300  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Upon  the  race  question  he  very  wisely  says :  "  We  are  of 
that  number  who  don't  believe  that  God  will  permit  the 
Negro  Question  in  this  country  to  be  settled  wrong.  The 
great  majority  of  the  Christian  and  right-thinking  people 
will  soon  see  clearly  what  is  now  beginning  to  dawn  upon 
many  minds,  namely :  that  anything  short  of  Christian  educa- 
tion, in  the  broadest  and  best  sense  of  the  term,  and  tbe 
exercise  of  justice  and  loving-mercy,  only  t^nds  to  increase 
the  evil  which  it  would  destroy.  Let  this  policy  be  substi- 
tuted for  that  of  repression,  now  so  generally  resorted  to,  and 
the  eia  of  brighter  days  will  begin,  and  the  race  question, 
now  so  universally  annoying,  will  be  shorn  of  many  of  it« 
harassing  features,  and  its  final  solution  will  soon  be  reached." 

Rev.  a.  N.  McEwen,  Editor  Baptist  Leadeb. 

Rev.  A.  N.  McEwen,  editor  of  TJie  Baptist  Leader,  the 
oflicial  organ  of  the  colored  Baptists  of  Alabama,  was  born  in 
LaFayctte  County,  Mi.ss.,  April  29,  1849.  Although  he  has 
no  alma  mater,  having  picked  up  his  education  here  and 
there,  he  is  an  acknowledged  leader  of  his  race. 

lie  if*  a  Baptist  missionary  preacher.  He  left  Mississippi 
in  the  fall  of  186G,  and  went  to  Nashville,  Tenn.,  where  he 
met  Miss  Lizzie  Harvel,  to  whom  he  was  married  in  Novem- 
ber, 1869.  In  1870,  while  attending  a  revival  at  Mt.  Zion 
church,  he  was  brought  to  feel  the  need  of  a  Savior.  After 
his  conversion  ho  united  with  the  Mt.  Zion  church,  and 
was  baptized  by  Rev.  J.  Bransford.  Feeling  that  he  was 
called  to  j»reach  tlie  gospel,  he  petitioned  his  church  for  the 
})rivilege  to  labor  among  the  common  peoj^le  of  the  citv. 
This  he  did  with  such  success,  he  finally  received  a  license 
to  preach,  and  was  called  to  the  charge  of  a  church  at 
TuUahoma,  Tenn.  It  was  during  his  pastorate  here  that  his 
ability  as  a  minister  began  to  manifest  it««lf. 


BEV.  A.  H.  MoEWEN. 


302  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PBESS. 

He  was  a  lover  of  books,  and  an  earnest  student.  He  has 
preached  several  annual  sermons  before  scliool  afisociations, 
state  conventions,  and  various  societies.  He  is  a  natural 
orator,  and  never  fails  to  capture  his  audience.  He  is  witty 
and  humorous,  almost  to  a  fault.  It  is  his  aim  in  speaking 
to  tell  the  truth,  and  thereby  touch  the  hearts  of  his  hearers. 

Although  a  busy  journalist,  he  is  now  pastor  of  the  Dexter 
Avenue  Baptist  church,  whose  members  are  among  the  most 
refined  people  of  the  state,  his  congregation  being  largely 
composed  of  the  business  men  of  the  city,  as  well  as  of 
lawyers,  doctors,  school  teachers,  and  merchants.  The  church 
edifice,  one  of  the  finest  in  the  South,  was  four  years  in 
building,  and  cost  over  $50,000. 

Mr.  McEwen  is  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  Selma 
University,  and  chairman  of  the  state  mission  board.  In 
politics,  he  is  a  Republican,  and  is  a  member  of  the  state 
executive  board  of  the  Republican  party. 

As  a  journalist,  he  stands  well  with  both  the  white  and 
the  colored  people.  In  1886,  he  began  editing  The  Mont- 
gcytyieiy  Herald^  after  the  Duke  trouble,  and  restored  peace 
between  the  whites  and  the  blacks.  At  the  request  of  his 
friends,  he  resigned  the  editorial  control  of  The  Herald,  and 
in  the  latter  part  of  1887  took  charge  of  The  Baptist  Leader, 
in  the  interest  of  150,000  Baptstsof  the  state.  This  paper 
has  a  wide  circulation,  and  ranks  among  the  best  journals 
of  the  day. 

Editor  McEwen  is  distinguished  as  a  peace-making  jour- 
nalist, and  did  excellent  service  when  the  whites  were  so 
excited  over  articles  regarded  as  incendiary,  published  by 
Mr.  Duke,  then  editor  of  The  Montgomery  Herald,  There  is 
nothing  of  a  fiery  nature  about  his  writings.  He  is  always 
cool  and  deliberate,  and  a  firm  defender  of  race  rights 
and  race  principles.  The  Baptist  Leader ^  of  which  he  is  now 
editor,  in  make-up  and  appearance  shows  progress  upon  the 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  303 

part  of  the  Baptists  of  Alabama ;  while  the  editorial  columns 
tell  the  world  that  a  man  learned  in  the  editorial  art  graces 
the  chair. 

Rev.  Mr.  McE wen's  ability  and  deliberate  judgment  as  an 
editor  are  fully  illustrated  in  his  comment  on  I%e  Mont- 
gomery Aflveriisers  account  of  Senator  Morgan's  address 
before  the  Howard  College  students.  It  is  found  in  The 
Leader  of  May  2,  1889.  We  reproduce  for  the  reader  the 
squib  from  The  Adveriiser,  and  Mr.  McE  wen's  comment  upon 
it:  "'If  language  means  anything,  then  the  concluding 
sentences  of  Senator  Morgan's  address  to  the  Howard  College 
students  last  Tuesday  are  tantamount  to  a  declaration  that, 
sooner  or  later,  the  15th  amendment  will  be  eliminated  from 
the  Federal  Constitution.     Speed  the  day  when  it  is  so.' 

"We  clip  the  above  from  The  Montgomery  Advertiser  of 
May.  In  the  same  issue  is  a  comment  on  a  harangue 
delivered  by  Senator  Morgan  before  the  students  of  Howard 
College,  The  senator  should  not  forget  to  tell  the  students 
that  it  will  cost  the  same  to  eliminate  the  15th  amendment 
that  it  cost  to  make  it,  and  the  negro  will  be  there  with 
every  foot  up. 

**  The  Advertiser  again,  in  a  complimentary  way,  endorsed 
the  ideas  of  ex-Senator  Alcorn  of  Mississippi,  who  says  that 
the  negro  is  incapacitated  to  govern.  That  idea  is  absolute, 
and  no  sensible  man  doubts  the  negro's  ability  to  rule ;  for 
to  rule  well,  means  to  rule  right.  We  believe  that  if  the 
intelligent  negro  were  in  power  and  had  the  administering 
of  the  law  in  his  hands,  he  would  see  that  every  negro  who 
killed  a  white  or  colored  man  unlawfully,  was  brought  to 
justice  and  punished  according  to  law.  He  would  also  see 
that  every  man  s  vote  was  counted  as  voted,  and  that  the 
man  elected  held  the  office." 

Editor  McEwen,  still  fired  by  the  article  appearing  in 
Jlte  AdverHser,  and  urged  on  by  a  question  asked  by  The 


304  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Ituhpavdent — "Should  the  negro  be  disfranchised T'  takei 
up  the  Afro- American  and  his  relation  to  this  coontry,  in 
I  hi'  issue  of  May  9,  and  discusses  him  thus: 

"  The  Independent  came  to  us  this  week,  asking  the  question 
*Sho\ild  the  negro  be  disfranchised?'  There  is  as  much 
absurdity  in  thinking  of  his  disfranchisement,  as  there  is  in 
thinking  of  placing  the  United  States  in  the  center  of 
Africa.  There  have  been  some  curious  exaggerations 
]»ievailing  concerning  the  negro,  and  many  have  been  the 
controveipiea  relating  to  him ;  but  if  he  is  examined  with  the 
view  of  dipcovering  his  noble  qualities,  he  will  be  found  a 
being  made  in  the  image  of  God,  placed  in  the  United  States 
there  to  stay.  This  is  a  very  broad  assertion,  but  never- 
theless true,  and  will  be  fully  demonstrated  by  his  not 
leaving.  The  negro  is  not  confined  to  one  locality,  but  his 
home  or  resting-place  will  be  wherever  the  white  man  is 
fouurl.  Th(^  Souih  is  the  place  for  the  nogro.  It  is  his 
homo;  ami  as  Inna  as  one  grain  of  corn  is  lound  there,  so 
long  will  th«^  n«^gro  be  lound. 

''The  charco  broutrht  against  the  nogro  that  he  has  not 
propcMty,  au'l  can  bo  gobbled  up  by  tho  lower  class  of  whites, 
is  truo  <»t  a  vorv  fow.  There  are  as  true,  noble-hearted  men 
in  tho  n«'gro  rac'o  as  can  be  found  in  the  white.  There  is  no 
(lisfranchisomont  for  the  negro.  He,  as  the  white  man,  or 
one  of  anv  nation,  has  his  aim  in  life,  and  he  intends  to 
roach  it.  If  honesty  is  equally  practiced  by  the  white  race, 
as  well  as  by  the  negro,  there  will  be  no  need  to  disfranchise 
either  party.  But  bear  in  mind,  that  if  the  white  man 
doesn't  tire  of  the  South,  the  negro  will  not.  He  is  going 
to  stay,  and  ere  long  the  many  wrongs  done  him  will  be 
turned  into  justice.  The  negro  (the  upper  class  I  speak  of, 
for  the  lower  class  of  her  sister  race  has  never  done  anything, 
and,  I  think,  never  will)  is  not  waiting  for  his  power  to 
bring  it.     Justice  is  what  the  negro  calls  for.     Give  him  that, 


A^RO-AMERICAN  editors.  SOS 

and  he  will  prove  as  true  a  citizen  as  anybody.  Wealth 
has  nothing  to  do  with  a  man's  voting.  If  he  can't  buy  a 
resting-place  in  the  grave-yard,  if  he  is  a  citizen  of  the 
United  States  he  has  as  much  right  to  vote  as  a  millionaire." 
We  reproduce  these  deliberate  and  well-chosen  comments 
to  prove  Mr.  McE wen's  journalistic  ability.  We  class  him — 
•*  A  bright  star  in  the  journalistic  crown." 

Rev.  Calvin  S.  Bkown,  Editor  Baptist  Pilot. 

At  Salisbury,  N.  C,  was  born  Editor  Brown,  March  23, 
1859,  his  parents  being  Henry  aiul  Flora  Brown.  He  was 
put  into  school  at  the  age  of  live  years,  remaining  there 
without  intermission  until  he  was  seventeen,  when  his  father 
died,  which  necessitated  his  beginning  to  work  for  the 
maintenance  of  a  widowed  mother,  three  sisters,  and  one 
brother.     This  he  did  by  teaching  school. 

Some  time  afterward,  he  entered  Shaw  University,  with 
the  view  of  fitting  himself  for  the  ministry.  Entering  the 
college  department  of  that  University,  be  grnduated  from 
that  and  the  theological  department  i\4  valedictorian  of  his 
class.  After  pjraduation,  he  was  called  to  the  pastorate  of  a 
large  country  church  at  Winton.  Since  then  he  has  been 
called  to  three  others,  making  him  pastor  of  I'oiir  churches 
with  a  total  membership  exceedin,<i  fifteen  hundred.  These 
churches  he  has  ministered  t»)  with  signal  aMliry.  He  is 
now  secretaiy  of  several  of  the  prominent  Baptist  Associa- 
tions ot'  his  state. 

His  work  as  a  journalist  began  as  editor  of  The  Scimaritan 
Joiwnaly  organ  of  the  Samaritan  Society  of  North  Carolina. 
From  this,  he  entered  into  journalistic  work  in  the  interest 
of  his  church,  in  which  he  has  done  credit  to  himself  and 
denomination.  When  he  assumed  his  charge  in  Eastern 
Carolina — the  pastorate  of  four  churches — he  was  induced  to 

20 


306  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

undertake  the  erection  of  an  institution  of  learning  at  Winton, 
it  being  a  most  desirable  locality  for  such  an  enterprise. 
To  enlist  the  sympathy  and  help  of  the  people,  he  began  to 
issue  monthly  a  paper  known  as  The  Chowan  Pilot,  by  aid  of 
which,  within  less  than  eighteen  months,  a  two-story  school- 
building,  60  by  30,  was  completed' and  paid  for. 

So  brilliant  was  this  brief  record  of  his  aa  a  journalist, 
that  in  the  summer  of  1887,  at  the  time  of  the  establishment 
of  The  Pilot  by  the  North  Carolina  Ministerial  Union,  he  was 
unanimously  chosen  editor-in-chief  of  the  paper.  After  some 
solicitation,  he  accepted  this  responsibility,  and  consented  to 
consolidate  The  Chowan  Pilot  with  this  new  enteiprise.  He 
then  took  immediate  steps  toward  purchasing  a  printing- 
press,  and  to  open  an  office  under  his  own  supervision.  In 
less  than  a  mouth  everything  was  in  readiness  for  operation. 

Remarkable  to  say,  he  begun  to  issue  a  bi-weekly  paper, 
according  to  agreement,  without  any  previous  training  in  the 
art  of  type-setting.  He  not  only  filled  the  position  of  editor, 
but  also  compositor.  Since  its  establishment,  The  Piloi  has 
appeared  regularly,  and  has  rapidly  grown  in  public  favor. 
It  is  the  only  paper  published  in  the  town  of  Winton,  and  it 
is  read  by  a  majority  of  the  white  citizens,  such  being  6o/ia 
fide  subscribers.  It  is  a  neatly  printed,  twenty-column 
paper,  devoted  chiefly  to  the  denovnination  from  which  it 
derives  its  name;  but  in  almost  ever v  i.s^ue  are  to  be  found 
strong  articles  affecting  the  race  problem  of  America.  The 
editor  believes  that  the  press,  in  the  hands  of  the  negro,  may 
be  made  greatly  instrumental  in  his  advancement. 

The  success  of  2%:  Pilot  is  better  told  by  those  who  have 
visited  the  office,  than  by  the  author.  Prof.  S.  M.  Vass  of 
Shaw  University,  upon  a  visit  to  The  Pilot  office  at  Winton, 
writes  thus  to  The  North  Carolina  Baptist:  **It  is  my 
pleasant  privilege  to  be  able  to  sit  in  the  office  of  Tlie  Baptist 
Pilot  and  write  this  short  article  for  the  Baptists  of  North 


EEV.  CALVIN  8.  BROWN. 


308  THE  APRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Carolina  to  read.  I  had  long  cherislied  a  desire  to  visit  the 
printing  de])artnient  of  21ie  Pilot  to  learn  how  Bro.  Brown 
could  send  out  such  an  excellent  paper,  at  such  a  small 
subscription  price — only  seventy-five  cents  a  year.  Now  I 
understand.  Of  course,  the  Ministerial  Union  owns  the  press. 
That  much  is  sale.  Bro.  Brown  just  raises  enough  money  to 
buy  the  paper.  He  does  all  the  type-setting  himself,  agisted 
by  a  noble  and  talented  young  lady,  about  fifteen  or  sixteen 
years  old,  Miss  Annie  W.  Walden,  to  whom  he  taught  the 
art.  And,  by  the  way,  who  taught  him?  No  one.  He 
purchased  the  press,  without  the  least  knowledge  of  how  to 
use  it;  but  by  bringing  to  bear  his  inborn  talent  for  such 
work,  and  his  iron  will,  he  mastered  the  eflbrt  in  a  few  davs. 
It  is,  to  say  the  leiist,  a  tedious  work  to  sit  and  handle  type. 
But  the  toughest  part  of  all  is  the  process  of  carrying  the 
pjiper  through  the  press.  It  makes  a  man  sweat  and  .show 
his  strength,  and  ruins  all  his  clothes  with  the  ink  and 
groa.^e  and — what  not.  It  takes  two  persons  one  whole  day 
to  do  the  printing  after  the  type  is  all  set,  which  consumes 
quite  a  while, — several  days. 

Well,  who  edits  the  paper?  Brother  Brown;  he  is  the 
man.  Several  brethren  promised  to  assist  him ;  but  the  whole 
work  falls  upon  him." 

As  to  the  support  that  has  been  gathered  to  The  Pilot, 
it  i.<  interesting  to  read  what  its  editor  has  to  say  about  it : 
''It  is  gratifying  to  observe  the  tide  which  is  swerping  iIr' 
state  in  favor  of  TJie  Pilot,  From  every  quarter,  fix  in 
hundreds  of  staunch  Baptists  whose  hearts  long  for  ihe 
prosperity  of  the  denomination,  come  strong  and  enthusiastic 
expressions  assuring  us  that  the  enterprise  shall  be  sustained." 

With  Editor  Brown's  continued  persistence  in  the  work, 
we  arc  forced  to  believe  that  the  future  prospects  for  The 
Pilot  are  bright  for  a  race  organ,  which  will  prove  to  be  of 
great  benefit  to  it. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  809 

Ebv.     Geo&gb     W.    Clinton,     Editoe     Afko-American 

Spokesman. 

Rev.  Mr,  Clinton,  who  holds  the  editorial  reiua  of  The 
Afro- American  Spokesman,  was  burn  in  Cedar  Creek  township, 
Lancaster  County,  S.  C,  March  23,  1859,  with,  as  it  has 
proved,  many  days  before  him  fur  journalistic  usefulness,  as 
well  as  that  of  a  dispenser  of  divine  truths. 

Mr.  Clinton  had  a  little  knowledge  of  letters  before  the 
war  closed,  his  father  having  been  his  tutor.  A  desire  upon 
the  part  of  his  mother  to  have  her  boy  fitted  fur  the  gospel 
ministry,  induced  her  to  keep  him  in  school,  which  she  did 
by  hard  labor.  He  prepared  himself  for  college,  entering 
the  State  University  in  1874,  and  remained  until  it  was 
closed  against  the  black  man  in  1877.  He  then  began  to 
teach  school,  with  a"  tirst-grade  certificate,  continuing  in 
that  work  for  twelve  years. 

While  teaching,  he  read  law  in  the  office  of  Allison  & 
Connors  for  six  months.  During  this  time  he  fuUuwed  the 
advice  of  Blackstone,  and  read  the  Bible  in  connection  with 
his  law  books.  This  resulted  in  a  deeper  interest  in  the  Bible 
than  for  law,  and  accordingly,  after  assisting  in  one  oa.se  (the 
papers  of  which  were  prepared  by  him^.^ir)  he  began  a 
diligent  study  of  Scriptural  truth.  He  was  licensed  as  a  local 
preacher  in  the  A.  M.  E.  Zion  church  in  1879,  and  admitted 
to  the  Travelling  As.sociation,  November  21,  1881. 

He  has  had  some  of  the  best  appointments  in  the  Confer- 
ence, and  held  some  of  the  most  honorable  positions  in  the 
Conference.  He  was  fraternal  delegate  from  the  South 
Carolina  Conference  to  the  New  England  Conference,  Hart- 
ford, Conn. ;  was  delegate  to  the  General  Conference,  at  New 
York  City,  and  one  of  its  trusted  secretaries;  was  also  a 
ministerial  delegate  to  the  General  Conference  at  New  Berne, 
IT.  C,  and  general  secretary  of  the  same,  Bishop  Charles  C« 


310  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Petty  beiug  absent  a  while  alter  the  Conference  had  convened. 
He  has  served  in  uihcr  prominent  positioni?  in  church  councils. 
He  was  transferred,  in  Kuvember,  1888,  from  the  S.  C. 
Conference  to  the  Allegheny  Conference,  and  is  now  serving 
as  pastor  of  the  John  Wesley  A.  M.  E.  Zion  church  in  Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

His  career  as  a  public  writer  began  in  1877.  Among  his 
tirst  contributions  to  Tfie  Star  of  Zion  was  a  poem,  entitled 
•'  In  Memoriam  of  C.  D.  Stewart,"  who  was  a  fellow  college- 
mate.  The  poem  was  dedicated  to  Miss  Julia  Eagles,  the 
young  lady  to  whom  Mr.  Stewart  was  affianced. 

Hi.<  active  career  as  an  editor  began  with  his  service  of 
seven  years  upon  the  editorial  staff  of  The  Slur  of  Zion.  He 
has  written  for  such  Anglo-Saxon  journals  as  The  Ktw  York 
Weekly  Witness,  The  Ceyitenary,  The  Charleston  Sun,  ^scivs 
and  Courirr,  and  others  equally  prominent.  His  article  to 
The  A.  M.  E,  Review  on  "The  Pulpit  and  School-room  '  wa.^ 
very  highly  commended. 

The  Ajro' American  Spokesman,  of  which  he  is  now  e<iitor. 
is  the  only  paper  published  among  the  A  fro- Americans  oi 
Pittsburg  and  Allegheny  City.  It  is  su])ported  by  a  s^tock 
company,  composed  principally  of  the  ministers  of  the  city. 
It  began  operations  on  the  30th  of  May  without  a  subscriber 
or  helper,  except  those  of  the  stock  company  with  th*?ir 
capital  shares. 

Mr.  Clinton,  as  a  writer,  is  clean,  with  great  simplicity  ol 
style.  He  uses  his  descriptive  powers  to  much  advantage. 
If  he  continues  in  journalism,  he  is  destined  to  be  one  of 
the  foremost  writers  of  his  race.  In  entering  upon  his  work 
as  editor  of  The  Spokesman,  Mr.  Clinton  says :  **  While  we 
shall  devote  adequate  space  to  the  religious  doings  of  om- 
people  and  give  church  w^ork  its  due  recognition,  we  shall 
consider  ourselves  at  liberty,  and  to  be  in  keeping  wuth  the 
aim  and  purpose  of  the  paper,  to  give  a  reason  of  the  faith 


EEV.  GEORGE  W.  CLINTON'. 


312  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESa 

we  acknowledge,  and  express  our  opinion  upon  all  questions 
that  pertain  to  our  people  and  country.  We  promise  the 
public  a  paper  worthy  of  their  patronage,  and  our  people 
one  that  will  be  ever  vigilant  in  their  defence  when  their 
rights,  privileges  and  opportunities  are  trammelled.  We  shall 
be  no  less  active  in  speaking  our  opinion  cciicerning  any 
faults,  short-comings,  and  indiscretions  of  our  own  people. 
What  we  desire  is  to  represent  the  race  before  the  public  as 
it  is,  and  see  that  it  has  fiedr  play;  and  by  counsel  and 
encouragement  stimulate  it  to  move  forward  till  it  has 
attained  the  highest  possibilities  of  American  citizenship." 

The  Spokesman,  keeping  to  the  line  indicated  above,  will 
ever  conserve  the  best  interests  of  the  race,  as  it  under- 
stands them. 

William    Bolden    Townsend,    Editor   and    Publisheb 

Leavenwoeth  Advocate. 

William  B.  Townsend  first  saw  the  light  near  Huntsville, 
Ala.,  about  the  year  1854.  Samuel,  the  grandfather,  as  well 
as  master  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  originally  a 
Virginian,  but  returned  to  Alabama  in  the  early  days  of 
the  slavery  agitation,  and  became  a  prominent  citizen  of 
that  state.  Young  Townsend  having  been  sold  several  times 
was  finally  bought  by  his  grandfather,  and  he  and  his  mother 
were  emancipated  during  the  year  1857. 

After  remaining  in  Alabama  some  three  years,  they  went 
to  Kansas  in  the  spring  of  1860.  Here  he  was  given  a 
chance  for  schooling,  and  he  applied  himself  so  diligently 
that  in  a  few  years  he  developed  those  traits  of  character 
which  have  since  distinguished  him  as  one  of  the  foremost 
advocates  of  the  ricjhts  of  his  race. 

After  finishing  a  course  of  study  in  the  common  schools 
of  his  adopted  state,  he  went  to  Mississippi  as  a  teacher,  but 


WILLIAM  BOLDEN  TOWNSEND. 


314  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

finding  the  treatment  of  his  people  so  inhuman,  and  himself 
meeting  many  hardships,  he  again  sought  the  fair  and  fertile 
fields  ot  Kansas,  where  he  entered  upon  a  career  of  usefulness 
which  has  been  almost  phenomenal. 

In  1876  he  became  correspondent  for  The  Colored  CUizeth 
a  paper  published  at  Fort  Scott,  Kansas.  In  1878  we  find 
him  an  associate  editor  of  The  Radical,  which,  as  well  as 
Tlie  Cbhred  Citizen,  was  published  in  the  interest  of  his 
race. 

He  has  held  several  appointive  ofiices,  both  in  the  county 
and  state  in  which  he  lives,  and  always  with  credit  to 
himself  and  honor  to  his  race.  At  the  Republican  conven- 
tion in  1SS2  he  made  the  nominating  speech,  and  succeeded 
in  havin^ix  the  Hon.  E.  P.  McCable  .selected  as  candidate  k'V 
auditor.  At  the  recent  convention  of  colored  men  held  at 
Snlina.  aiul  coni}>osed  of  two  hundred  delegates,  he  was 
elected  eliairinan,  and  through  his  influence  the  Hon.  J.  L. 
WalltM'  was  made  the  choice  of  the  convention  as  the 
candidate  of  the  colored  people  for  auditor  on  the  Re]>ublican 
ticket. 

He  was  employed  for  ten  consecutive  years  as  letter-carrier 
in  Leavenworth,  and  only  resigned  the  position  for  the 
pur}>ose  of  studying  law.  He  has  been  one  year  at  the  State 
University,  and  hoi»es  to  graduate  in  1892. 

Always  devoted  to  the  interests  of  his  people,  Mr.  Town- 
send  is  destined  to  take  rank  as  one  of  the  foremost  leaders 
of  his  race  in  this  count rv. 

Henry  Fitzbutler,  M.  D. 

The  following  extract  from  a  pamphlet  published  in 
Louisville,  Ky.,  containing  sketches  of  colored  men  in  that 
state,  will  introduce  Dr.  H.  Fitzbutler: 

'*  Perhaps   the  most  remarkable  man    identified   with  the 


HENBY  FITZBUTLEB,  M.  D. 


316  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

colored  race,  who  has  been  added  to  the  citizenship  of 
Louisville,  is  Dr.  Henry  Fitzbutler.  Bom  December  22, 
1842,  he  graduated  at  the  Michigan  University,  in  March, 
1872,  from  the  department  of  medicine  and  surgery,  and 
came  to  Louisville  in  July  of  the  same  year.  Dr.  Fitzbutler 
attracted  much  attention  at  once,  he  being  the  first  regular 
physician  of  the  colored  race  to  enter  upon  the  practice  of 
medicine  in  the  state  of  Kentucky. 

"At  that  time  the  colored  people  of  Louisville  were 
peculiarly  under  the  influences  which  followed  the  ante-bellum 
prejudices.  There  was  an  admitted  guardianship,  comprising 
perhaps  eight  or  ten  men,  who  dictated  public  affairs  for  the 
colored  people  in  a  manner  agreeable  to  the  prejudices  of  the 
white  people,  and  but  few  colored  people  sought  business  or 
notable  positions  without  consulting  these  *  intermediators.' 

*'  The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  recognized  by  the  medical 
profession  in  Louisville,  and  commended  as  being  scientific 
and  proficient  in  medicine  and  surgery ;  but  having  neglected 
to  consult  the  colored  'intermediators,'  they  prophesied  a 
short  stay  for  him,  and  went  to  work  to  fulfill  the  words  of 
their  divination.  However,  as  Providence  and  progress  would 
have  it,  eight  years  have  elapsed,  and  this  independent 
business  man  and  philanthropist  is  still  here,  and  with  many 
admirers  is  beholding  the  dying  prejudices  that  would  bar 
the  progress  of  colored  citizenship. 

"Dr.  Fitzbutler  has  not  lived  a  selfish  life,  but  of  his 
means  from  his  medical  business  has  contributed  largely  to 
the  literary  and  political  necessities  of  the  colored  race. 
When  a  state  convention  was  called  in  Louisville,  al>out 
February,  1873,  to  consider  the  educational  interests  of  the 
colored  people  of  Kentucky,  many  of  the  old  citizens  stood 
aghast,  seeming  to  fear  extermination  if  found  participating; 
therefore,  no  one  aspired  to  the  chairmanship  of  such  a 
convention,  yet,   by  request,  and  to  meet  the   unpopular 


APRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  317 

emergency,  Dr.  Fitzbutler  accepted  and  filled  the  position 
fearlessly  in  the  Louisville  circuit  court  room. 

"  The  resolutions  passed  in  this  convention  demanded  equal 
school  privileges  for  colored  school  children  in  Kentiuky, 
and  became  the  basis  of  the  agitation  in  and  out  of  the 
legislature,  which  resulted  in  greatly  improving  the  educa- 
tional facilities  in  this  state.  Subsequently,  he  was  the  chief 
opponent  to  a  resolution  advocating  separate  schools  as  the 
will  of  the  colored  people,  and  the  best  course  for  all.  This 
convention  was  in  Covington,  Ky.,  about  1874.  And  he  was 
a  notable  member  of  the  State  Educational  Convention,  which 
met  in  the  State  House,  at  Frankfort,  in  1883,  taking  such  y 
part  in  the  work  as  to  attract  the  attention  of  all  classes  oi 
citizens  throughout  the  alate.  Here,  too,  he  was  not  ashamed 
to  advocate  the  cause  of  his  race,  being  ajipointed  on 
permanent  organization.  He  succeeded  in  getting  an  able 
colored  man  appointed  as  one  of  the  secretaries,  and  anothei 
well-qnalitied  colored  man  a  member  of  an  important  com- 
mittee. And  through  all  incidental  work  Dr.  Fitzbutler  has 
been  an  active  and  reliable  jihysician,  receiving  a  revenue 
which  he  has  never  failed  to  use  to  the  honor  of  the  colored 
race,  being  himself  the  chief  support  of  IVic  Ohio  Fullti 
ExprcHSiy  which  has  been  publishe<l  regularly  fur  nearly  ten 
veare,  known  and  felt  as  one  of  the  most  fearless  advocates 
of  equal  human  rights.  But  his  ambition  has  long  been  the 
establishment  of  a  medical  school,  with  doors  ( ]  vw  to  « (.In;,  ^l 
medical  students  as  well  as  white;  and  manv  nuw  i<  -dee  to 
see  that  design  consummated.  The  legislature  of  Kentucky, 
at  the  session  of  1888,  granted  a  charter  to  Doctors  11. 
Fitzbutler,  W.  A.  Burney  and  R.  Conrad  \ci  condnct,  in 
Kentucky,  the  Louisville  National  Medical  College,  and  that 
charter  was  signed  by  the  governor,  April  22,  1888.  The 
Fcliool  is  now  in  operation,  with  some  of  the  best  talent  to 
be  found  in  the  coautry  as  students/' 


• 


S18  THE  AFRO-AMEBtCAK  PRESS. 

Dr.  FitzbuUer  began  journalistic  work  in  the  publication  of 
The  Planet,  of  which  he  was  editor,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
the  chief  financial  manager, — Alfred  Froman  being  its  origi- 
nator, it  having  been  published  in  Louisville  about  three 
years,  the  first  copy  appearing  in  December,  1842.  Hie 
Planet  was  a  fearless  advocate  of  equal  rights,  and  was 
devoted  to  the  educational  interests  of  the  colored  people  as 
well. 

The  publication  of  The  Ohio  Fodla  Express  has  been  his 
chief  journalistic  effort,  and  has,  at  all  times,  and  under  all 
circumstances,  exhibited  an  intrepidity  and  discretion,  indi- 
cated in  the  prospectus : 

''The  Ohio  Falk  Express  will  make  its  dehut  Saturday, 
September  20,  1879;  and  although  the  country  may  seem 
flooded  with  new.spapers  and  other  literary  periodicals,  yet 
we  have  no  other  apology  to  offer  than  that  there  i.«  not 
sufficient  space  found  within  their  numberless  colunms  lor 
unprejudiced  representation  of  all  races  of  men;  and  in  the 
opinion  of  humble  thinkers,  the  cause  of  the  less  favored 
will  fasior  gain  respect  by  a  continuous,  honest,  earnest  ami 
amicable  etloit  on  their  part. 

•'  T/lc  Express  does  not  presume  to  be  a  leader  nor  a 
dictator,  and  is  not  one  of  those  who  regard  public  sentiment 
ah«l  c.-iablislied  prejudices  as  light  things  that  can  Ue  changed 
in  a  mumfut,  yet  realizes  the  importance  of  unswerving 
advocacy  in  liie  establishment  of  justice  and  true  moral  worth; 
but  does  pn'.sunie  to  avoid  the  iEolian  encomiums  sounding 
in  the  wake  of  success,  regardless  of  right  or  wrong. 

*'  The  editorial  stall'  wiii  lead  otl'  neither  as  acuuj)  dt^  grace 
nor  coup  dc  t/uii/t,  nor  open  with  one  grand  JnsihttJr  upvn 
whatever  is  noi  in  accord  with  their  embrvoni'*  iud^nient; 
but  ho[>e,  by  adheiinii  to  fixed  data  of  reasonini:.  lo  hav*^ 
some  ellectivf  aililifiv  ai  command  anil  briui^  it  to  bear  iu 
accord  with  timcc  and  events. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  319 

"  ITie  Express  has  no  selfish  battles  to  fight,  no  unmerited 
commendation  to  bestow;  but  will  be  an  advocate  in  the 
acquisition  of  wealth,  learning,  and  moral  principles." 

The  Ohio  Falls  Express  is  the  first  successful  newspaper 
effort  under  the  management  of  colored  men  in  Kentucky, 
all  other  previous  eflforts  having  failed.  TJie  Express,  though 
Bepublican  in  sentiment,  has  not  depended  upon  political 
vicissitudes  for  existence,  but  advocating  the  same  principles 
through  different  administrations  of  government  has  relied 
upon  its  own  resources  in  a  business-like  manner.  It  has 
been  published  weekly,  without  intermisj^ion  and  without 
change  of  editor,  since  September  20,  1879. 

The  following  are  editorial  clippings   from  the  successful 

pioneer  of  colored  papers  in  Kentucky :     "  The  speculation 

concerning  the  danger  of  imbibing  the  elements  contributory 

to   disease   from   the  Johnstown    bodies   in   the  Ohio  River 

water,  is   not   a  matter   to  bring  much   terror   to  thinking 

people.     The   vivdtness   of  the   body   of  water   renders   the 

contamination    insignificant.      Then    the    changes   are    very 

brief;  the   greater  portion  of  man   being  water,  when    free 

from  the  body   of  which    it    was  a  constituent,  is  again  as 

good  to  form  part   of  another   animal    body,  as    any    other 

water.     Then   the  other  elements  composing   the    tissues  of 

an  animal  body,  when  free  in  water,  soon  become  wlmt  they 

were  originally  in  relation  to  the  earth.     Tlius  the  chloride 

of  sodium,  phosphate  of  lime,  carbon  in  inan.  when  freed  in 

water  that  has  ample  connection  with  the  earth,  soon  beconi'* 

inoffensive,    and    exist    in    matter-form    as    compatihk-    lo 

re-construct  a  new  body  as  when  originally  taken  iniu  the 

bodies  of  Adam  and  Eve." 

Vital   statistics  furnish  interesting   problems,  not  only  to 
the   political   economist,   but   to  the   philanthropist  and    the 

Christian.      In  Nashville  careful  and  fairly  accurate  reports 

for  the  last  thirteen  years  have  been  kept.      The  death-rate 


J 


S20  tHE  AFRO-AMEfelCAti  PRESS. 

among  the  colored  people  has  ranged  from  about  50  per 
thousand  in  1875  to  23.50  per  thousand  during  the  past  year, 
while  the  death-rate  among  the  whites  for  the  same  period 
has  been  only  a  little  more  than  one-half  as  great.  During 
the  past  three  years,  out  of  a  colored  population  estimated  at 
twenty-three  thousand,  951  births  and  1,758  deaths  have  been 
reported.  Among  the  white  population,  which  is  about 
twice  as  great,  there  have  been  1,478  births  and  1,600 
deaths.  It  is  possible  that  all  of  the  births  among  the  colored 
people  have  not  been  reported.  If  they  have,  it  would  indicate 
that  while  the  birth-rates  are  about  equal,  the  death-rate  is 
twice  as  great. 

The  causes  are  numerous,  and  may  be  classified  under  four 
general  heads, — poverty,  ignorance  of  the  laws  of  health, 
superstition,  and  lack  of  proper  medical  attention. 

Robert  Charles  O'Harra  Benjamin,  Editor  San  Fran- 
cisco Sentinel. 

R.  C.  0.  Benjamin  was  born  in  the  Island  of  St.  Eitts, 
West  Indies,  March  31,  1855.  He  was  educated  at  Oxford 
University,  England,  and  after  graduation  he  traveled 
extensively  in  Sumatra,  Java,  and  other  islands  in  the  East 
Indies.  Upon  returning  to  England,  he  took  passage  on  a 
ship  goinfT  to  the  West  Indies,  and  visited  Jamaica.  Antigua, 
and  Barbadoes,  coming  to  America  by  way  of  Venezuela, 
Curacoa,  and  l.>einerara. 

Soon  alter  his  nrrival  in  New  York  he  began  taking  an 
active  part  in  public  affairs,  which  brought  him  in  close 
association  with  such  prominent  men  as  Dr.  Henry  Highland 
Garnet t,  Cornelius  Van  Cott,  and  Joe  Howard,  Jr.  The 
latter,  then  editor  of  TJie  New  Ycn^k  Star,  employed  him  as  a 
soliciting  agent,  and  when  not  at  this  work  he  was  a.«*signed 
to  office  duty.     In  the  course  of  a  few  months,  business  led 


'•  sauum. 


322  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

liim  to  the  acquaintanceship  of  John  J.  Freeman,  editor  of 
The  Progressive  Avierican,  who  made  him  city  editor  of  his 
paper.  Since  then  Mr..Benjamin  has  owned  and  edited  several 
newspapers:  The  Cohrred  OUizen,  in  Pittsburg,  Penn;  The 
Chranwle,  at  Evansville,  Ind. ;  and  T/ie  Negro  American, 
At  Birmingham,  Ala.,  he  is  now  editing  The  San  Francisco 
(California)  Sentinel.  The  following  clippings  will  give  an 
idea  of  the  esteem  in  which  Mr.  Benjamin  is  held  by  the 
press  of  the  country : 

"Among  the  most  brilliant  exchanges  that  come  to  our 
sanctum  is  The  (California)  S^vtinel,  edited  by  our  old  friend, 
Hon.  R.  C.  0.  Benjamin.  This  paper  is  taking  the  Pacific 
Coast  like  wild-fire,  and  rapidly  gaining  a  national  reputation. 
But  this  could  not  be  otherwise,  because  Mr.  Benjamin  is  one 
of  the  most  able  of  the  negro  writers,  lecturers  and  oratoi-s 
in  this  country.  Others  may  have  a  bigger  name,  but  when 
it  comes  to  real  talent,  versatility,  and  innate  ability,  Benja- 
min can  swallow  the  majority  of  them  at  a  gulp.' 

"  R.  C.  0.  Benjamin,  E.<q.,  editor  of  llie  San  Francisco 
Scniincl,  is  getting  out  one  of  the  liveliest  and  best  negro 
journals  in  the  country.  We  wish  Mr.  Benjamin  all  possible 
success  financially  with  his  Sentinel, — Pine  Bluff  (Ark.) 
Echor 

"  R.  C.  0.  Benjamin  is  running  a  great  paper  in  San  Fran- 
cisco. R.  C.  0.  will  be  remembered  as  the  editor  of  21ie 
Negro- American  in  this  city  about  four  years  ago.  Benjamin 
is  a  born  journalist. — Birmingham  (Ala.)  Bulletin.'' 

**R.  C.  0.  Benjamin,  the  colored  lawyer,  author  and  politi- 
cian, is  now  editor  of  The  Sm  Francisco  Sentinel.  Brother 
Benjamin  wields  a  vigorous  pen,  and  is  making  a  good  paper. 
— So.  Cal.  Informant,  Sin  Diego^ 

*'  Mr.  Benjamin  is  a  ready  newspaper  man,  and  we  doubt 
not  that  The  Sentinel  will  thrive  under  his  editorial  man- 
agement.— iVoy  Ch'kans  (La.)  Pelican,'' 


AFRO-AMERIOAN  EDITORS.  323 

"We  welcome  to  our  desk  The  San  Francisco  Sentinel. 
This  is  one  of  the  brightest  papers  published  in  the  West. 
We  are  glad,  always,  to  receive  such  exchanges.  There  is 
plenty  of  room  for  good  papers.  We  wish  The  Sentinel  a 
long  and  prosperous  voyage,  for  we  recognize  in  it  a  strong 
and  fearless  defender  of  the  race.  May  The  Sentinel  be  a 
.power  on  the  Coast,  and  always  the  sentry  of  the  race  rights.'* 
— ITie  Advocate^  Leavenworth,  Kan. 

"This  week  our  table  holds  Tfie  San  Francisco  Senlinel, 
Vol.  I,  No.  1,  with  the  gifted  R.  C.  0.  Benjamin,  formerly  at 
the  hesui  of  The  Negro  American  of  Birmingham,  as  editor. 

The  editor  of  Fcdr  Play,  and  many  others  of  this  city,  are 
well  acquainted  with  Mr.  Benjamin  and  rejoice  to  know  that 
he  again  drives  the  quill.  Long  live  The  Sentinel  to  help 
in  the  great  work  of  obtaining  equal  rights  and  fair  play  in 
the  race  of  life  for  every  American  citizen,  without  regard  to 
race  or  color." — Fair  Flay,  Meridian,  Miss. 

As  a  newspaper  man.  Mr.  Benjamin  has  been  a  marked 
success.  He  is  fearless  in  his  editorial  expression;  and  the 
fact  that  he  is  a  negro  does  not  lead  him  to  withhold  his 
opinions  upon  the  live  issues  of  the  day,  but  to  give  them  in 
a  courageous  manner.  His  motto  is:  "My  race  first,  and 
my  best  friends  next."  Any  one  reading  his  paper  will  find 
that  his  race  has  an  able  champion  in  him,  and  one  who  will 
never  fail  them.  His  strictures  on  the  murders  and  outrages 
of  his  race  in  the  South,  and  his  demand  for  an  equal  chance 
in  the  race  of  life  for  his  people,  show  true  manliness. 

Mr.  Benjamin  is  widely  known  to  the  newspaper  fraternity 
by  the  nom  de  plume  of  "  Cicero,"  a  cognomen  he  adopted 
while  corresponding  editor  of  27ie  Nashville  (Tenn.)i^*e5 
Lance.  He  was  for  some  time  the  local  editor  of  Tlte  Daily 
Sun,  a  prominent  white  paper,  published  at  Los  Angeles,  Cul., 
and  is  the  first  colored  man  to  hold  such  a  position  on  a 
white  joomal. 


324  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

In  the  midst  of  his  journalistic  work  he  has  found  time 
to  write  several  very  interesting  books,  among  the  moet 
prominent  of  which  are  **  The  Boy  Doctor,"  "  History  of  the 
British  West  Indies,"  "Future  of  the  American  Negro," 
*'The  Southland,"  "Africa,  the  Hope  of  the  Negro,"  "Life  of 
Toussaint  L'  Overture;"  besides  publishing  "An  Historical 
Chart  of  the  Colored  Race,"  and  a  volume  of  poems  which 
has  passed  through  several  editions. 

He  is  a  fluent  conversationalist,  in  both  the  French  and 
Sj^anish  languages.  He  has  the  credit  of  being  one  of  the 
finest  platform  orators  of  his  race  in  America,  and  takes  an 
active  part  on  the  stump  in  state  and  national  campaigns. 
In  1886  he  made  a  tour  through  the  principal  cities  of 
Canada,  and  lectured  to  large  white  audiences. 

Mr.  Benjamin  is  also  a  lawyer,  having  been  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  Memphis,  Tenn.,  in  January,  1880.  His  experi- 
ence a,s  a  practitioner  has  been  varied,  and  the  territory  over 
whicli  bis  legal  services  have  been  extended  aggregate  twelve 
different  states. 

In  Caliioriiia  he  is  very  highly  esteemed  by  both  whites 
and  blacks.  The  California  Conference  of  the  A.  M.  E. 
church,  has  elected  him  Presiding  Elder,  his  jurisdiction 
comprising  the  states  of  California,  Oregon,  Washington,  and 
Nevada.  He  is  also  General  Financial  Agent  and  Superin- 
tendent of  the  Connection's  Sabbath-school  on  the  Coast. 

At  the  same  time,  the  bench,  the  bar,  the  county  and 
city  ofTicials  of  San  Francisco,  Los  Angeles  and  all  Southern 
California  recommended  him  to  the  Congressional  delega- 
tion, who,  in  turn,  did  so  to  President  Harrison,  for  the 
position  of  consul  to  Antigua,  West  Indies.  It  being 
impossible  to  give  him  this  particular  appointment,  the 
president  offered  him  the  consulship  to  Aux  Cayes,  Ilayti, 
which  he  declined,  preferring  to  remain  at  the  editorial  helm 
C>f  his  paper,  The  Scnlind, 


E  A.  WIUJAM8. 


326  THE  APRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

De.  E.  a.  Williams,  Editob  Joubnal  of  the  Lodge. 

The  Journal  of  the  Lodge  is  the  official  organ  of  the 
(colored)  Supreme  Lodge  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias  of  North 
America,  South  America,  Europe,  Asia,  and  Africa,  and  has 
been  adopted  as  the  official  organ  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Masons  of  the  state  of  Louisiana,  It  is  edited  by  Dr.  E.  A, 
Williams,  the  Supreme  Chancellor  of  the  order,  and  Grand 
Secretary  and  Grand  Recorder  of  Masonry  and  Knights 
Templar  of  Louisiana.  Its  columns  are  devoted  exclusively  to 
secret  societies,  and  it  is  especially  the  organ  for  which  it 
was  founded.  It«  circulation  is  now  over  three  thousand. 
Its  first  issue  by  Dr.  Williams  was  under  adverse  circum- 
stances. It  has  just  entered  upon  its  third  volume,  and  is 
now  upon  a  solid  basis,  with  sufficient  capital  to  make  it  a 
permanent  journal. 

Prof.    Daniel   Webster    Davis,    Editor   Young    Men's 

Friend. 

When  the  history  of  the  country  and  the  present  achieve- 
ments of  the  Afro-American  are  written,  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  young  men  identified  with  this  race  have  not  been 
inactive.  It  will  be  observed  that  they  have  performed  the 
part  assigned  them  in  the  race  of  life  with  courage  and 
fidelity.  Upon  the  shoulders  of  the  young  A  fro- American, 
man  or  woman,  devolves  the  solving  of  the  question,  com- 
monly called  the  Negro  (Afro-American)  Problem.  In  any 
walk  of  life,  the  young  man  or  woman  striving  to  do  his 
part  in  making  the  race  a  respected  one,  must  necessarily 
meet  with  trials  and  discouragements.  It  will  be  the  man 
or  woman  who  surmounts  them  and  contends  for  intellectual, 
moral,  and  social  preferment,. that  must  be  great.  Are  there 
any  thus  contending?  if  so,  let  history  record  his  name  and 


828  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

work.  Prof.  Davis  is  of  this  number.  His  life  is  one  that  most 
meet  the  general  recommendation  of  men.  He  was  born  in 
Caroline  county,  Va.,  March  25,  1862.  Going  to  Richmond, 
Va.,  he  was  educated  in  her  public  schools,  receiving  medals 
from  his  instructors  on  two  occasions,  for  proficiency  in  his 
studies.  He  served  as  an  apprentice  in  a  shoe  shop,  and 
became  a  first-class  workman  there.  He  was  elected  to  t«ach 
in  the  city  schools  of  Richmond  in  1880,  where  he  has  been 
since,  having  attained  a  good  record  as  an  instructor  of 
youth.  He  was  selected  as  professor  of  mathematics  and 
civil  government  in  the  summer  institutes  of  Lynchburg, 
Staunton,  and  Lexington,  Va.,  by  the  state  superintendent  of 
public  instruction.  His  ability  manifested  in  these  institutes, 
combined  with  his  genial  and  lovable  qualities,  did  much  to 
hold  intact  the  many  teachers  who  attended  them. 

Mr.  Davis  has  held  many  honorary  positions.  He  was 
president  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  of  Richmond,  Va.,  and  is  now 
associate  to  the  general  secretary.  For  years  he  was 
president  of  tha  Richmond  normal  school  alumni,  and  the 
Garrison  and  Langston  lyceum.  He  is  at  present  chairman 
of  the  executive  board  of  the  Virginia  teachers'  reading 
circle;  also  of  the  executive  board  of  the  Virginia  Baptist 
Sunday-school  Convention,  and  is  otherwise  very  prominent 
in  the  church  and  Sunday-school  circles  of  his  city.  He  is 
also  conspicuous  in  masonic  circles,  serving  at  one  time  as 
Most  Worshipful  Master  of  Social  Lodge,  No.  6,  A.  F.  &  A. 
Masons.  He  was  Grand  Representative  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  Alabama,  with  rank  of  Past  Grand  Senior  Warden,  and 
was  also  Special  Deputy  of  Grand  Lodge  of  Virginia.  He 
is  likewise  prominent  among  the  Odd  Fellows,  as  well  as  in 
other  societies.  He  was  a  director  of  the  Building  and  Loan 
Association  of  Richmond  City,  and  a  member  of  the  executive 
committee  of  the  late  national  emancipation  celebration. 

Prof.  Davis  is  a  great  musician,  playing  on  four  diflferent 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  829 

instruments.  He  appears  to  be  a  natural  poet.  His  poems 
have  been  published  in  tlie  newspapers,  and  read  on  various 
occasions.  Among  the  most  important  of  these  productions 
is — '*  De  Nigger  *s  Got  to  Go," — written  for  The  Planet  of 
Richmond,  Va.,  and  another  for  the  late  emancipation 
celebration,  which  was  very  pleasantly  commented  on  by 
The  Richmond  Diapcdch.  Mr.  Davis  has  delivered  more 
choice  orations  on  great  occasions  than  any  other  young  man, 
within  the  recollection  of  the  author.  This  of  itaelf  bespeaks 
volumes  for  his  oratorical  ability.  Upon  the  following 
occasions  he  has  delivered  orations,  which  drew  from  his 
auditors  rapturous  applause  and  laudatory  comments :  At 
the  memorial  exercises  of  Gen.  Grant;  graduating  class  of 
Richmond  high  school;  alumni  association,  Lynchburg,  Vu. ; 
Y.  M.  C.  A.  of  Petersburg,  Va.,  of  Lynchburg,  Va.,  and  of 
Norfolk,  Va. ;  the  laving  of  the  corner  stone  of  the  Gloucester 
high  school;  the  unveiling  of  Capt.  Emmett  Scott's  monu- 
ment; the  soldiers'  re-union  at  Richmond;  and  before  the 
masonic  fraternity  of  Richmond. 

Mr.  Davis  is  a  live,  vigorous  and  happy  sjxjaker,  full  of 
eloquence  and  oratory.  He  is  daily  called  upon  to  speak  on 
an  occasion  of  some  interest;  for  which  lie  is  always  ready, 
especially  if  he  sees  in  the  movement  a  rising  purpose  on  the 
part  of  his  race. 

Few  of  our  young  men  have  done  much  more  in  the 
journalistic  calling  than  has  Mr.  Davis.  He  began  this  work 
as  correspondent  for  The  Baptist  Companion,  the  organ  of  the 
Afro-American  Baptists  of  Virginia;  also,  for  The  Boston 
(Ma.ss.)  Advocate.  In  like  capacity,  he  has  served  admirably 
The  liichniond  Planet^  The  Lunrhhurq,  (Va.)  L'lhonn-,  Th'i 
Masonic  IL'.rald  of  Philadelphia,  The  JL/.^onir  Vi/ilor  of 
Petersburg,  Va. ;  and  also  21u',  Youmj  Jf/i'.s  Frirnd,  before 
he  assumed  the  editorship. 

The    Young   Metis   Friend  is   the  organ    of   the    colored 


630  THE  Ai*RO-AMERtOAN  t&ESS. 

Young  Men's  Cliristian  Association  of  Richmond  City.  The 
purpose  of  this  periodical  is  to  supplement  the  work  of  the 
association  in  promoting  the  educational,  moral,  and  religious 
endeavor  of  the  young  men.  Its  motto — "Young  Men  for 
Christ,"  is  indicative  of  its  aim  and  purpose.  To  edit  this 
organ,  no  young  man  better  fitted  as  a  Christian  and  an 
educated  gentleman  could  have  been  selected  out  of  the 
association  than  Mr.  Davis.  He  is  a  quiet,  Ood-fearing 
young  man,  who  is  of  the  opinion  that  all  our  success  comes 
from  God,  and  for  the  ultimate  salvation  of  the  race  we  must 
rely  upon  Him.  Such  a  man  we  must  all  concede  to  be  the 
proper  editorial  director  of  the  young  men. 

Mr.  Davis  is  a  man  of  brilliant  thought  and  correct 
judgment,  and  what  he  thinks  he  says  in  choice,  expressive 
English.  His  career  promises  great  things  for  the  Afro- 
American  press.  Believing  as  he  does  in  the  enlightenment 
of  his  country  and  the  salvation  of  his  race,  coupled  with 
the  entire  Christianization  of  the  masses,  he  will  wield  a 
facile  and  vigorous  pen  for  it^  accomplishment. 

The  subscription  of  The  Diend  has  already  increased  under 
the  editorial  management  of  Mr.  Davis,  and  a  bright  future 
is  predicted  lor  it.     Long  may  it  live  for  God  and  humanity. 

Rev.  Matthew  Wesley  Clair,  Editor  Methodist 

Banner. 

This  gentleman  is  one  of  the  young  men  connected  with 
the  Washington  Conference  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
church,  whose  outlook  is  for  a  profitable  life  in  the  ministry 
and  as  an  editorial  dispenser  of  religious,  moral,  and  social 
truths. 

He  began  life  in  Monroe  county,  W.  Va.,  where  he  was 
born  of  humble  parentage  October  21,  1865.  He  secured 
what  rudimentary  knowledge  he  could  possibly  attain  in  the 


AFRO-AMERICAN  EDITORS.  8dl 

schools  of  his  county.  He  was  converted  in  1880,  and  joined 
the  M.  £.  church,  which  marked  a  turning  epoch  in  his  life. 
Having  been  moved  by  the  Spirit  to  begin  the  work  of  a 
teacher  of  divine  truth,  he  applied  for  an  exhorter's  license 
and  received  it  at  the  hands  of  R^v,  S.  A.  Lewis,  and 
subsequently  was  the  recipient  of  orders  as  a  local  preacher 
from  Presiding  Elder  Samuel  G.  Griffin. 

Having  the  good  sense  to  know  that  a  man,  in  these  days, 
who  enters  the  ministry,  must  be  trained  for  the  position,  he 
applied  for  admission  at  Morgan  College,  one  of  the  schools 
controlled  by  the  FreeJman's  Aid  and  Southern  Evangelical 
Society,  located  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  and  was  received  there. 
His  attendance  at  this  institution  Wius  under  some  great 
sacrifices,  and  therefore  he  could  spare  no  time  for  idleness. 
He  at  once  took  a  prominent  place  among  the  bright 
students  with  whom  he  Wiis  associated,  and  won  the  G.  V. 
Leech  prize  for  excellence  in  theology  in  1884,  and  received 
the  Baldwin  prize  for  English  oratory  in  1887.  He  is  a 
graduate  of  the  normal,  classical,  and  theological  departments 
of  that  college.  He  was  examined  and  admitted  to  the 
Traveling  Connection  of  the  Washington  Conference  of  the 
M.  E.  church,  in  March,  1889,  and  was  stationed  at  Harpers* 
Ferry,  W.  Va.,  and  was  sent  back  in  March,  1890.  He  is 
one  of  the  best  pulpit  orators  among  the  young  men  of  that 
Conference.  He  is  winning  in  his  manner,  and  at  the  same 
time  he  impresses  upon  his  hearers  the  divine  teachings  of 
the  Master  with  force  and  power. 

For  some  time  before  Mr.  Clair  entered  the  Washington 
Annual  Conference,  it  was  a  great  question  with  the  members 
whether  a  local  organ  could  not  be  established  and  maintained 
by  that  portion  of  Methodism.  Several  attempts  to  do  this 
were  ma<le,  among  which  were  The  Conference  Journal  and 
The  Centred  Methodist,  noted  in  other  chapters.  The  Banner 
is  only  a  resurrection  of  The  Central  Mdhodist,  after  a  year  a 


832  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

suspension.  It  is  published  as  a  local  religious  paper  by  the 
members  of  the  Conference,  who  are  known  as  a  typographical 
association.  It  is  oflScered  as  follows ;  Rev.  W.  T.  Harris, 
president;  Rev.  W.  P.  Ryder,  vice-president;  Rev.  S.  A. 
Lewis,  secretary ;  Rev.  I.  L.  Thomas,  treasurer. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  association  in  Frederick  City,  Md., 
in  March,  1890,  Rev.  M.  W.  Clair  was  elected  editor,  and 
C.  L.  Harris  business  manager  of  The  Banner,  The  present 
is  the  third  volume  of  The  Banner,  and  though  yet  in  its 
infancy  it  is  a  newsy  and  well-edited  paper.  The  aim  of  its 
projectors  is  best  understood  as  they  have  expressed  it. 
Says  the  editor :  "  The  Bayiner  is  now  in  its  infancy,  but  it 
is  hoped  that  it  may  be  waved  in  every  home  and  its  news 
cheer  the  hearts  of  thousands." 

Mr.  Clair  is  a  good  practical  writer.  His  editorials  are 
read  for  the  good  advice  and  sound  common  sense  to  be  found 
in  them.  Much  can  be  done  for  the  race,  if  The  Banner 
continues  to  wave  on  the  present  pinnacle  of  moral  and 
religious  endeavor. 

Mrs.  F.  M.  W.  Clair,  the  beloved  wife  of  Rev.  Mr.  Clair, 
does  much  to  assist  him  in  his  editorial  labors.  Her 
contributions  to  the  editorial  columns  share  alike  with  his 
the  commendation  of  a  reading  public.  She  was  born,  and 
reared  mostly  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  being  the  youngest  living 
daughter  of  Rev.  Perry  G.,  and  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Walker.  She 
was  educated  at  Morgan  College,  and  is  a  graduate  of  its 
normal  department.  Until  she  assumed  the  duties  of  a  wife, 
she  was  a  teacher  in  the  schools  of  Maryland,  and,  lastly, 
an  instructor  in  the  Baltimore  Qi^y  Academy.  She  is  well 
known  as  an  essayist,  and  as  an  associate  upon  the  editorial 
staff  of  TJie  Banner,  She  has  the  following  to  say  of  the 
press:  "The  object  of  the  press  is  to  elevate  humanity. 
It  is  one  of  the  greatest  means  of  bringing  our  people  to  the 
level  of  those  who  have  had  centuries  of  privileges." 


CHAPTER  XIX. 


ILLUSTRATED  AFRO-AMERICAN  JOURNALISM. 


THE  illustrated  paper,  among  all  classes  and  conditions, 
has  met  the  most  cordial  reception.  To  read  of  an  occur- 
rence, or  }il)out  a  fixed  thing,  and  to  observe  the  same 
illustrated,  teiifls  to  fix  in  the  mind  of  the  reader  the  facts 
more  impressively ;  it  also  better  enables  him  to  grasp  the  situ- 
ation as  intended.  He  also  is  enabled  to  see  the  purpose 
sought;  and  he  sees  without  effort  the  picture  the  article 
intends  to  have  the  imagination  form.  The  necessity  of 
such  a  phase  of  journalism  among  any  people  admits  of  no 
argument.  With  this  idea  in  view,  Edward  Elder  Cooper  of 
Indianapolis,  Ind.,  issued  The  Indianapolis  Freeman,  (the  first 
and  only  illustrated  journal  of  the  Afro-American  race.)  con- 
sisting of  eight  pages,  July  14,  1888.  To  say  that  this  was 
a  most  commendable  step  upon  the  part  of  Mr.  Cooper,  is  to 
say  the  least  of  it.  While  the  Afro- American  seems  hardly 
prepared  for  a  very  high  plane  of  journalism,  from  a  money  or 
intellectual  consideration,  and  certainly  not  from  experience, 
yet  in  this,  as  in  other  phases  of  the  work,  he  has  shown  his 
possibilities,  and  maintains  his  stand.  The  journalist  of  color 
finds  it  a  matter  of  some  thought  when  be  first  launches  his 


336  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

paper  as  to  whether  such  support  will  gather  about  it  88  the 

enterprise  deserves. 

This  may  have  been  so  with  27ie  Ireeman,  yet  it  was  sent 
foith  in  the  belief  that  the  race  would  accept  a  good,  worthy, 
ideal  paper,  when  presented  to  it;  and  there  was  no 
disappointment  in  this  case,  for  I7ie  Freeman  at  once 
drew  for  itself  a  hearty,  enthusiastic,  and  lasting  support. 

The  race  owes  a  debt  to  the  man  whose  experience,  money, 
self-sacrifice,  brain  and  brawn,  keep  alive  this  sheet,  which 
is  one  of  the  brightest  stars  in  the  unrecorded  history  of 
A  fro- American  freedom.  A  world  of  thinkers  and  readers 
concede  its  relative  superiority.  Success  with  it  has  been 
simply  phenomenal.  The  meed  of  authority  as  a  newspaper 
has  been  freely  accorded  it  by  its  contemporaries  and  indi- 
viduals, all  over  the  Union.  The  white  journals  of  the 
country,  without  hesitation,  term  it  the  leading  paper  of  the 
race.  In  proof  of  this  fact  it  has  upon  its  exchange  list  a 
class  of  papers  and  periodicals  that  no  other  colored  paper 
has.  Among  the  many  can  be  found  the  leading  white  papers 
of  Chicago,  Baltimore,  New  York,  Boston,  Indianapolis,  St. 
Loui.-^,  and  Cincinnati. 

Besides  this  honor  accorded  to  TJic  Freeman  because  of 
its  worth  and  ability,  it  has  ali*o  been  the  recipient  of 
flattering  notices  from  acknowledgc*<l  white  organs,  as  well  as 
from  its  race  con  temporal  ies.  77!^?  Indianaj^oUs  Journal, 
the  most  popular  Anglo-Saxon  journal  of  Indianapolis,  says: 
"  So  far  as  we  are  acquainted  with  colored  journalism,  the 
best  paper  published  in  the  interests  of  the  colored  people 
is  The  Freeman  of  this  city.  No  other  paper  is  doing  as 
good  work  in  the  special  field  indicated.  Its  advocacy  of 
the  interests  of  the  colored  people  is  able  and  dignified,  and 
its  illustrated  sketches  of  the  colored  literary  men  and  women 
are  exceedingly  well  conceived  and  executed."  The  ancm- 
nati  Commercial  Gazette^  Murat  Halstead,  editor,  saj^s :    •*  Uie 


ILLUSTRATED  JOURNALISM.  .  837 

Freemofa  is  by  far  the  best  and  ablest  newspaper  the  colored 
people  have  ever  had."  The  Advocate  of  Leavenworth,  Kan., 
contributes  the  following  to  The  Freeman s  glory:  "The 
iUustrated  Freeman  of  Lidianapolis,  Ind.,  is  to  the  colored 
people  what  Frank  Leslie  is  to  the  whites."  The  National 
Leader  remarks:  "  The  F'eeman  of  Indianapolis,  Ind.,  E.  E. 
Cooper,  manager,  is  the  only  colored  pictorial  published  in 
the  country.  Though  in  its  infancy,  it  has  taken  front  rank 
in  illustrated  newspaperdom.  We  consider  it  the  Harper's 
Weekly  of  the  colored  race."  Admitting  the  advance  of  the 
Afro- American  in  this  great  pursuit  of  life,  another  says: 
"  It  is  a  credit,  too,  and  shows  the  progress  the  colored  race 
is  making  in  journalism." 

It  will  be  interesting  for  one  to  note  the  particular  charac- 
teristics of  this  journal  in  question  :  As  a  news  paper,  it  gives 
a  complete  review  of  the  doings  of  the  Alio- Americans 
everywhere.  As  a  political  paper,  it  is  independent,  com- 
mending the  good  and  condemning  the  bad  in  both  parties. 
As  an  historical  paper,  it  devotes  unceasing  research  to  the 
hitherto  unpublished  history  of  the  A fi'o- American,  and  from 
time  to  time  it  prints  and  illustrates  the  legends  and 
romances  of  the  Afro- American,  written  by  Afro-American 
authors.  As  a  literary  paper,  it  keeps  pace  with  the  educa- 
tional and  literary  progress  of  the  race.  As  an  illustrated 
paper,  it  portrays  the  Afro- American  as  he  is,  and  not  as  so 
often  represented  by  many  of  our  white  journals.  As  a 
general  new.'jpaper,  it  is  the  peer  of  any  in  the  land. 

\\Tien>  he  came  from;  how  he  has  reached  his  present 
eminent  position  in  life;  what  he  has  done  for  his  race  and 
how  he  is  honored  by  them ;  his  future  service  to  his  people ; 
are  the  points  to  which  we  shall  be  pleased  to  call  the 
attention  of  the  reader,  in  dealing  with  the  life  of  Mr.  Cooper. 
This  done,  without  exaggeration  or  embellishment,  we  shall 
stop,  feeling,  that  then  there  is  much  more  to  be  said. 

22 


538  THE  A]?RO-Ai£fiRlOAN  P&fiSS. 

As  is  true  of  the  great  majority  of  our  really  eminent 
Afro- Americans,  Mr.  Cooper  is  a  southern  product ;  but  early 
in  life,  without  money  or  friends,  yet  full  of  pluck  and 
ambition,  he  selected  the  North  for  his  future  home  and  field 
of  operations.  From  the  South,  he  went  to  Philadelphia;  and 
from  thence  he  turned  his  attention  to  the  setting  snn, 
selecting  Indianapolis,  the  Hoosier  metropolis,  as  his  perma- 
nent home.  Here  he  entered  school  and  graduated  first  in 
a  class  of  sixty-five,  all  being  white,  save  himself. 

In  1882  we  find  him  in  the  United  States  railway  mail 
service,  soon  becoming  one  of  the  most  efficient  men  in  that 
difficult  and  exacting  branch  of  government  work,  having 
gone  from  class  5  to  1,  at  the  time  of  his  retirement  from 
the  service.  In  1886  he  had  full  charge  of  his  car,  being 
the  only  A  fro- American  that  ever  had  a  corps  of  white  clerks 
under  him. 

In  the  spring  of  1883,  though  still  in  the  government 
service,  lie,  in  connection  with  Edwin  F.  Horn  and  others, 
began  tlie  ]niblication  of  The  Colored  World,  issued  at  Indian- 
ap<.)li.s.  The  venture  was  a  success  from  the  beginning,  but 
owing  to  a  cliange  of  "runs,"  Mr.  Cooper  was  compelled  to 
sever  his  connection  with  the  paper,  and  a  stock-company 
then  took  hold  and  ran  it. 

Leaving  the  government  service  in  1886,  he  once  more 
connected  himself  with  lite  World,  ih^n,  as  now,  known  as 
lite  Infllf(?i(tj)()lis  World,  and  from  a  puny  weakling,  head 
over  heels  in  debt,  run  without  svstem  or  method,  with  a 
half-paid  circulation  of  less  than  five  hundred,  within  six 
months  he  booked  a  bQ7ia  fide  circulation  of  two  thousand, 
on  a  .<^olid  and  paying  basis.  One  year  later,  selling  out  his 
interest,  he  left  it.  one  of  the  best  equipped,  best  paying,  more 
widely  read  and  clipped  newspaper,  than  any  other  that  had 
been  published  in  the  Union  by  colored  men  up  to  this  time. 
He  then  began  the  publication  of  Tlui  Freeman^ 


ILLUSTRATED  JotJRNALISM,  m 

As  an  all-around  newspaper  man, — ^that  is,  in  all  that 
pertains  to  the  conducting,  preparing,  printing,  and  publishing 
of  a  newspaper,  we  pronounce  him  America  s  greatest  Afro- 
American  journalist.  There  are  men,  perhaps,  who,  in 
certain  specific  fields,  may  equal  or  surpass  him ;  but  there 
is  not  one  who  has  begun  to  get  near  him  in  the  possession 
of  all  the  forces  that  go  to  make  up  the  newspaper  man  of 
the  very  first  class, 

Mr.  Cooper  is  a  remarkable  and  striking  character.  One 
18  taken  with  his  affableness  in  a  short  time  after  meeting 
him,  for  he  is  always  pleasant  and  agreeable.  He  believes 
in  system  and  order,  and  transacts  business  with  a  dispatch, 
known  only  of  the  shrewdest  business  characters.  A  glance 
at  his  editorial  desk  reveals  the  kind  of  man  who  sits  upon 
the  bench.  He  has  been,  and  is  to-day,  a  great  but  careful 
reader.  A  profound  classical  student,  he  is  also  a  master  of 
the  English  language,  and  perhaps  the  best  grammarian  of 
the  negro  press.  As  a  writer,  he  is  pointed,  terse,  clear. 
As  a  talker,  he  draws  from  a  well-stored  mind,  and  is  always 
interesting  and  instructive.  In  politics,  he  is  independent ; 
as  some  one  has  put  it,  a  negrowump,  placing  his  race  above 
his  party. 

In  closing  a  sketch  of  our  subject  in  Th^  New  York  Age, 
W.  Allison  Sweeney,  his  friend  and  neighbor,  very  eloquently 
says:  "For  my  part,  I  am  glad  that  Edward  Elder  Cooper 
belongs  to  the  negro  race.  His  glory  shall  be  my  glory ; 
his  achievements,  my  achievements.  A  personal  friend  that 
is  forgotten  now.  Such  as  he,  belongs  to  the  whole  race,  not 
to  the  clique,  or  to  the  few.  He  is  not  coming ;  he  is  here. 
Let  us  arise  and  go  to  him." 


CHAPTER  XX, 

»»ROMINENT   AFRO-AMERICAN    CORRESPONDENTS. 
CONTRIBUTORS  AND  REPORTERS. 


Prof.  Daniel  Barclay  Williams,  A.  M. 

ALL  is  the  giii  of  indii.stry ;  wliate'er  exalts,  embellishes 
and  renders  lite  delightful." 
Prof.  Williams,  by  far  one  of  the  most  polished  and 
ready  writers  of  which  the  race  can  boiist,  was  born  in 
Richmond,  Va.,  November  22,  1861.  His  mother,  a  woman 
of  marked  industry,  early  recognizing  the  capabilities  of  her 
ton,  gave  him  the  advantage  of  the  public  school  training  to 
be  had  in  that  city.  He  graduated  from  the  Richmond 
Normal  School  in  1877  ;  then  entered  the  Worcester  Academy, 
Worcester,  Mass.,  in  the  fall  of  1877,  through  the  influence  of 
Prof.  R.  H.  Manly,  and  Miss  M.  E.  Knowles.  He  graduated 
from  this  school  in  1880,  and  in  the  same  year  matriculat^jd 
in  Brown  Universitv.  He  was,  however,  unable  to  remain 
there  to  finish,  but  subsequently  pursued,  and  privately  com- 
pleted, the  course.  He  then  began  the  life  of  an  educator, 
filling  the  most  responsible  and  creditable  positions  of  that 
nature  in  his  native  city  and  county,  until,  in  1885.  he  was 
elected  to  the  chair  of  Ancient  Languages  and  Instructor  in 


l.oAutlQQ^JM^'yyy^- 


342  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

methods  of  teaching  and  school  management  in  the  Virginia 
Normal  and  Collegiate  Institute  at  Petersburg,  Va.,  which 
position  he  still  holds. 

The  professor  has  had  ten  years*  experience  as  an  educator, 
and  few  can  be  found  who  equal  him.  He  possesses  executive 
ability  of  a  high  order,  and  his  decisions  may  be  generally 
relied  u])on.  He  is  a  popular  linguist,  reading  with  ease 
German,  French,  Hebrew,  Latin  and  Greek.  Our  subject  has 
a  wide  reputation  as  a  brilliant  orator  and  conversationalist. 
His  services  in  this  respect  have  been  constantly  in  demand 
for  ten  years.  He  is  one  of  the  best  known  men  in  his  state, 
and  has  a  national  reputation  as  well,  and  has  been  frequently 
honored  jus  a  distinguished  leader  of  his  people.  T/te  Xcw 
York  Sail  of  May  15,  1887,  presented  an  excellent  tiit  on<l 
sketch  of  him,  with  those  of  Frederick  Douglass,  Dr.  A. 
Stiaker  and  others.  The  same  adorned  the  columns  of  The 
Chvc/and  Gazette;  and  his  is  given  in  Dr.  William  J.  Simmori-s' 
book  as  that  of  "  a  man  of  mark." 

One  of  Virginia's  noblest  sons,  we  have  given  but  the 
briefest  record  of  his  life  thus  far.  We  now  point  the  readei 
to  a  brilliant  picture  of  his  literary  and  journalistic  career. 
The  writer  regards  this  as  the  brightest  j)aj-t  of  his  record. 
His  career  in  this  respect  began  in  1883  and  1884,  whwi  he 
contributed  a  series  of  articles  to  Tfic  Imhistrial  Ilerahl  i\\\A 
EicJiiiumd  Planet  on  "The  Latin  Language,"  and  ''The 
Education  of  the  Negro."  In  1884  he  contributed  another 
series  to  TJie  Baptist  Compamon,  on  **  Why  we  are  Baj^tists." 
Their  range  of  history  and  philosophy,  and  pleasing  and 
attractive  style,  added  much  to  the  popularity  of  the  paper. 

He  has,  at  diilcrent  times,  contributed  to  different  pnpei-s 
on  niis(*ella?KM)iis  subjects.  He  now  corresponds  with  1%: 
Naitonal  J^i/ot,  The  Home  Mission  Moidhhj,  The  Frcnnan, 
an<l  T^ie  A.  M.  E.  Chureh  Review.  He  is  also  editor  of  the 
department  of   Theory   and   Practice   of    Teaching  in    77/f 


CORRESPONDENTS  AND  REPORTERS.        343 

Progressive  EdwcaJUyr,  of  Raleigh,  N.  C.  He  is  one  of  our  few 
successful  Afro- American  authors.  In  1883  he  published  his 
"Negro  Race,  a  Pioneer  in  Civilization/'  In  1885  he  sent 
^  from  the  press  his  "  Life  and  Times  of  Capt.  R.  A.  Paul," 
and  "  Why  we  are  Baptists."  These  works  had  a  good 
circulation.  In  1886  he  wrote  "The  Theory  of  Rev.  John 
Jasper  concerning  the  Sun,"  in  "The  Life  of  Jasper." 

We  here  quot«  the  following  words  of  Prof.  R.  W.  Whiting, 
in  regard  to  his  "  Science,  Art,  and  Methods  of  Teaching," 
published  in  1887 :  "  The  crowning  act  of  his  life,  and  the 
brightest  star  of  hope  for  the  future  negro  author,  is  the 
success  of  his  work,  *  Science,  Art,  and  Methods  of  Teaching.* 
This  work  is  the  rose  of  English  literature  and  the  standard 
work  on  the  subject  among  our  people."  Another  of  his 
works  **  Freedom  and  Progress,"  is  now  in  press. 

Prof.  Williams  is  a  strong,  versatile  writer.  Having  a 
massive  brain,  from  which  thought  after  thought  freely 
emanates,  he  is  enabled  so  to  attract  a  reader  as  to  receive 
from  him  the  palm  of  being  a  brilliant  author.  He  has  a 
style  wholly  his  own,  easy  and  mellifluous.  Then  his  thoughts 
are  original,  and  are  expressed  with  clearness  and  force,  and 
in  language  rich  and  mellow.  Nothing  in  the  lea.st  objection- 
able to  the  most  refined  mind  can  be  seen  in  his  writings. 

Articles  from  Prof.  Williams  are  eagerly  sought.  Tlie 
Progressive  Udu^atw  has  been  made  a  most  popular  publica- 
tion among  pedagogues  by  Prof.  Williams'  contribution  on 
"  Theory  and  Practice  of  Teaching."  If  he  should  espouse 
the  calling  of  an  active  journalist,  the  race  would  have  in 
him  an  advocate  not  surpassed  by  any  other  people.  In 
our  years  of  friendship  with  him,  we  have  watched  his 
upward  flight,  have  read  his  pithy  and  convincing  writings, 
have  heard  his  eloquence,  and  listened  to  his  instructive 
utterances,  and  now,  in  amazement,  we  pause  for  words  to 
express   our   admiration   of  one    who   has   overcome   such 


344  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

apparently  insurmountable  obstacles,  and  attained  to  the 
eminence  he  occupies.  In  conclusion,  we  are  Ipd  to  exclaim: 
*'  His  lite  is  gentle,  and  the  elements  so  mixed  in  him,  that 
Nature  might  stand  up  and  say  to  all  the  world — '  This  was  a 
manl'" 

John  Edward  Bruce,  {Bruce  OriC). 

February  22,  1885,  in  the  town  of  Piscataway,  Md.,  the 
above  all-around  newspaper  man  was  born  of  slave  parents. 
When  but  four  years  old,  he  moved  with  his  mother  to 
Washington,  his  present  residence,  where  he  attended  the 
private  school  of  Miss  Smith,  and  also  the  Free  Library 
school.  In  1872,  while  Gen.  0.  0.  Howard  was  president  of 
Howard  University,  he  took  a  course  of  three  months  at 
that  institution,  and,  after  this,  some  private  instruction  from 
Mrs.  B.  A.  Lockwood,  once  the  female  candidate  for  president, 
on  the  equal  rights  ticket. 

At  an  early  age,  he  developed  a  taste  for  journalij?m, 
receiving  his  first  lessons  in  1874,  in  the  office  of  L.  L. 
Grouse,  an  associate  editor  of  The  New  York  Times.  In  the 
same  year  he  became  special  correspondent  for  Tfie  Pro- 
gressive  American,  published  by  John  J.  Freeman,  a  pioneer 
journalist.  His  first  contribution  to  ITie  Atnei^ican,  was 
under  the  caption,  **  Distillation  of  Coal  Tar,"  which  evoked 
many  complimentary  expressions. 

From  this  he  began  a  career  as  a  general  news-man,  which 
has  hardly  been  surpassed  by  any  of  his  race.  Under  the 
ncytn  de  />/«W2i'  of  "  The  Rising  Sun,"  he  wrote  Washington 
letters  for  The  Richmond  (Va.)  Slar^  and  over  his  own 
signature  sent  letters  to  The  Freeman  s  Jouimal  of  St.  Louis, 
The  World  of  Indianapolis,  and  The  St.  Louis  Tribune.  To 
these  papers  he  wrote  from  1877  to  1880.  Having  now 
gotten   fully   into   the   work,  young   Bruce   became   special 


JOHN  EDWARD  BRUCE. 


346  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Washington  correspondent  of  The  Chicago  (111.)  Oonservakr, 
27ie  North  Carolina  Bepubliean.  Tlic  Erderpriae,  of  Fayette- 
ville,  N.  C,  The  Neio  York  Freeman,  The  Reed  City  Clarion, 
(white),  The  Detroit  Plaindealer,  The  Christian  Index,  and 
The  Cherokee  Advocate ;  the  latter  being  published  in  English 
and  Cherokee,  by  the  Cherokee  nation. 

Mr.  Bruce  may  be  called,  with  due  propriety,  the  prince 
of  Afro- American  correspondents.  He  is  not  only  sought  for 
by  our  race  journals  as  a  news-gatherer,  but  by  those  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon,  also.  He  has,  at  times,  contributed  special 
articles  to  TJie  New  York  Ha^ald,  Titnea,  World,  Mail  amid 
Express, 

Not  only  has  he  been  a  correspondent  for  other  journals, 
but  has  actually  established  several  journals  himself,  wha^se 
editorial  management  was  brilliant.  He  publi.shecl  Tiic 
Argiis,  at  Wa.shington  City  in  1879,  with  C.  M.  Otey,  A.  M.. 
editor,  which  he  published  nearly  two  years,  when  it  was 
turned  over  to  a  stock-company,  and  finally  died.  TJte 
Sunday  Item,  established  in  18S0  by  J.  E.  Bruce  and  S.  S. 
Lacy,  was  the  first  Sunday  paper  ever  published  by  Afro- 
AmericaFis,  and  was  fairly  successful  as  a  newspaper  venture. 
It,  like  many  other  of  our  journals,  lacked  capital  to  put  it 
properly  on  its  feet,  and  hence  had  to  **  die  the  death  of 
the  righteous." 

The  Witshinyton  Grit  was  founded  by  Mr.  Bruce,  in  1884, 
as  a  campaign  sheet,  he  being  the  editor  and  proju'ietor. 
This  sheet,  like  all  others  established  by  him,  was  a  staunch 
Rej^ublican  paper,  not  hesitating  to  speak  out  in  advocacy  of 
Republican  principles.  It  was  quietly  gathered  unto  its 
projector's  arms  in  the  latter  part  of  1884,  conscious  of  the 
fact  that  it  had  done  all  it  could  for  the  election  of  the 
Republican  ticket.  lie  also  established,  at  Baltimore,  Hie 
Commonwealth,  which  survived  six  months;  but  the  principles 
for  which  it  contended   triumphed,  viz.,  the  obliteration  of 


CORRESPONDENTS  AND  REPORTERS.        847 

the  word  "white"  from  -the  constitution  of  the  state,  the 
repeal  of  the  Bastardy  law,  and  the  modification  of  the 
odious  distraint  law. 

Our  subject,  at  various  times,  has  been  upon  the  editorial 
stafirf  of  I'he  Exodica  of  WaHhington,  (in  1880),  llic  Mai-yland 
Director,  and  ^he  Bee  and  Leader,  of  Washington,  D.  C.  Ho 
now  writes  for  Tke  OazcUe  of  Cleveland,  and  The  New  York 
Age,  as  "  Bruce  Grit."  He  is  a  successful  gatherer  of  what- 
ever news  is  afloat;  more  so  than  most  of  the  Afro-American 
reporters,  in  that  he  can  more  readily  got  an  intorview  with 
noted  men,  such  as  senators  and  representatives  at  Washington. 

He  distinguished  himself,  some  time  since,  by  an  expression 
he  got  from  Senator  Hoar,  relative  to  an  assertion  accredited 
to  him.  It  was  heralded  through  the  country  in  many 
papers,  complimenting  Mr.  Bruce  on  his  .shrewdness  in  getting 
the  sentiment  from  Senator  Hoar.  One  doscribos  him  as 
"vigihmt,  shrewil,  active,  progressive,  and  always  on  the 
alert  for  the  messenger  news."  His  exprossion  in  The  Bee, 
relative  to  the  Payne  and  Derrick  controversy,  was  full  of 
suggestive  thoughts.  He  is  always  square  upon  a  matter  at 
issue.  "  Bruce  Grit"  never  flinches  from  what  he  regards  a 
just  and  frank  opinion. 

Rev.   'W.   H.   Franklin,  Special   Contributor   to   The 
New  York  Age  and  Knoxville  (Tenn.) 

Negro  World. 

In  our  eflforts  to  give  the  history  of  a  work  so  wide  and 
comprehensive  as  that  of  Afro-American  journalism,  the 
special  correspondent  of  llie  New  York  Ane  and  Negro 
World  comes  in  for  a  place.  His  letters  have  been  racy  and 
of  interest  to  the  many  readers  of  those  papers.  This  gentle 
man,  whose  writings  measure  well,  in  every  respect,  with  tho 
^Vfro-Anierican  editor,  was  born  at  Knoxville,  April  16, 1852, 


848  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

His  father  died  in  1868,  or  when  he  was  but  16  years  of  age, 
but  his  mother  is  still  living. 

His  education  was  received  in  the  schools  of  Knoxville 
and  at  Maryville  College,  he  being  the  first  Afro-American 
to  graduate  from  that  institution,  which  event  occurred  in 
1880.  His  theological  training  was  had  at  the  Lane  Theo- 
logical Seminary,  Cincinnati,  from  which  he  graduated  in 
1883.  The  Cincinnati  CbniTnercial  Gazette  and  The  JJro- 
American,  edited  by  Prof.  Peter  H.  Clark,  paid  high  tributes 
to  the  scholarship  and  oratory  of  young  Franklin.  He  is  at 
present  pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  church  at  Rogersville, 
Tenn.,  and  principal  of  the  Swift  Memorial  Seminary,  a 
school  of  high  grade. 

Beginning  to  write  for  newspapers  when  quite  young,  his 
experience  and  ever-increasing  knowledge  made  him  promi- 
nent as  a  correspondent,  and  his  articles  are  read  by  all. 
He  began  his  newspaper  work  in  1878,  when  he  became- 
correspondent  of  27i^  Knoxville  Exavibier^  W.  F.  Yardley, 
Esq.,  editor.  He  has  also  given  articles  to  The  Star,  of 
Tennessee,  Herald  Freshytei%  Critic,  and  other  papei'S.  He 
now  writes  for  T'Jie  Nexo  York  Age,  and  The  Knoxville 
Negro  World,  two  representative  Afro-American  journals. 

Rev.  Mr,  Franklin  is  one  of  the  most  conversant  corre- 
spondents that  now  write  for  the  press.  His  articles  are 
always  fresh  and  well  received,  and  demand  careful  thought. 
He  is  logical,  argumentative  and  free  from  abrupt  phrases. 
We  wish  to  reproduce  a  few  extracts  from  articles  of  \i\», 
which  have  appeared  in  various  issues  of  The  Age  and  World, 
In  one  in  The  Age,  Mr.  Franklin  fears  that  the  present 
administration  will  mistake  the  difference  in  the  Afro- 
American  of  four  years  past  and  the  Afro- American  of  to-day. 
He  very  fittingly  writes:  "If  the  present  administration 
thinks  that  it  has  returned  to  power,  and  found  us  where  it 
left  us  when  it  went  out  of  power,  it  makes  a  great  mistake* 


BET.  W.  a.  FBANELBH. 


850  T?flE  APRO-AMfitllOAM  t&fiSS. 

If  it  thinks  that  we  have  been  at  a  staud-still,  it  errs.  The 
negro,  fresh,  anxious  and  ambitious,  has  been  exerting 
hinjself,  wherever  opportunity  has  oflFered,  to  improve  his 
mind  and  to  prepare  himself  for  the  complicated  duties 
imposed  upon  him  in  consequence  of  his  citizenship.  The 
great  majss,  it  is  true,  have  not  made  very  much  progress. 
It  will  require  a  long  period,  under  the  most  favorable 
circumstances,  for  light,  intelligence,  and  culture  to  leaven 
the  whole  mass.  Education  and  intelligence  have  not 
reached  every  individual  in  the  most  favored  parts  of  our 
Union.  But  it  can  be  truthfully  said  that  even  the  mass  of 
negroes  are  not  what  they  were  four  years  ago.  They  have 
learned  something  and  made  some  progress.  Much  more  can 
be  said  oi  individuals  in  every  community.  These  individuals 
may  be  divided  into  two  classes;  One  consists  of  the  politi- 
cians and  leaders  who  were  active  in  former  times;  the 
other  consists  of  young  men  who  had  reached  their  majority 
and  who  had  been,  and  have  been,  qualifying  themselves  for 
usefulness  and  leadership.  The  Reconstruction  perioil,  the 
sudtlen  enfranchisement  of  the  negro,  the  pressing  demand 
for  persons  to  fill  responsible  positions,  developed  many 
incompetent  and  unworthy  leaders;  a  very  natural  thing,  and 
one  which  has  happened  many  times  before.  The  incompetent 
and  the  unworthy  were  not  acceptable  to  the  more  resj^ectable 
and  thoughtful  of  the  race.  Many  of  them  were  as  creditable 
and  capable  iis  their  neighbors.  In  view  of  all  the  circum- 
stiuices  they  did  well,  notwithstanding  the  strong  indictment 
of  Mr.  Hampton  to  the  contrary."  He  then  reaches  the  main 
and  vital  point,  which  every  one  will  admit  is  a  serious 
matter  for  consideration.  Says  he:  "There  are  also  a 
number  of  deserving  young  men.  Some  of  them  were  born 
just  before  the  struggle;  some  of  them  in  the  midst  of  the 
struggle;  and  some  of  them  just  after  the  struggle,  which 
gave  birth  to  their  freedom.     They  found   their  way  eai'ly 


eOIlfi£sJ>ONi)£NT?S  ANf)  REi^OETERS.       §5i 

into  the  school-room,  provided  by  generous  friends  of  the 
North  and  finally  by  the  states.  They  studied  hard  in  school 
and  out  of  school.  They  have  been  forced  to  be  students  of 
public  affairs  and  public  men.  Their  opportunities,  their 
studies,  and  their  training,  have  given  them  both  character 
and  position  in  their  respective  communities.  They  are 
univei-sally  recognized  as  men  of  ability  and  worth.  They 
are  editing  our  newspapers,  teaching  our  schools,  filling  our 
pulpits,  pleading  our  causes,  healing  our  diseases,  advocating 
our  rights,  handing  us  out  goods,  building  our  houses;  indeed, 
filling  every  vocation  in  our  busy  and  complicated  life. 
They  have  sprung  up  everywhere,  and  are  capable,  energetic, 
and  aspiring.  I  am  writing  from  knowledge  and  observation. 
I  see  about  me  what  I  have  written.  I  have  traveled  in 
other  sections,  and  seen  and  noted  the  same.  If  our  party 
and  our  friends  are  to  know  what  we  are  and  where  we  are, 
they  cannot  afford  to  ignore  these  facts.  If  they  are  to  deal 
with  us  justly  and  fairly,  they  must  neither  shut  their  eyes 
to  the  truth  nor  suffer  themselves  to  be  deceived  by  a 
perversion  of  the  truth.  I  have  often  been  surprised  at  the 
ignorance  which  prevails  at  the  North,  in  regard  to  the 
political,  material,  social,  and  religious  eoiKlition  of  the 
negro.  It  does  not  seem  possible  for  people  who  live  so  near 
us  to  have  such  mistaken  views,  and  yet  it  is  true.  Our 
condition  is  bad  enough,  without  exag^i^ation.  We  have 
burdens  enough  to  bear,  without  suffering  from  the  mistaken 
views  of  those  who  ought  to  help  and  encourage  us," 

Mr.  Franklin  discusses  the  famous  Dortch  bill,  introduced 
in  the  Tennessee  Legislature,  and  does  it  from  the  most 
encouraging  stand-point,  claiming  that  the  bill  will  redound 
to  the  intellectual  benefit  of  the  race.  In  another  issue  he 
comments  in  a  vigorous  way  upon  the  opinions  in  TIic  New 
York  Independent  on  Dr.  A.  G.  Haygood's  answer  to  Senator 
Eutice'8  letter  in  ITie  Forum^  expressing  himself  in  this  wise 


i 


I  llil 


f  ll,. 


t„  r„l,.v:„.  1,„M,.„.  rrm.,,.l„ 
will  helji  us  to  retain  what  we 
lating  a  great  deal  more.  The 
wealthy  men  is  due  to  the  caref 
and  methods  enumerated  above, 
and  follow  tUeir  methods,  we  sh 
prohability  is  that  we  shall  gaii 
while  doing  able  service  as  a  i 
wise  advocate  in  the  editorial  cfa 

Ma.  J.  GOBDOM   ST&E2T,   Repoi 
GENERiL   COBKESFOMDEIIT  . 


"J.  Gordon  Street,"  stud  T.  ' 
Riidd  of  The  American  Calholk  i 
two  had,  Bome  time  ago,  in    Be 

best  newBpaper  correspondent*  in 

Mr.  Stiept  is  a  West  Indian 

light  May  25,  1856,  in  Kingston, 


J.  QOBDON  STREET. 


854  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

In  November  of  the  same  year  a  very  excellent  offer  was 
made  him  by  the  proprietor  of  The  New  York  Olobe  to  take 
the  Boston  correspondence  of  that  paper,  which  was  accepted. 
Shortly  after,  Tfie  Neio  York  Olobe  suspended  publication, 
and  when  T.  Thomas  Fortune  established  The  New  York 
Freeman,  Mr.  Street  was  requested  by  him  to  act  in  the 
same  capacity  for  The  Freeman  in  Boston  as  he  had  done 
for  The  Olobe,  and  he  did  so  from  November,  1884,  to  March, 
1888,  when  he  gave  it  up  to  go  to  Zion  Wesley  College, 
Salisbury,  N.  C,  to  take  charge  of  the  agricultural  depart- 
ment, which  the  faculty  had  decided  to  institute. 

Returning  to  Boston  in  the  summer  of  1885,  he  was 
engaged  by  the  editor  of  The  Boston  Beacon,  the  leading 
white  society  paper,  to  furnish  it  matter.  The  proprietors, 
on  finding  that  a  black  man  was  employed  in  such  a  position, 
objected  to  it,  and  of  course  he  had  to  go. 

Tliongh  feeling  keenly  the  prejudice  with  wliich  he  had  to 
contend,  he  w:i8  not  di.^heartened,  but  rather  resolved  not  to 
give  up  tlie  content  for  a  fair  and  equal  chance  in  the  race 
of  life.  Accordingly,  in  about  five  or  six  weeks,  he  went  to 
27ic  Boston  Eccninij  Bccord  and  asked  if  they  would  like  to 
buy  whatever  news  he  might  have.  The  city  editor  said 
"  Yes,"  and  the  colored  news-gatherer  went  to  work  to  collect 
the  matter.  Every  man  in  the  office  was  white ;  in  fact,  it 
might  be  said  right  here  that  there  was  not  a  colored  man  on 
any  of  the  Boston  dailies,  at  that  time,  and  it  was  supposed 
by  all  tliat  he  was  connected  with  The  Boston  Record,  Item 
after  item  was  brought  in,  accepted  and  published. 

One  day  Street  went  to  the  Boston  museum  of  fine  arts  to 
possess  himself  of  some  news  which  none  of  the  other  papers 
had  learned  of.  In  making  inquiries  about  it,  one  of  the 
autliorities  of  the  institution  asked  him  for  what  paper  he 
sought  the  information;  the  reply  was,  The  Boston  Record, 
and   the   official   cheerfully   furnished  the   facts,  so   that  a 


COKHESPONDENTS  AND  REPORTERS.       355 


i* 


valuable  item  was  obtained.  It  was  learned  by  the  city 
editor  that  Street  had  used  The  Record'a  name  in  securing 
this  bit  of  news,  and  so  he  was  summoned  to  appear  before 
that  gentleman.  He  went,  and  the  following  is  the  colloquy 
that  ensued :  City  Editor — "  Did  you  go  to  the  museum  of 
fine  arts  and  represent  that  you  were  connected  with  The 
Records*  Street — "  I  did,  Sir.  I  supposed  I  had  a  right  to 
say,  when  questioned  by  persons  for  what  journal  I  desired 
any  information  I  might  ask  for,  that  it  was  for  The  Record^ 
City  editor — "  You  had  no  right  to  state  you  were  connected 
with  The  Record,  We  do  not  consider  you  are ;  and,  further- 
more, we  do  not  care  to  have  you  here  any  longer."  Very 
well,  Sir,"  was  the  answer  made  by  Mr.  Street.  About  three 
months  after,  he  secured  a  position  on  The  Boston  Heralds 
reportorial  staflf,  where  he  has  remained  until  the  present 
time. 

In  October,  1885,  he  again  became  the  Boston  correspondent 
of  The  Freeman^  and  continued  as  such  until  the  paper 
changed  hands  and  name,  in  1887.  In  May,  1888,  he  took 
hold  of  Tlte  Philadelphia  Sentinel,  then  almost  unknown  to 
Boston  people.  How  well  he  has  done  with  that  journal,  the 
circulation  of  the  paper  at  the  present  time  tells  more  conclu- 
sively than  anything  that  could  be  said  here.  Mr.  Street  is 
also  the  Boston  correspondent  of  TJie  Indianapolis  Freeman 
and  of  The  Colored  Ulicstrated  Weekly,  That  he  is  a  man  of 
unusual  push  is  made  evident  by  his  ceaseless  activity.  Not 
content  with  the  accomplishment  of  what  most  men  would 
feel  satisfied  with,  he  is  ever  on  the  alert  for  other  openings 
for  the  exercise  of  his  hand  and  brain.  It  was  this  sleepless 
desire  to  be  doing  something  for  the  good  of  his  fellow-man, 
especially  for  the  advancement  of  his  Afro-American  brother, 
that  led  him  to  establish  Tlt£  Boston  Courant,  of  which  he  is 
both  editor  and  proprietor.  It  needs  no  prophetic  eye  to 
state,  that  if  Mr.  Street's  days  are  prolonged  he  will  win  for 


S56  THE  APRO-AMEftlCAN  PREOS. 

himself  a  name  not  soon  to  be  forgotten ;  and  thoee  of  his  race 
who  are  anxious  to  see  their  people  attain  soon  to  that 
position  they  believe  their  Creator  has  designed  for  them, 
must  feel  that  he  is  to  be  an  honored  instrument  in  bringing 
it  about. 

Bishop    Henry    McNeal    Tubner,    D.   D.,  LL.   D.,  Ex- 
Editor  Southern  Recorder,  and  Well-known 
Contributor  to  the  Afro-American 

Press. 

For  us  to  give  an  elaborate  history  of  this  Afro-American 
ill  all  of  his  connections  in  life,  would  be  to  devote  an  entire 
volume  to  him.  Assnming  that  the  public  generally  know 
of  his  fidelity  to  the  race,  and  his  labors  in  the  church  and 
state  for  tlieir  welfare,  we  will  devote  the  most  of  our  sketch 
to  his  work  for  the  Afro- American  press. 

Mr.  Turner  was  born  near  Newberry  Court  House,  S.  C, 
February  1,  1833,  being  the  oldest  child  of  Howard  and 
Sarah  Turner,  As  one  savs:  "His  life  is  full  of  most 
important  events.  He  is  a  man  of  great  nerve,  strong 
character  and  deep  convictions.  He  was  admitted  to  the 
Missouri  Conference  of  the  A.  M.  E.  church  in  1858,  having 
l)eeu  licensed  to  preach  by  Rev.  Dr.  Boyd  in  1853,  and  has 
served,  in  his  course,  from  the  humble  circuit  rider  to  tlie 
bench  of  bishops,  to  which  he  was  elected  May  30,  ISSO.  In 
1S72  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  conferred  the  honorary 
title  of  LL.  D.,  upon  him,  and  Wilberforce  that  of  D.  D.,  in 
1873. 

He  h;is  held,  all  along,  most  responsible  positions  in  his 
church,  as  well  as  under  the  various  Republican  administra- 
tions. In  1876,  he  was  elected  bv  the  General  Conference  of 
the  A,  iL  E.  church  as  manager  of  the  publication  department, 
located  in  Philadelphia,  Penn.     Wliile  at  the  head  of  that 


UlSHOP  UE^'KV  McNKAL  TL'RNEk,  1>.  li,,  l.u  D. 


i 


358  THE  AFRO-AMEMCAN  PRESS. 

department,  he  wrote  much  for  2%«  Christian  Beccrder,  and 
became  noted  for  his  forcible  and  weighty  sentences.  Bat 
few  men  in  the  United  States  have  ever  equaled  him  in  that 
capacity. 

Being  a  man  of  great  nerve  and  strong  character,  the 
missiles  he  would  throw  from  his  pen  would  rarely  ever  fail 
of  their  mark,  and  through  his  wisdom  he  directed  and 
wrote  much  Sabbath-school  literature,  which  was  circulated 
all  through  the  United  States  and  fell  into  the  hands  of 
many  indolent  persons,  acting  upon  them  as  an  incentive 
for  future  endeavors,  which  demonstrated  the  £act  that  the 
press,  in  the  hands  of  the  Afro- American,  was,  and  will  ever 
be,  a  mighty  power. 

After  serving  the  time  allotted  him  by  the  Convention,  he 
compiled  a  hymn  book  for  the  A.  M.  E.  church.  He  also 
wrote  a  standard  work,  entitled  *'  The  Methodist  Policy," 
defining  the  duties  of  the  officers  of  the  Conference  and  the 
functionaries  of  the  church.  This  work  he  has  revised 
recently,  and  it  will  soon  re-appear,  more  instructive  than 
when  it  was  first  introduced. 

In  1886,  he  became  convinced  that  the  church  needed  an 
organ  in  the  Southland,  through  which  its  ardent  laborers 
could  express  themselves  that  many  might  be  edified,  which 
could  not  otherwise  be  accomplished.  Consequently,  he 
caused  to  appear  on  the  25th  day  of  September,  1886,  a  neat 
sheet,  known  as  The  Soiithcim  Recorder.  This  paper,  from 
the  time  of  its  appearance  to  that  of  its  becoming  a  church 
organ  proper,  he  so  managed  as  to  quicken  the  dormant 
faculties  of  many,  which  resulted  in  so  great  a  demand  for 
space  that  he  was  compelled  to  enlarge  his  sheet,  long  before 
it  was  a  year  old.  Daily  its  subscription  list  increased,  until, 
at  the  expiration  of  a  year,  thousands  were  blessed  with  the 
privilege  of  its  columns — its  editorial  columns  especially — in 
which  could   be  found  witty  and  wise    expressions,  coming 


W.  ALLISON  SWEENEY. 


860  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

from  the  pens  of  learned  divines.  Never  tiring  of  his  task, 
he  continued  to  cause  The  Recorder  to  appear  until  May, 
1888,  at  which  time,  the  General  Conference  made  it  an 
official  organ. 

Through  the  whole  course  of  his  life  Bishop  Turner  has 

-proved  a  success,  ever  and   anon   giving   something  to  the 

world  to  inspire  those  who  were  willing  to  make  something 

of  themselves  to  an  effort  to  do  so;  and   this  he  has  done 

by  untiring  industry,  ever  remembering  that 

<*  Height,  by  great  men  reached  and  kept, 

Were  not  attained  by  single  flight; 
But  they,  while  their  companions  slept. 

Were  toiling  upward  in  the  night.*' 

Mb.  Robert  T.  Teamoh,  Reporter  Boston  Globe. 

Among  the  rising  young  journalwts  is  one  who,  for  the 
past  year  and  a  half,  has  been  engaged  in  work  upon  one 
of  the  leading  dailies  in  Boston, — Mr.  Robert  T.  Teamoh. 
whose  experience  in  newspaper  work  has  been  wide  and 
varied.  He  was  born  and  educated  in  Boston,  having  been  a 
pupil  in  the  Boston  Latin  school.  In  1879  he  took  a  diploma 
from  the  industrial  <lrawing  school  of  that  city,  after  which 
he  entered  the  photographic  profession,  and,  later  on,  went 
into  photo  engraving.  He  opened  up  a  business  in  this  craft 
in  New  London,  Ct.,  and  met  with  much  success,  applying 
himself  to  his  work  steadily  for  four  years.  A  special  feature 
was  the  making  of  instantaneous  pictures  of  sailing  vessels 
and  .4toam  craft,  wliicli  plied  Long  Island  Sound  as  far  as 
New  London.  Just  before  going  to  Connecticut  he  began 
newspaper  work  in  Boston  upon  Tlie  Observer,  a  paper  which 
was  run  in  the  interests  of  the  colored  people  by  a  few  of 
the  young  men  of  the  city.  Its  existence,  however,  was  of 
short  duration.  Soon  after,  TJtc  Boston  Leader  came  out 
with    Mr.   Howard    L.   Smith    managing    editor,    and    Mr, 


CORRESPONDENTS  AND  REPORTERS.        861 

Teamoh,  city  editor,  which  thrived  for  some  time  longer  than 
its  predecessor.  While  in  New  London  Mr.  Teamoh  was  an 
occasional  contributor  to  The  Boston  AdvocaU,  and  under  the 
worn  de  plume  of  "Scribbler,"  contributed  some  excellent 
letters  to  that  journal.  He  wrote  a  number  of  pamphlets 
upon  tariff  reform,  during  the  Cleveland-Harrison  campaign, 
that  were  widely  read  and  discussed.  He  has  contributed  to 
several  Connecticut  papers,  and  also  several  articles  to  TJie 
New  York  Age. 

At  the  close  of  the  political  campaign,  Mr.  Teamoh  accepted 
an  offer  upon  the  reportorial  staff  of  The  Boston  Daily  Olobe, 
where  he  has  been  working  steadily  ever  since.  He  is,  what 
is  known  by  newspaper  people,  a  "  hustler,"  and  has  made 
for  himself,  since  his  connection  with  that  paper,  an  enviable 
reputation  as  a  news-gatherer  and  writer,  and  has  turned  out 
many  important  readable  articles.  His  style  is  terse  and 
crisp,  and  his  stories  are  well  written  and  interesting.  Many 
of  his  articles  have  been  accompanied  by  illustrations,  some  of 
which  have  been  photographed  by  him  for  cuts.  These 
photographs  were  developed  in  a  dark  room,  which  has  been 
assigned  him  for  this  purpose  in  the  Globe  building. 

There  is  no  distinction  made  between  him  and  the  other 
"boys"  on  The  Olobe,  He  is  not  only  a  member  but  a 
director  of  the  Globe  Athletic  Club,  having  been  re-elected 
twice.  He  is  also  one  of  the  trustees  of  the  Tremont  Co-opera- 
tive Investment  Association,  and  is  the  only  colored  member 
of  the  organization. 

Mr.  Teamoh  is  considered  an  all-around  good  fellow,  and 
takes  an  active  part  and  lively  interest  in  all  the  questions  of 
the  day.  He  is  the  corresponding  secretary  of  the  Colored 
National  League,  and  was  one  of  the  delegates  from  Boston 
to  the  Colored  Men's  National  Citizens*  Convention,  held  in 
Washington,  February  4,  1880.  Personally,  he  is  a  fine- 
lookins  youne  man.     He  is  tall  and  well-built,  and  is  affable 


/ 


JOHN  DUKUAM. 


Till-'  C'lillfman  i^  ftinoug 
a--.      II,.  Wii-^   honi   in   luiliai 
[iintioii   of  bin   time  to  journ 
productive   of  much  good.     1 
notably  among  them  the  one  p 
which  ia  spoken  of  as  having 
sheets  ever  edited  by  an  Afro-A 
it,  for  from  what  we  have  seen 
can  readily  class  him  as  an  ab 
T/ie  IntfianapoHa  Freeman  on  t 
Lett«rs,  and  Noted  Black  Men, 
i-eader  vho    delighted   in   cbBff> 
arrangement  of  sentences.     Aboi 
of  a  friend :     "  For  my  part,  I  an 
race."     To  aspiring  journalists  wt 
model.    Study  him." 

These  correspondents  and  repot 
sj-e  aa  numerous  as  the  leaves  on 
means  all  capable  as  writers.  It 
the  race  to  see  themselves  in  prii 
fondly    imagine    themHel""-    -'' 


JOHN  G   WHITING. 

(Sh  Fi(*  lU.) 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


HamiltoD,  are  two  excellent  writers.  They  are  the  bom  of 
the  Teterao  jouraalist  of  Abolition  times,  Mr.  Robert  Hamilton, 
Sr.,   and   were  brought  up  in  the  editorial   and  compoeing 

rooms,  BO  to  speak.  Mr.  William  Hamilton  is  with  The 
Evcidrxg  Poet,  and  Mr.  Robert  Hamiiton  is  a  general  gatherer 
of  iiewa  for  the  New  York  papers.  He  (Robert)  was  upon 
liie'staffof  2%<  ^fefotor-,  at  San  Francisco,  aud  Tk«  Pngreame 
Attierican  in  New  York.  Of  late,  he  has  been  upon  the 
staff  of  one  of  the  Brooklyn  daily  papers.  He  is  a  terse  and 
ready  writer. 

We  must  not  omit  to  mention  a 
Virginia  lawyer,  R.  W.  Rose,  of 
Lynchburg,  Va.,  a  brilliant  writer, 
lately  associated  with  77ie  Indus- 
trial Say  as  corresponding  editor. 
Mr  Rose  was  an  associate  of  the 
author  on  27ic  Lynchburg  (Va.) 
Laborer  and  is  a  mellifluous 
writer  He  vtas.  for  a  short  time, 
owner  of  that  jourml  Mr  Rose 
biinga  to  bear  upon  his  contribu- 
tions vast  esperience  and  practical 
judgment 
la  a  fair  writer  on  The  Vrwj  Orleans 
lies  in  the  profession  he  may  jet  attain 
topomeemin  nee  editoriall} 

John  G  \\hitingof  Fort  Smith  Ark  is  a  coming  writer 
of  some  fime  He  wis  for  a  while  assocnte  editor  on  Tlie 
Peoples  Piotfctor  an  interesting  paper  at  the  place  where  he 
resides 

There  are  many  able  writers  whose  articles  appenr  over 
noms  deplume  which  we  could  not  begin  to  mention.  Suffice 
it  to  f^y,  the  force  is  e£Ecient,  and  is  destined  to  be  more 
so  in  the  futile. 


.  H    HAM1LT0^ 


Crusade)       li  lie  contin 


CHAPTER  XXI. 


AFRO-AMERICAN  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM. 


Prof.  Maey  V.  Cook,  A.  B.,  {Grace  Ermine). 

• 

REWARDS  to  the  just  always  find  a  grateful  heart.  God 
has  so  ordered,  that  nothing  but  God  can  prevent  their 
bestowment  where  due ;  and  even  he,  the  God  of  justice, 
"would  have  to  reverse  his  character  to  do  this.  There  is 
divine  poetry  in  a  life  garlanded  by  the  fragrant  roses  of 
triumph.  Aye,  this  is  the  more  so,  when  there  lies  within  an 
earnest  heart  of  an  obscure  woman  a  towering  ambition  to  do 
something  and  be  something  for  the  purpose  of  en ri falling  the 
coronet  that  bedecks  the  race ;  and  it  enlnmces  the  hiurels  it 
wins  in  the  domain  of  mental,  moral  and  soojal  conquest. 
There  is  romance,  rich  and  rare,  in  the  life  of  such  an  one. 
It  attracts,  too,  like  the  needle  to  the  Polo,  and  it  charms 
one  to  know  such  a  case.  The  phenomenal  ri.<(^  f.f  Prof.  Mary 
Virginia  Cook  to  her  present  position  of  usefulness  and  honor 
is  an  example  to  those  who  still  lie  in  the  shadows  of  obscu- 
rity.   Let  the  reader  do  his  part  well,  remembering  that 

**  Honor  and  shame  from  no  condition  rise. 
Act  well  your  part ;  there  all  the  honor  lies." 


i 


368  THE  APftO-AMEWOAN  PIlESS. 

Born  of  a  loving  mother,  Ellen  Buckuer,  Prof.  Cook  partook 
of  her  gentle  and  mild  manners.  Her  birth-place,  Bowling 
Green,  Ky.,  like  meet  Southern  towns,  had  nothing  exciting  or 
of  special  character  that  would  impress  a  child  of  her  refined 
nature.  There  was  much  to  give  pain  and  wound  a  tender 
heart,  in  such  a  hard  life  as  was  hers.  The  unsettled  state 
of  affairs  at  the  time  had  much  to  occasion  alarm.  The  war 
was  in  progress,  and  with  beating  heart  the  mother  awaited 
the  settlement  of  those  great  questions  that  had  been  appealed 
to  the  sword,  the  rifle,  and  the  cannon.  On  the  decision 
depended  the  question  whether  little  Mary  should  rise  to  the 
splendid  heights  in  the  power  of  the  free,  or  sink  to  th« 
insignificance  of  a  fettered  slave,  with  crushed  powers. 

To  one  familiar  with  history,  it  need  not  be  recounted  that 
she  had  little  chance  for  learning;  she  had  the  appetite,  bnt 
the  food  was  not  at  hand.  Little  by  little,  she  advanced  in 
the  inferior  schools  of  the  place,  till,  by  her  winning  manner- 
and  perfect  lessons,  she  was  acknowledged  to  be  the  be>t 
scholar  in  the  city.  She  won  signal  honor  in  the  small  private 
scliools,  which  is  as  grand  a  thing  among  the  home  lolks,  as 
larger  prizes  among  strangers.  Three  schools  were  in  a 
spelling  contest  tor  a  silver  cup  which  was  offered  by  Rev. 
Allen  Allensworth,  a  gentleman  who  did  much  to  encourage 
her;  and  being  last  on  the  floor  she  was  proclaimed  victor. 
Again,  in  a  teachers'  institute.  September  30,  1881,  a  lx)ok 
was  offerc'l  by  a  Mr.  Clark,  a  white  gentleman,  who  was 
>tationer  in  the  city,  for  the  best  reader;  and  amid  the 
crowd  gather* 'l  from  near  and  far  the  book  was  awarded  to 
her.  The  jury  was  a  mixed  one,  of  white  and  colored  citizens. 
The  judges  selected  the  piece  to  be  read,  after  they  assembled. 
She  repeated  these  triumphs  in  the  State  University. 

When  the  Rev.  C.  C.  Stumm,  pastor  of  the  State  Street 
Baptist  church,  of  which  she  is  a  member,  started  an  acadesiy, 
he  called   her  to  assist  him.     The  pay  was  small,  and  she 


PKOF.  MARY  V.  COOK,  A.  B. 


370.  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

had  the  largest  number  to  teach ;  and  one  day,  as  she  stood 
at  her  work,  with  tears  in  her  eyes,  occasioned  by  some 
misunderstanding  about  her  share  of  the  monthly  recei2>t8, 
she  said :  *'  The  sun  will  yet  shine  in  at  my  door."  A  tew 
hours  later  the  pastor  put  in  her  hands  a  letter  from  Dr. 
William  J.  Simmons,  president  of  the  State  University,  Louis- 
ville, Ky.,  ofiering  to  defray  her  expenses  through  the 
American  Baptist  Woman's  Home  Society  of  Boston.  This 
was  October  15,  1881.  He  had  seen  her  before,  while  on  a 
trip  securing  students,  and  said  to  her:  "Would  you  like 
to  go  to  Boston  to  school?"  She  replied:  "Yes,  so  much." 
He  was  impressed  with  her  amiable,  meek,  Christian  spirit, 
coupled  with  her  reputation  for  goodness,  of  which  he  had 
heiird  Irom  various  citizens. 

She  entorcMl  the  State  University  November  28,  1881,  and 
became  a  member  of  the  third  normal  class.  Her  decorum 
was  such,  that  the  president  testified,  on  the  night  of  h»"T 
graduation  from  the  normal  course,  in  a  cla.^s  of  thirteen, 
as  ho  gave  h<a'  tlie  Albert  Mack  valedictorian's  medal,  that 
she  had  never  been  spoken  to  once,  by  way  of  discipline, 
during  her  entire  course.  lie  afterwards,  in  writing  of  his 
graduates,  sai<l  ol  her;  "As  a  student,  she  was  prompt  to 
obey  and  always  ready  to  recite.  She  hiis  a  good  intellect 
and  well  developed  moral  faculties,  and  is  very  refined, 
sensitive,  benevolent  and  sympathetic  in  her  nature,  and 
well  adapted  to  the  work  of  a  Christian  mi.ssionary.** 

On  enterintr  the  Universitv,  she  was  almost  immediately 
chosi-n  by  tlie  president  as  student-teacher  and  dining-room 
matron,  and  during  the  year  of  her  graduation  she  taught 
live  classes  a  dav.  The  students  honored  her  with  the 
presi<bMicy  of  the  AtlienaMim  and  the  Young  Men  and 
Wnniens  Cliristian  Association.  Though  she  worked  all  the 
time,  y«'t  in  her  graduating  year  she  entered  the  examination 
and  gained  the  highest  mark,  95  per  cent,  and  obtained  the 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  371 

valedictorian  honor  of  her  class.  This  same  year,  Dr.  E.  S. 
Porter  offered  a  gold  medal  to  the  best  speller  in  the  school. 
Accordingly  a  contest  was  held.  The  work  was  written,  and 
a  large  number  of  picked  students  entered,  and  again  Miss 
Ox>k  triumphed.  Immediately  after,  she  took  a  silver  medal, 
offered  by  Dr.  D.  A.  Gaddie,  for  oral  spelling.  When  the 
judges  made  the  reports,  the  students  were  loud  with 
applause,  and  made  her  the  center  of  many  demonstrations 
of  rejoicing  in  her  honor.  But  this  was  not  all.  During  the 
same  week  she  took  a  silver  medal,  offered  by  Mr.  William 
H.  Steward,  for  neatness  and  accuracy  in  penmanship.  She 
was  never  beaten  in  a  contest. 

On  her  graduation,  May  17,  1883,  she  was  elected  perma- 
nent teacher,  and  made  piincipal  of  the  normal  departmont 
and  professor  of  Latin  and  of  mathematics.  This  position 
she  still  holds,  embracing  the  largest  department  of  the 
University.  By  special  vote  of  the  trustees  she  was  per- 
mitted to  keep  up  her  studies  in  the  college  department,  and 
at  the  end  of  four  years  she  completed  tlu^m.  She  was 
examined,  and  took  the  degree  of  A.  B.,  May,  1887,  with  her 
class. 

Miss  Cook  is  a  bright-faced,  intelligent  little  woman, — 
what  the  French  would  cull  petite,  and  until  recently  did 
not  weigh  100  pounds;  but  intellectually  she  weighs  1000. 
She  is  quite  studious,  and  is  deep  in  many  subjects.  She  i.^ 
especially  fond  of  Latin,  biography,  and  mental  and  moral 
philosophy.  She  has  a  wonderiul  influence  over  her  pupils, 
and  is  much  respected  by  her  teaclKTS.  She  gives  heart  and 
hand  to  every  good  cause.  Her  sympathies  are  quickly 
touched  by  the  tale  of  want,  and  her  pocket  ever  opens  to 
the  needs  of  her  pupils.     Every  public  charity  pains  her  ear. 

While  not  a  member  of  the  Berean  Baptist  church,  fIic 
has  labored  with  it,  and  in  their  University  society  she  has 
been  elected   president,  consecutively,  from    1884  until   the 


372  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

present  writing.  The  Baptist  Woinen*8  Educational  Conven- 
tion siiw  in  her  the  fit  material  for  a  worker,  and  elected  her 
second  vice-president  in  1884,  and  a  member  of  the  board  of 
managers.  In  1885  she  was  elected  assistant  secretary  of  the 
Convention,  and  continued  on  the  board.  In  1886  she  was 
made  secrotarv  of  the  board,  and  in  1887  the  Convention 
made  her  its  corresponding  secretary  and  its  executive  officer 
for  the  work  of  the  board  of  managers. 

Her  position  is  one  of  vast  influence  among  the  women  of 
her  state.  She  has  appeared  on  the  Convention  platform 
several  times,  and  did  so  at  the  jubilee  meeting,  January  18, 
1889.  At  that  time  The  Ameriain  Baptist  said  of  her: 
*'  The  history  of  the  Convention,  by  Prof.  Mary  V.  Cook,  their 
corresponding  secretary,  was  a  concise  and  comprehensive 
l>aiM'r.  She  left  the  well-beaton  tracks  of  most  of  the  lady 
speakers,  and  dealt  entirely  with  tacts,  and  without  sentiment 
traced  the  Convention  from  its  incipienty  until  the  present 
time.  It  was  an  interesting  paper,  brimful  of  information, 
and  was  well  received.  Miss  Cook  is  never  more  in  earnest 
than  when  saying  a  word  for  the  women's  work." 

She  has  appeared  on  the  public  platform  often ;  notably, 
befure  the  AmtM'ican  Baptist  National  Convention  at  Mobile, 
Friday  ni^lit,  August  27,  1887,  when  her  subject  was 
*•  Woman's  work  in  the  denomination."  The  article  received 
the  warmest  praise.  And  again,  she  read  before  the  Ameri- 
can Baptist  Home  Mission  Society,  in  its  special  meeting, 
September  25,  18S8,  at  Nashville,  her  subject  being  "  Female 
Education."  Before  the  National  Press  Convention,  which 
held  its  session  at  Louisville,  she  read  a  paper, — "  Is  juvenile 
literature  demanded  on  the  part  of  colored  children?"  This 
was  in  1887.  She  was  again  appointed  to  read  a  paper  at 
their  session  at  Nashville  in  1888,  but  could  not  attend.  She 
read  a  very  strong  paper  on  "  Woman,  a  potent,  factor 
in    Public   Reform,"    before   the    Kentucky   Stat€   Teachers' 


OtJtl  WoMEil  III  JOXjRllALISM.  8V3 

Association  in  1887.  On  tliis  subject  she  is  not  a  loud 
clamorer  for  "Rights,"  but,  nevertheless,  she  quietly  and 
tenaciously  demands  all  that  is  due  her. 

Her  newspaper  work  began  in  1886,  and  she  was  then 
introduced  to  journalism  and  the  fellowship  of  the  fraternity. 
Her  contribution,  "Nothing  but  Leaves,"  in  The  Ametican 
Baptist^  is  indeed  one  of  her  ablest  efforts.  The  following 
strong  sentences  are  worthy  of  note :  "  We  are  pointed  to 
great  men  who  have  made  themselves  famous  in  this  world. 
Some  are  praised  for  their  oratory,  some  for  their  fine  learning, 
some  for  their  benevolence  and  various  other  qualities,  which 
are  all  good  enough ;  but  they,  within  themselves,  are  nothing 
but  leaves,  which  fall  to  the  ground  in  their  autumnal  days 
and  return  to  dust.  True  fruit  is  holiness  of  heart,  and 
clusters,  ripened  by  the  grace  of  God,  be  they  found  in 
persons  ever  so  lowly,  hang  higher  than  all  the  growth  of  the 
intellectual  powers.  Fruit  is  the  evidence  of  culture. 
Leaves  grow  with  little  care,  and  they,  with  all  their  beauty, 
are  not  the  essential  part  of  the  plant ;  but  the  chief  aim  of  a 
plant,  and  the  object  for  which  it  spends  its  whole  life,  is  to 
bear  fruit.  So  the  highest  aim  of  God's  creation  is  our  fruit- 
bearing." 

Having  been  converted  in  1876,  she  herein  shows  the 
character  of  a  developed  spirituality.  She  is  a  noble-hearted 
woman,  full  of  blessings  and  love;  a  woman  with  a  soul 
deeply  divine. 

In  1887  she  edited  a  column  of  The  South  Carolina  Tribune. 
At  the  same  time  she  controlled  a  column  in  The  A7neri/:an 
Baptist  She  writes  under  the  name  of  Grace  Ermine.  She 
is  a  strong,  graceful,  vigorous  writer,  and  tends  to  tlie 
argumentative,  pointed,  terse  style.  One  understands  what 
she  means  when  she  speaks.  When  writing  concerning  the 
outrages  in  the  South,  she  said :  "  White  faces  seem  to  think 
it  their  heaven-born  right  to  practice  civil  war  on  negroes,  to 


S74  THE  A^RO-AMERtCAN  PRESS. 

the  extent  of  blood-shed  and  death.  They  look  upon  the  life 
of  their  brother  in  black  as  a  bubble  to  be  blown  away  at 
their  pleasure.  The  same  spirit  that  existed  in  the  South 
twenty-four  years  ago,  is  still  recognized  in  its  posterity. 
Tlie  negro  is  still  clothed  in  swarthy  skin,  and  he  is  still 
robbed  of  his  rights  as  a  citizen,  made  dear  and  fairly  won 
to  him  by  the  death  of  those  who  fell  in  the  late  Rebellion. 
This  outrage  cannot  endure.  God  still  lives,  and  that  which 
has  been  sown  shall  be  reaped." 

Speaking  of  our  people  once,  she  wrote :  "  As  a  people  we 
are  not  easily  led,  and  we  often  slaughter  the  one  who 
attempts  it.  There  is  always  fault  to  be  found,  which  thing 
should  be  left  to  our  enemies,  while  we,  like  faithful  Aarons, 
should  uphold  the  arms  of  those  who  have  dared  to  strike 
for  us.  There  is  a  natural  antipathy  «n«^'  linst  our  leaders.  If 
they  act  as  gentlemen,  dress  decently,  and  have  ability,  we 
call  them  stuck-up  and  big-headed;  and  often  a  majority 
will  join  hands  with  the  Irish,  or  some  other  nationality,  to 
get  them  defeated." 

Iler  position  as  editor  of  the  educational  department  of 
Our  Womry\  and  Children,  publit:lied  in  Louisville,  gives  her 
wide  scope  for  editorial  work.  She  is  gifted  with  the  pen, 
and  in  the  near  future  will  become  an  author.  She  is 
ascending  slowly  the  ladJer  of  fame,  as  the  morning  sun 
climbs  the  heavens  to  the  zenith  to  shine  for  all.  She  is 
a  vast  readtT  of  the  best  works,  and  keeps  abreast  of  the 
times.  She  is  making  herself  efficient  in  short-hand  and 
type-writing,  and  has  many  accomplisliments  that  mark  her  a 
cultured  lady.  She  is  molding  the  lives  of  many,  and.  as  the 
sun,  gives  light  to  them.  ^lay  heaven  bless  her.  Let  those 
who  read  be  encouratred  that  poor  girls  can  rise,  and  gain 
the  good  opinion  of  their  elders  who  will  help  them.  The 
close  of  a  life  like  hers  must  be  grand  and  will  bless  the 
world. 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  375 

Mbs.  W.  E.  Mathews,  (Victoria  Earle^  General  News- 
paper Reporter  and  Novel  Writer. 

While  journalism  among  the  Afro-Americans  has  been 
and  is  honored  with  many  lady  writers,  none  are  more 
popular  than  Victoria  Earle.  She  was  born  May  27,  1861,  at 
Fort  Valley,  Ga.  Her  mother,  Caroline  Smith,  being  a 
Virginian,  was  a  slave,  and  subjected  to  the  most  cruel 
treatment  by  her  master.  Several  times  she  attempted  to 
escape,  and  at  last  succeeded  in  reaching  New  York,  leaving 
her  children  in  Georgia,  in  the  care  of  an  old  nurse  until 
she  returned.  For  eight  years  she  toiled,  hoping  to  amass 
enough  money  to  go  back  to  Georgia  for  her  children.  When 
at  last  enabled  to  do  so,  she  found  only  four  living,  Victoria 
being  among  them.  After  considerable  legal  trouble,  she 
succeeded  in  gaining  possession  of  her  children,  and  returned 
with  them  to  New  York,  stopping  on  the  way  at  Richmond 
and  Norfolk. 

Victoria  had  no  chance  for  an  education  until  her  arrival 
in  New  York,  when  she  attended  the  grammar  school,  48. 
Later,  her  circumstances  "were  of  such  an  embarrassing  nature, 
she  was  forced  to  leave  school  and  go  to  work.  Though 
compelled  to  launch  out  into  the  world  for  her  su])port,  she 
was  ever  a  diligent  student.  Her  newspaper  labors  began 
on  a  larger  scale  than  that  of  most  female  writers.  She  was 
first  a  *'sub"  for  reporters  upon  the  large  daily  papers  of 
New  York,  such  a.s  TJie  Times,  JTcnthJ,  Mail  and  Express, 
Sunday  Mercury,  TJ\^  Earth,  and  The  Phoimaraphic  World. 
This  kind  of  work  being  her  forte,  she  continued  it,  in 
addition  to  being  New  York  correspondent  to  21ic  National 
Leader,  Detroit  Plaindealer,  and  The  Southern  Christian 
Becorder.  She  has  also  contributed  to  The  A.  M.  E.  Church 
HevieWf  and  has  written  for  various  papers  at  different  times. 
The  A&o- American  journals   are   always   anxious  to  get  a 


376  THE  AFJlO-AMERICAN-  tfeEsS. 

letter  from  Victoria  Earle.  Some  even  dispense  with  their 
editorials  to  make  room  for  her  letters.  She  has  written  for 
our  brightest  and  best  papers,  such  as  ITic  Boston  Advocate^ 
Washington  Bee,  Richnond  Playict,  GcUholic  Tribune,  Cleveland 
Gazette,  New  York  Olobe,  New  York  Age,  and  The  New  York 
Entei'prise,  No  other  Afro-American  woman  has  been  so 
eagerly  importuned  for  stories  and  articles  of  a  general  news 
character,  by  the  magazines  and  papers  of  the  whites,  as  has 
Victoria  Earle. 

She  has  met  with  marked  success  in  story  writing,  and 
tales  written  by  her  expressly  for  Tlie  Waverly  Magazine, 
The  New  York  Weekly,  and  Tlic  Family  Story  Paper,  have 
readily  found  place  in  the  columns  of  those  publications. 
She  is  indeed  entitled  to  the  highest  honor  from  her  race  by 
her  efforts  to  dignify  her  work,  and  eminently  prove 
Afro- American  journal i.sm  to  be  the  peer  of  any. 

In  closing  the  life  of  this  honored  lady  journalist,  we  could 
not  sav  more  of  her  than  The  N:xc  York  Jonmal  dooj^  in  the 
following:  "Victoria  Earle  has  written  mucli ;  her  dialect 
tid-bits  for  the  Associated  Press  are  much  in  di-mand.  iSlie 
has  ready  several  stori^-s  which  will  appear  in  one  volume, 
and  is  also  preparing  a  series  of  historical  text-books  which 
will  aim  to  develop  a  race  pride  in  our  youth.  She  is  a 
member  of  the  Women's  National  Press  Association,  and  no 
writer  of  the  race  is  kept  busier." 

Miss  Lucy  Wilmot  Smith,  Editor  Woman's  Department 
Our  Women  and  Children  Magazine. 

The  enthusiast  who  writes  the  historv  of  a  life  of  modern 
times  is  too  apt  to  paint  the  virtues  of  hi^j  Fubjt'ct  in  such 
glowing  colors,  that,  on  becoming  acquainted  with  the  party, 
we  hardly  recognize  the  person  as  the  one  described. 
With  this  in  view,  we  wish  to  state  the  points  of  Mis.i 


UBS.  W.  E.  MATHEWS. 


m  THE  AFRO-AMEMCAN  PRESS. 

Smith's  career  in  journalisin,  in  the  light  of  truth  and  justice 
to  herself.  She  is  the  daughter  of  Margaret  Smith,  who 
welcomed  this  child  upon  the  arena  of  life  November  16, 
1861,  at  Lexington,  Ky. 

Her  education  was  obtained  with  much  difficulty,  owing  to 
the  fact  that  she  had  nothing  upon  which  to  lean  for  support, 
save  her  hard-working  mother.  She  was  forced  to  teach 
when  quite  young,  in  1877,  serving  under  the  Lexington, 
Ky.,  school  board.  However,  she  graduated  from  the  normal 
department  of  the  State  Univei-sity  in  1887.  She  was,  for  a 
long  time,  private  secretary  to  Dr.  William  J.  Simmons,  by 
whose  aid  she  was  introduced  to  the  world  of  thinkers  and 
writers  in  newspaper  life.  Dr.  Simmons  himself  testifies  of 
her  that  she  is  careful,  painstaking,  and  thoughtfully  helpful. 

She  is  a  prominent  member  and  officer  of  many  of  the 
female  societies,  looking  to  the  advancement  of  religious  truth 
and  action  in  her  denomination,  the  Baptist.  She  is  now 
one  of  the  faculty  of  the  State  University.  Several  papers 
which  she  has  read  before  national  bodies  show  carefulness 
of  thought,  as  well  as  logical  arrangement  of  her  subject- 
matter. 

We  have  referred  to  the  fact  that  it  was  through  Dr. 
Simmons  she  began,  in  1884,  what  has  resulted  so  successfully, 
her  newspaper  work,  when  she  controlled  the  chiMn-n  - 
column  in  The  Amcrkan  Baptist  of  Louisville,  Ky.  She  \v,i- 
for  quite  a  wliile  on  the  staff  of  The  Baptist  Journal,  of  which 
Rev.  R.  11.  Coles  of  St.  Louis  was  the  editor.  She  recentlv 
furni.shcd  sketches  of  some  newspaper  writers  among  the 
A  fro- American  women  for  The  Journalist,  a  paper  published 
in  New  York  in  the  interest  of  authoi*s,  artists,  and 
publi.shers.  These  articles  were  highly  complimented  by  the 
editor,  and  were  copied,  and  the  cuts  reproduced,  in  T7te 
Boston  Advocate,  The  Freeman  of  Indianapolis,  and  other 
papers. 


MISS  LUCY  WILMOT  SMITH. 


380  1:flE  AFRO-AMERiCAN  PRfiSS. 

Miss  Smith  is  a  writer  of  good   English,  and  prodaoea 
sensible  reading  matter.     She  tends  to  the  grave,  quiet  and 
dignified  style.     Her  best  efforts  have  been  for  Our  Wcmm 
and  Children   Magazine,  published  in  Louisville,  Ky.     The 
department  of  "  Women  and  Women's  Work"  receives  the 
benefit  of  her   cultured    hand    regularly.      She   is  deeply 
interested  in  the  elevation  of  her  sex,  and  is  a  strong  advocate 
of  suffrage  for  women.     Upon  this  subject  she  wrote  these 
strong  words :     "  It  is  said  by  many  that  women  do  not  want 
the  ballot.     We  are  not  sure  that  the  15,000,000  women  of 
voting  age  would  say  this ;  and  if  they  did,  majorities  do  not 
always  establish  the  right  of  a  thing.     Our  position  is,  that 
women  should  have  the  ballot,  not  as  a  matter  of  expediency, 
but  as  a  matter  of  pure  justice."     It  cannot  be  denied  that 
the  women  have  done  great  and  lasting  work,  that  needs  our 
encouragement.     Miss    Smith    is    a   member    of   the    Afro- 
American  Press  Convention. 

Our  assertions  as  to  her  editorial  ability  are  backed  by 
some  ot  tlie  prominent  writers  of  the  country.  The  editor  of 
The  Amcrk'an  Bajdist  says:  "She  frequently  writes  for  the 
press,  and  wields  a  trenchant  pen.  Is  ambitious  to  excel, 
and  will  yet  make  her  mark."  Mrs.  N.  F.  Mossell  says: 
"  Miss  Smith  writes  compactly,  is  acute,  clean  and  crisp  in 
her  acquirements,  and  has  good  descriptive  powers.  Of 
strong  convictions,  she  is  not  slow  in  proving  their  soundness 
by  a  logical  course  of  reasoning.  Her  style  is  transparent, 
lucid,  and  in  many  respects  few  of  her  race  can  surpass  her." 

To  show  the  reader  Miss  Smith's  idea  of  the  women  in  the 
field,  we  clip  the  following  from  her  "  Women  as  Journalists:" 
*'The  educated  negro  woman  occupies  vantage  ground  over 
the  Caucasian  woman  of  America,  in  that  the  former  has  had 
to  contest  with  her  brother  every  inch  of  the  ground  for 
recognition ;  the  negro  man,  having  had  his  sister  by  his  side 
on  plantations  and  in  rice  swamps,  keeps  her  there,  now  that 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  381 

he  moves  in  other  spheres.  As  slie  wins  laurels,  he  accords 
her  the  royal  crown.  This  is  especially  true  of  journalism. 
Dooi*s  are  opened  before  we  knock,  and  as  well-equipped 
young  women  emerge  from  the  class-room,  the  brotherliood  of 
the  race,  men  whose  energies  have  been  repressed  and 
distorted  by  the  interposition  ol  circumstances,  give  them 
opportunities  to  prove  themselves;  and  right  well  are  they 
doing  this,  by  voice  and  pen." 

Miss   Lillian   A.   Lewis,  {Bert   Islew,)   Boston  Corre- 
spondent OF  Our  Women  and  Children  and 
Ex-Editress  of  The  Advocate. 

Miss  Lillian  Lewis  is  among  the  youngest  and  briglitest  of 
the  Afro- American  women  writers,  and  her  career  in 
journalism,  although  a  comparatively  short  one,  has  been 
exceptionally  brilliant.  Naturally  of  a  literary  bent,  and  an 
excellent  scholar  in  literature  and  composition,  she  showed 
marked  talent  in  this  direction  in  her  earlier  days. 

During  her  successful  school  life,  she  wrote,  besides  essays, 
a  number  of  lectures  upon  various  topics.  There  was  a  vein 
of  humor  running  through  each,  but  under  it  all  was  a  deal 
of  practical  thought.  Her  first  eflurt  in  the  lecture  field  was 
upon  temperance,  she,  on  several  occasions,  addressing  tem- 
perance societies.  She  also  wrote  and  delivered  lectures 
upon  "Man's  Weal  and  Woman's  Woe," — and  "Dead  Heads 
and  Live  Beats  ;"and  was  eminently  successful  with  the  one 
under  the  caption:  "The  Mantle  of  the  Church  covereth  a 
Multitude  of  Humbugs."  This  discourse,  with  dashes  of  per- 
tinent witticism,  struck  at  the  root  of  a  good  deal  of  pious 
hypocrisy  which  is  constantly  practiced.  This  was  delivered 
by  the  young  writer  four  or  five  times  in  Boston,  and  two  or 
three  times  in  small  towns  in  the  sn])urbs.  The  innate  love 
of  composition  alone  tempted  Miss  Lewis  to  enter  the  lectui'e 


i 


882  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

domain,  where  her  career  was  brief,   lasting  but  one  short 
season. 

All  this  time  she  was  attending  the  girls*  high  school,  and 
additional  and  more  difficult  studies  claiming  her  undivided 
time  and  attention,  she  was  obliged  to  close  her  lecture 
career.  She  could  not  be  induced  to  give  up  her  studies  in 
music  and  elocution,  but  pursued  them  for  a  year  or  more. 

Upon  graduating  from  the  high  school  she  immediately 
turned  her  attention  to  literary  work,  and  the  next  winter 
was  spent  in  the  preparation  of  a  novel,  "Idalene  Van 
Therse,"  which  is  not  yet  published.  Shortly  after,  she  began 
newspaper  work,  and  contributed  special  articles  to  ITie 
Boston  Advocate.  The  Advocate,  at  that  time,  was  the  victim 
of  much  adverse  criticism,  and  was  rapidly  losing  ground 
with  its  Boston  readers.  Miss  Lewis  at  once  perceived  the 
cause,  and  immediately  set  about  to  meet  the  exigency,  if 
possible.  Her  aim  was  to  edit  a  column  of  matter  that 
would  take  witli  all  classes  and  all  ages,  and  the  result  was 
the  "They  say"  column,  which  has  for  about  two  years 
become  proverbial  with  readers  of  The  Advocate,  At  first 
the  paragraphs  were  short,  crisp,  and  breezy ;  but  later  on 
Miss  Lewis  began  to  add  comments  and  criticisms  on  what 
"they  say,"  which  wsis  a  happy  thought,  and  made  the 
column  more  attractive  than  before.  The  Advocate  soon 
began  to  regain  its  former  popularity,  and  subscribers 
increased,  until  to-day  there  is  scarcely  a  colored  family  of 
intelligence  in  Boston  that  does  not  read  The  Advocate  and 
Bert  Islew's  gossip. 

A  short  while  ago,  Mr.  Powell,  the  proprietor  and  editor 
of  The  Advocate,  offered  Miss  Lewis  the  society  editorship, 
which  she  accepted,  and  which  position  she  now  fills;  and 
what  was  generally  known  as  "They  say"  column,  is  now 
virtually  the  society  department  of  the  paper.  While  writing 
for  The  Advocate,  Miss  Lewis  contributed  to  I7ie  Eichvumd 


mss  ULUiS  A.  LEWI& 


884  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Planet]  but  pressing  and   urgent  duties  soon  forced  her  to 
discoutiime  the  work  in  that  direction. 

About  two  years  ago,  Miss  Lewis  took  up  stenography, 
and  after  much  diligent  study  and  careful  instruction  under 
an  excellent  teacher,  succeeded  in  mastering  Graham's  system. 
It  was  then  that  she  obtained  the  position  of  stenographer  and 
private  secietary  to  the  widely-known  Max  EUei,  of  The 
Boston  Hciald,  who  is  one  of  the  cleverest  woman  writers 
and  critics  in  the  country,  and  who  occupies  an  important 
editorial  position  on  the  staff  of  The  Herald. 

Finding  that  her  duties  as  a  private  secretary  called  for  a 
knowledge  of  type-writing,  she  set  herself  to  the  acquisition 
of  that  art,  and  is  now  able  to  write  from  dictation  with  ease 
and  rapidity.  In  fact,  her  record  for  taking  copy  verbatim 
ranks  among  the  highest  in  New  England.  Miss  Lewis  al.-o 
does  good  reportorial  and  special  work,  as  well  as  work  in 
the  society  department  of  The  Herald,  uj)on  the  staff  of  which 
paper  she  is  a  regular  salaried  employee.  Miss  Lewis  is 
peculiarly  fitted  for  the  position  she  holds. 

Mrs.  LrcRETiA  Newman  Coleman,  General  Newspaper 

CORRKSrONDENT    AND    WrITER. 

The  truth  is  expressed  in  the  sentence  which  says :  **  Mrs. 
Lucretia  Newman  Coleman  is  a  writer  of  rare  ability." 
Discriminating  and  scholarly,  she  possesses,  to  a  high  degree, 
the  poetic  temperament,  and  has  acquired  great  facility  in 
verse.  She  was  born  in  Dresden,  Ontario,  being  the  fourth 
child  of  William  and  Nancy  Newman.  Her  father  died 
when  she  was  quite  a  child,  and  her  mother  soon  after  the 
death  of  her  husband  became  an  invalid,  and  died  after 
thirteen  months'  suffering.  The  household  duties  then  fell 
upon  this  "petted  child." 

Inspired  by  the  words  of  her  dying  father  and  mother,  she 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  385 

withstood  temptations,  patiently  bearing  the  burdens  laid 
upon  her,  and  led  a  pure,  Christian  life.  She  obtained  her 
education  in  the  common  and  high  schools,  and  graduated 
from  the  scientific  department  of  Lawrence  University.  She 
began  to  teach  soon  afterward,  and  continued  to  for  some 
time. 

During  her  life  she  has  filled  many  good  positions,  which 
came  without  her  seeking  them.  She  has  been  successful  as 
a  teacher  in  high  schools,  a  teacher  of  music,  and  as  a  clerk 
in  dry  goods  stores.  In  1883,  she  was  assistant  secretary 
and  book-keeper  in  the  financial  department  of  the  A.  M.  E. 
church.  While  at  this  work  she  begfln  to  sail  upon  the 
journalistic  ship,  which  has  been  one  of  continued  ])rogi'ess. 
Thj&  Ainei'ican  Baptist^  then  edited  by  Rev.  William  J. 
Simmons,  contained  an  account  of  her  career  in  one  of  its 
issues  of  September,  1884,  which  gives  her  standing  at  that 
time:  "As  a  writer,  her  fame  is  itust  spreading,  not  only  in 
one  or  two  states,  but  throughout  the  United  States.  Should 
she  continue  with  the  same  success  in  the  future  as  she  has 
had  in  the  past,  she  will  be  equal  to  Harriet  Ward  Beecher 
Stowe,  if  not  her  superior. 

Since  then  she  has  steadily  progressed,  until  now  she  may 
be  looked  upon  as  indeed  our  "  Harriet  Ward  Beecher  Stowe." 
Ab  a  poetic  writer,  there  is  possibly  no  female  Afro- Ameri- 
can of  her  age  that  can  surpass  her.  Concerning  her  poetic 
and  scientific  writings,  we  can  say  no  more  than  a  well-known 
writer  has  in  the  27ie  Indianapolis  Freeman :  "  Her  last 
poem,  'Lucille  of  Montana,'  ran  through  several  numbers  of 
the  magazine  Our  Women  and  Children,  and  is  full  of  ardor, 
eloquence  and  noble  thought.  Mrs.  Coleman  has  contributed 
special  scientific  articles  to  The  A.  M.  E.  Review  and  other 
journals,  which  were  rich  in  minute  comparisons,  philosophic 
terms,  and  scientific  principles.  She  is  a  writer  more  for 
scholars  than  for  the  people.     A  novel  entitled  '  Poor  Ben/ 

25 


886  THE  AFBO-AMEBICAN  PBESS. 

whicli  is  the  epitome  of  the  life  of  a  prominent  A.  M.  E. 
bishop,  is  pronounced  an  excellent  production.  Mrs.  Coleman 
is  an  accomplished  woman  and  well  prepared  for  a  literuy 
Ufe." 

Afro-American  journalism  among  our  women  has  been 
brought  to  a  grander  and  nobler  standard,  by  the  lofty  tone 
our  subject  has  given  it.  Mrs.  Coleman  continues  to  devote 
her  time  to  literary  pursuits,  and  ranks  among  the  most 
painstaking  writers. 

Geobgia    Mabel    De  Baptiste,   Contbibutob    to    Oub 

Women  and  Childbek. 

This  young  lady,  with  more  than  ordinary  accomplish- 
ments as  a  writer,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Chicago,  November 
24.  1867,  her  parents  being  Rev.  Richard  and  Georgia 
De  Baptiste.  Her  father  (who  appears  in  tliis  work)  was  a 
prominent  writer  and  preacher,  from  whom  Georgia  seems  to 
have  inlierited  a  love  for  literature.  Her  mother  having  died 
when  she  was  only  six  years  of  age,  she  grew  up  to  woman- 
hood sadly  feeling  the  need  of  a  mother's  care  and  devotion. 
True  to  the  prorai)ting3  of  a  good  child,  she  learned  early 
the  need  of  a  Savior's  love  and  protection,  and  when  only 
twelve  years  old  was  converted  to  God,  baptized  by  her 
father,  and  received  as  a  regular  member  of  Olivet  Baptist 
church,  Chicago. 

Having  a  desire  to  obtain  a  good  education,  both  literary 
and  musical,  in  order  that  she  might  lift  the  burden  of  her 
support  from  her  father  and  be  able  to  cope  with  the 
brighter  intellects  of  the  land,  she  began  the  public  school 
course.  Graduating  from  the  grammar  school  and  receiving 
a  diploma,  she  entered  the  high  school.  Her  stay  here  was 
brought  to  a  close  by  her  removal  to  Evanston.  She,  however, 
took  a  modern  language  course  in  the  high  school.     While 


GEORGIA  MABEL  D£  liAFi'ISTi:. 


388  THE  AS'RO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

in  Chicago  she  took  music  in  connection  with  her  school 
duties,  and  by  continual  study  has  become  very  proficient  in 
that  line. 

Her  life  as  a  writer  began  in  Evanston,  being  inspired 
thereto  by  an  article  she  read  from  the  pen  of  a  lady  friend. 
So  well  received  was  her  fii-st  production,  she  became  a 
regular  correspondent  to  The  Baptist  Herald^  for  which  she 
wrote  two  years,  or  until  its  suspension.  Since  then  she  has 
written  for  The  Baptist  Headlight,  and  The  African  Mission 
Herald,  and  is,  at  the  present,  a  regular  contributor  to  Our 
Women  and  Children,  an  excellent  magazine  published  at 
Louisville,  Ky. 

Miss  De  Baptists  is  fully  alive  to  the  needs  and  necessities 
of  the  race,  and  will  yet  make  a  brighter  life  for  herself  in 
this*  field.  She  is  regarded  as  one  ot  the  most  gifted  writers 
on  the  staff  of  Our  Woinai  and  Children. 

Concerning  her  bent  and  purpose  in  life,  she  writes  to  a 
friend  as  follows :  **  I  am  fond  of  literary  work,  and  I  hope 
to  become  a  writer  of  real  power  of  mind  and  character, — 
with  true  dignity  of  soul,  and  kindly  bearing  toward  all 
among  whom  I  may  be  thrown;  not  for  mere  social 
attainments,  but  that  such  may  be  the  outward  expression  of 
inward  grace  and  courtesy.'*  We  predict  for  Miss  De  Baptiste 
continued  success  in  her  literary  eflforts. 

Miss  Kate  D.  Chapman,  Newspaper  Correspondent  and 

Poetical   Writer. 

The  future  of  no  female  writer  is  prospectively  brighter 
than  that  of  Miss  Kate  D.  Chapman  of  Yankton,  Dakota. 
First  seeing  the  light  February  19,  1870,  at  Mound  City,  111., 
she  now,  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  enjoys  the  reputation  of  being 
above  the  average  lady  correspondents  and  writers  of  poetr}'. 
Born  of  poor  parents,  Charles  and  Laura  Chapman,  she  had 


HISS  EATE  D.  CHAPMAN. 


^■.,.-^^,m■■n   ..L  llf  ;i-.-  of  . 
^i'<j<l,    all    thiu^^   coudidL'i'e 
Btegititiing   her  corresponds 
the  summer  of  1888,  she  m 
her  lively  and  interesting  &; 
77ie  Christian  Recorder  and  , 
regular  coiitribiitor  to  Our 
and    we    occasionally    find    t 
Indianapolis  Freeman.     One 
thought  and  unique  in  ei^iiesi 
Aa  a  poetical  writer,  the 
Afro-American  women  who  Oi 
the   lively   and   vivaciooa,   n 
hiiraorous.     We    reprodnce   o 
in    The    Indianapolis   Freettu 
condition  of  the  Afro-Americ 
ance.     It  is  entitled 

"A   QUESTIOS 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  391 

"  Human  we  are,  of  blood  as  good; 

As  rich  the  crimson  stream ; 
God-planned,  ere  creation  stood. 

However  it  may  seem. 

*'  Oh  1  sit  not  tamely  by  and  see 

Thy  brother  bleeding  sore; 
For  is  there  not  much  work  for  thee, 

While  they  for  help  implore? 

**  From  Wahalak  came  the  news, 

Our  men  are  lying  dead. 
Did  it  not  hatred  rank  infuse 

When  word  like  this  was  read  ? 

"  And  now  White  Caps,  with  hearts  as  black 

As  hell, — of  Ku-Klux  fame, 
Still  ply  the  lash  on  freedman's  back; 

And  must  he  bear  the  same?" 

Thus  said  a  woman,  old  and  gray, 

To  me,  while  at  her  door, 
Speaking  of  what  so  heavy  lay 

And  made  her  heart  so  sore. 

"  What,  woman  1  dost  thou  speak  of  war. 

The  weaker,  'gainst  the  strong  ? 
That,  surely,  would  uur  future  mar. 

Nor  stop  the  tide  of  wrong. 

"  We  must  be  patient,  longer  wait. 

We'll  get  our  cherished  rights. — " 
"  Ves,  when  within  the  pearly  gate. 

And  done  with  earthly  sights, — " 

Replied  the  woman,  with  a  sneer 

Upon  her  countenance. 
"  You  men  do  hold  your  lives  too  dear 

To  risk  with  spear  or  lance." 

"  Naomi,  at  Fort  PUlow  fell 

Three  hundred  blacks  one  day ; 
The  cannon's  roar  their  only  knell, 

In  one  deep  grave  they  lay. 

•*  Our  men  have  bravely  fought,  and  will, 

Whene'er  the  time  shall  come ; 
Bat  now  we  hear  His  '  Peace,  be  still  I' 

And  stay  within  our  home. 


392  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

"  Let  but  our  people  once  unite, 

Stand  finnly  as  a  race, 
Prejudice,  error,  strong  to  fi^t, 

Each  hero  in  his  place^— 

**  And  not  a  farored  few  i^T^imil 

Bribes  of  gold,  position, 
While  many  freemen  In  our  land 

Bewail  their  liard  condition^— 

**  Liberty,  truly,  ours  will  be, 

And  error  pass  away ; 
And  then  no  longer  shall  we  see 

Injustice  hold  her  sway. 

**  As  Americans  we  shall  stand. 

Respected  by  all  men ; 
An  honored  race  in  this  fair  land, 

So  praised  by  word  and  pen. 

"  And  those  to  come  will  never  know 

The  pain  we  suffered  here; 
In  peace  shall  vow,  in  peace  shall  plow, 

With  naught  to  stay  or  fear." 

Said  Naomi :  "  You  may  be  right ; 

God  grant  it  as  you  say. 
I've  often  heard  the  darkest  night 

Gives  way  to  brightest  day." 

Tliis  young  lady,  as  will  be  seen  from  an  extract  of  a  letter 
to  the  author  which  we  take  the  liberty  to  produce,  is  fully 
alive  to  the  work  of  the  press  and  the  demand  for  active 
laborers.  She  writes :  "  Allow  me  to  say,  that  I  think  my 
work  as  a  writer  but  barely  begun,  for,  God  helping  me,  I 
mean  to  become  one  of  no  mean  caliber.  I  regard  the  press 
as  one  of  the  mightiest  factoi*s  that  move  this  universe  of 
ours.  So  great  is  its  influence,  so  powerful  its  results,  I 
verily  believe  that  if  we,  through  any  unseen  force,  should 
lose  our  free  press,  our  republic  would  be  shattered.  It  is 
my  aim  to  become  an  authoress,  because,  chiefly,  having  been 
strengthened  by  good  books  myself,  I  would  like  to  give  to 
my  country ^nd  people  a  like  pleasure," 


OUR  WOMEX  IX  JOURXALISM.  303 

Would  that  all  A iVo- American  women  were  inspired  with 
the  same  zeal  and  determiuatiou  found  in  this  young  lady. 
Journalism  will  be  brightened  by  the  poetical  and  prose 
writings  of  Kate  D.  Chapman ;  for,  as  Miss  L.  W.  Smith  says 
of  her — "  She  has  read  much,  and  will  write  much." 

Mbs.  Josephine  Tubpin  Washington,  Prominent  News- 
paper CONTBIBUTOE. 

Mrs.  Washington  first  saw  the  dawn  of  day  in  Goochland 
county,  of  the  Old  Dominion  state,  July  31,  1861.  Her 
parents  were  Augustus  A.,  and  Maria  V.  Turpin.  She  was 
taught  to  read  by  a  lady  who  was  employed  in  the  family. 
Subsequently  moving  to  Richmond,  she  graduated  from  the 
normal  and  high  schools  and  the  Richmond  Institute,  now 
the  Richmond  Theological  Seminary.  From  there  she  entered 
Howard  University,  graduating  from  the  college  department 
in  the  class  of  1886.  She  has  held  positions  in  both  of  her 
alma  maters,  having  resigned  the  one  in  the  latter  to  marry 
Dr.  Samuel  H.  H.  Washington,  now  a  practising  physician  in 
Birmingham,  Ala. 

She  is  a  scholarly  woman,  and  has  acquitted  herself 
most  creditably  in  many  walks  of  life,  which  have  necessi- 
tated a  highly  intellectual  brain  and  a  pureness  of  heart. 
She  has  held  a  position  as  teacher  in  Selma  University,  Ala., 
and  also  as  copyist  under  Hon.  Fred  Douglass,  when  Recorder 
of  Deeds  for  the  District  of  Columbia,  to  whom  she  owes  a 
debt  of  gratitude  for  kind  acts  and  personal  friendship. 

Mrs.  Washington  gained  her  literary  reputation  while  Miss 
Turpin.  Just  where  she  began  her  work  is  not  definitely 
known,  but  it  seeniB  as  though  she  were  born  with  an 
inclination  to  write,  so  early  did  she  manifest  a  disposition  to 
do  80.  Her  first  publication  appeared  in  The  Virginia  8tar^ 
10  1877,  regarding  which  a  writer  says:     "About  this  time 


394  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

her  first  contribution  to  the  public  press  was  xoade  to  The 
Virginia  Star,  then  the  only  colored  organ  in  the  state. 
This  article  was  entitled  '  A  Talk  About  Church  Fairs/  and 
was  a  protest  against  selling  wine  at  entertainmenta  given  by 
church  members  for  the  benefit  of  the  church.  It  elicited 
much  favorable  comment;  and  from  that  time  on,  Miss 
Turpin  continued  to  write  at  intervals  for  the  newspapers, 
always  finding  ready  welcome  and  generous  encouragement 
from  the  press  and  people.*' 

With  an  irrepressible  desire  to  continue  her  literaiy  work, 
she  has  written  for  The  Virginia  Star,  Industrial  Herald, 
Planet,  New  York  Globe,  New  York  Freeman,  Christian 
Recorder,  and  also  for  The  A.  M.  E.  Church  Review,  and  is 
still  a  contributor  to  some  of  them  and  other  journals. 

Concerning  some  of  her  best  contributions  to  the  press, 
Mrs.  Mo.sseIl,  the  gifted  writer,  says:  *' Her  subjects  have 
been  various, — eduoutional,  moral,  social,  racial,  and  purely 
literary.  Among  her  moj^t  popular  productions  are  probably 
the  following:  A  series  of  descriptive  papers  written  to  The 
Indicstrial  Ilcrakl,  of  Richmond,  during  a  six-weeks'  stay  in 
Now  York  an<l  Boston,  in  the  summer  of  1883;  "Paul's 
Trade  and  the  U.se  he  Made  of  it,"  read  before  the  Baptist 
Snnday-soliool  Union  of  ^Va^^hington,  1).  C,  and  afterwards 
published  in  T/ic  Chnsfifin  Recorder;  "Notes  to  Girls,"  a 
series  of  letters  in  27i€  Peoples  Adcocafc;  "Higher  Education 
for  Women,"  an  oration  before  the  Young  Ladies'  Literary 
Society  of  Howard  University,  at  tiieir  j»ublic  meeting  in 
1885,  and  subsequently  printed  in  The  Ptvple's  Advocate; 
"The  Hero  of  H.irpcrs  Ferry,"  delivered  at  the  junior 
exhibition  of  the  I'lnss  of  1886  of  Howard  Univei*sity,  of 
which  she  was  a  m«^niher;  a  reply  in  T/ic  New  York  Preenum 
to  Annie  Portnr,  who  ha. I  pnhlished  in  The  Independent  a 
vigorous  onslangliL  nL'iinst  the  negroes:  "The  Remedy  for 
War," — her  graduating  oration,  since  given  to  the  public  in 


MBS.  JOSEPHINE  TURPIN  WASHINGTON. 


896  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PBESa 


ITie  4*  Jf-  E.  Church  Review;  and  "  Teaching  as  a  ProfesBion,'* 
published  in  the  October  number  of  Uia  Review.  Mrs. 
Washington  continues  to  write,  and  productions  from  her  pen 
are  welcomed  alike  by  publishers  and  the  public. 

Miss   Alicb   K    McEwek,    Assooiats   Editob   Baptist 

Leader. 

On  Hardings  street,  in  the  cily  of  Nashville,  July  29, 
1870,  was  bom  the  above-named  young  lady,  whose  work 
in  the  literary  sphere  has  been  marked  with  that  success 
which  would  attend  many  a  person's  life  whose  aim  is  light^ 
and  whose  dependence  is  God. 

Of  Christian  parents,  Rev.  and  Mi*s.  A.  N.  McEwen,  she 
grew  up  a  God-fearing  child,  receiving  a  religious  as  well  as 
an  intellectual  training.  She  acquired  the  rudiments  of  an 
education  in  the  Nashville  public  schools,  and  subsequently 
attended  Fisk  University,  (1881)  and,  after  the  death  of  her 
mother,  Roger  Williams  University,  (1884.)  She  did  not, 
however,  finish  the  prescribed  course  here,  as  her  father, 
knowing  the  care  a  motherless  girl  requires,  and  feeling  that 
a  ladies*  institute  would  best  supply  the  need,  sent  her  to 
Spelman  Seminary,  at  Atlanta,  Ga.  This  was  in  1885,  which 
also  dates  the  preparation  and  publication  of  her  first  article 
for  the  press,  which  was  printed  in  The  Montgomery  Serald, 
under  the  caption  of  "  The  Progress  of  the  Negro. 

During  her  school  life  at  Spelman,  she "  wrote  various 
articles  for  the  newspapei's,  until  her  .graduation,  May  24, 
1888,  at  the  age  of  eighteen.  She  was  then  engaged  as 
associate  editor  to  her  father.  Rev.  A.  N.  McEwen,  who  was 
editor  of  The  Baptist  Leader,  a  five-column,  four-page  journal, 
neat]y  printed,  and  presenting  as  attractive  an  appearance  as 
the  average  race  journal. 

Miss  McEwen  is  a  journalist  under  the  guidance  of  her 


HISS  AUCE  £.  McEWEN. 


8d8  THfi  AFBO-AME&IOAN  PBESS. 

father,  and  her  fame  is  extending  all  over  the  land.  She  k 
widely  known  by  her  having  appeared  before  several  national 
bodies  to  read  some  of  her  productions.  She  read  a  paper 
before  the  last  National  Press  Convention,  at  Washington, 
D.  C,  upon  "  Women  in  Journalism  ;*'  also  a  paper  before  the 
Women's  Baptist  State  Convention,  at  Greenville,  Ala.,  the 
same  year.  The  paper  before  the  Press  Convention  was 
afterward  published  in  The  Leader,  It  is  indeed  a  fine 
presentation  of  the  subject,  showing  thought  and  careful 
preparation.  She  opens  with  a  statement  of  the  success  which 
has  attended  the  efforts  of  our  women ;  then,  in  speaking  of 
the  field  which  this  work  offers  to  women,  she  says: 
''There  is  no  work  which  women  can  engage  in  that  its 
influence  will  be  brought  to  bear  upon  the  public  more  than 
this.  It  is  here  that  their  utterances  will  commend  themselves 
to  the  mind  of  the  young.  America  has  furnished  her  share 
of  noble  women  in  this  work,  and  they  have  done  much  in 
molding  the  national  life.  Their  words  found,  and  are 
still  finding,  an  echo  in  the  life  of  the  nation.  They  were 
thrilled  with  the  forces  and  vitality  of  their  age,  and  by  their 
noble  words  helped  to  mold  the  destinies  of  coming 
generations."  She  then  discusses  at  length  the  women  whose 
work  has  been  glorious,  and  closes  with  an  eager  apj)eal  to 
our  women  to  engage  in  this  work,  as  the  foUotving  lines 
will  show:  "While  we  appreciate  the  work  that  has  been 
done  by  these  women,  yet  we  must  not  think  the  work 
completed,  This  century  opened  with  as  broad  a  field  as 
did  the  other," 

**  Let  us  not  merely  speak  of  the  praise  due,  but  show  our 
heartiest  thanks  by  taking  up  the  work  where  they  left  it 
and  carrying  it  forward,  even  to  a  higher  8ta,ndpoint.  If  we 
will  nourish  the  seed  sown  by  them,  I  believe  we,  in  the 
near  future,  shall  garner  a  glorious  harvest,  while  women 
advance  to  high  moral  and  intellectual  development.    Let 


MBa  C.  C.  STDMM. 


400  fd£  A^BO-AME&tOAN  t^UBSS. 

us  not  undervalne  the  work  of  these  noble  women.  The 
wisdom  of  the  philosopher,  the  eloquence  of  the  historian, 
the  §agacity  of  the  statesman,  the  capacity  of  the  general, 
may  produce  more  lasting  effects  upon  human  minds,  but  they 
are  incomparably  less  rapid  in  their  influence  than  the'  gentle 
yet  wise  words  of  these  women." 

''  All  praise  to  these  noble  women.    May  their  names  ever 
live  upon  the  lips  of  all  true  Americans." 

MSS.     C.     C.     StUHH,     BtJSIKESS     MaKAGEB     AUD     CrOBBE- 

SPONDEKT  National  Monitor  and  Oua 
Women  and  Children. 

Mrs.  Stumm,  daughter  of  Thomas  and  Eliza  Penman,  and 
wife  of  Rev.  Mr.  Stumm  of  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  was  born  iu 
Boyle  county,  Ky.,  March  25,  1857.  Her  father  died  when 
she  was  quite  young,  yet  the  inflexible  zeal  of  her  mother 
insured  a  good  schooling  for  her  child.  She  remained  in 
Berea  College  for  two  terms,  gaining  a  fair  amount  of 
knowledge,  which  has  been  added  to  since  by  her  personal 
efforts.  She  has  taught  in  private  institutions  and  public 
schools,  having  been  employed  in  Hearn  academy,  Texas,  and 
Bowling  Green  academy  of  Kentucky. 

Mrs.  Stumm  8  journalistic  work  began  in  1879,  at  Eliza- 
bethtown,  Ky.,  in  a  newspaper  discussion  with  a  preacher 
upon  a  Certain  question,  which  resulted  in  a  victory  to  her. 
She  contributed  occasional  articles  to  The  Bowling  Oreen 
Watchvuxn,  (Ky.)  and  while  she  was  in  Boston,  she  worked 
as  agent  and  contributor  for  The  Hub  and  Advocate^  and 
other  Afro-American  journals  2)ublished  in  that  city.  She 
has  since  resided  in  Philadelphia,  and  has  energetically 
acted  as  Philadelphia  agent  for  The  JVcUional  Monitor, 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  and  for  Our  Women  and  Children  magazine, 
at  Louisville,  Ky. 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  401 

Mrs.  Stumm  is  a  good  thinker  and  a  florid  writer,  and 
from  what  her  pen  has  already  produced,  it  is  safe  to  predict 
she  is  destined  to  accomplish  much  for  her  race. 

Miss  A.   L.  Tilohman,  Editob  Musical  Messenger. 

Miss  A.  L.  Tilghman  was  born  in  Washington,  D.  C,  her 
parents,  Henry  H.,  and  Margaret  A.  Tilghman,  being  among 
the  oldest  and  most  highly  respected  citizens  of  that  city. 
Miss  Tilghman  was  a  student  at  Howard  University,  and 
graduated  with  high  honors  from  the  normal  department  in 
1871.  For  fourteen  years  she  was  a  teacher  in  the  public 
schools  in  Washington,  and  was  considered  one  of  the  finest 
teachers  and  most  successful  disciplinarians  in  the  corps,  so 
much  so,  that  when  pupils  were  sent  out  from  the  Miner 
normal  school  to  visit  other  schools  and  receive  ideas  on 
teaching  and  governing,  the  superintendent  almost  invariably 
selected  her  school  as  one  among  the  number  to  be  visited. 

She  has  been  regarded  for  several  years  one  of  Washington's 
finest  vocalists..  In  December,  1881,  she  was  engaged  to 
sing  in  New  York ;  and  the  New  York  press  spoke  of  her  as 
"The  bursting  forth  of  a  musical  star,  whose  singing  com- 
pletely captivated  the  praise  and  admiration  of  the  critics  of 
the  metropolis,  and  elicited  their  concession  to  her  richly 
earned  title  of  *  Queen  of  Song.'  "  In  1881  she  was  engaged 
to  lead  the  Saengerfest,  at  Louisville,  Ky. ;  and  in  1883  she 
traveled  as  leading  sopranist  for  the  Washington  Harmonic 
company.  It  was  while  she  was  with  this  company  that  she 
was  severely  hurt,  in  walking  up  a  street  in  Saratoga, 
N.  Y.,  by  the  falling  of  a  brick  from  a  structure  in  process  of 
building.  Her  skull  was  much  fractured,  and  it  was  some 
time  before  she  could  resume  her  duties.  This  accident 
impaired  her  chances  in  life,  since  she  had  to  abandon  the 
stage,  and  give  up  teaching.     Upon  resigning  her  position  as 

26 


I, 

4 


402  THE  AFBO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

teacher  in  the  Washington  public  schools,  she  was  highly 
complimented  bj  both  trostees  and  superintendent. 

As  a  musician,  she  is  of  the  highest  order.  Her  training 
was  received  at  the  famous  Boston  Conservatory^  of  music, 
with  private  instruction  under  Prof.  Jameson  of  Boston. 
Upon  leaving  that  city  she  was  engaged  to  teach  a  large 
class  of  pupils  in  Montgomery,  Ala.,  which  she  did  with 
remarkable  credit  to  herself  and  class.  While  in  Montgomery 
she  was  constantly  engaged  in  devising  some  new  step  for 
the  further  development  of  her  race.  The  greatest  musical 
entertainment  ever  known  in  Montgomery,  namely,  the 
cantata  of  Queen  Esther,  was  presented  by  Miss  Tilghman, 
with  a  chorus  of  sixty  singers,  all  in  full  stage  costume. 
The  following  is  the  press  comment  upon  Miss  Tilghman  as 
"  Queen"  and  as  manager:  "Miss  Tilghman  represented  the 
beautiful  queen,  and  she  manifested  that  solemn,  pathetic, 
and  dramatic  force  throughout  the  play,  which  gave  it 
life-like  appearance,  as  one  would  picture  it  as  he  reads  it 
in  the  Bible.  The  highest  praise  is  due  her  for  the 
presentation  of  this  cantata.  She  was  the  sole  organizer,  and 
deserves  the  thanks  of  the  citizens  generally  for  her  interest 
in  everything  which  tends  to  the  improvement  and  elevation 
of  our  race." 

It  was  while  in  Montgomery  that  Miss  Tilghman  first 
published  lyie  Musical  Messenger,  In  December,  1887,  she 
was  invited  by  the  faculty  of  Howe  Institute,  New  Iberia, 
La.,  to  take  charge  of  the  musical  department  of  said  school. 
After  receiving  many  urgent  letters,  she  concluded  to  accept 
the  position,  and  amid  the  regret  of  the  entire  community, 
she  left  Montgomery  and  went  to  New  Iberia,  where  she  was 
much  needed.  After  remaining  there  one  school  year,  she 
w^as  induced  to  return  home  on  account  of  the  continued 
illness  of  her  mother,  and  now  resides  there,  teaching  music 
and  publishing  The  Musical  Messenger, 


'i..i'5>''''"l'(j.J' 


3  A.   L.  TILGHMAN. 


_\f... 


J   tlK' 


iiiijj>!  lUu  light  oil  our  moi 
Americana  iu   a  most  pro 
"Stand  fairly  and  squarely 
and  whenever  there  comes 
money  clash,  then  stick  to 
and  ill  the  end  you  wilt  reap 
Ci-ilw  pays  her  this  tribute: 
The  Musical  Messenger,  editi 
is  a  perfect  sheet,  of  good 
editor,   and   hope  6ur   peopl 
opportunity  to  learn  somethi 
can  accomplish  much  in  her  w 
energy,  and  it  naturally  foUo' 
will  be  supported. 

She  has  for  an  associate  i 
known  Lucinda  Bragg  Adan 
be  the  success  of  27i^  Meest 
valuable  acquisition  to  the 
Georee  F  R™"--  •-■    - 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  405 

Review,  which  drew  much  attention  and  many  compliments. 
Her  composition,  "Old  Blandford  Church,"  which  was  dedi- 
cated to  Hon.  John  Mercer  Langston,  had  a  profitable  sale. 
27te  Messenger,  with  Mrs.  Adams'  aid,  will  be  a  paper  of 
commanding  influence  in  Afro- American  journalism. 

Mes.  N.  F.  Mossell,  Cobrespondent  Indianapolis  Free- 
man, AND  Our  Women  and  Children. 

To  every  reader  of  Afro- American  journals  the  above 
name  is  familiar.  Beginning  as  a  journalist  when  quite 
young,  Mrs.  Mossell  has,  for  sixteen  years,  continually  written 
for  our  race  journals,  and  reported  for  the  foremost  white 
papers  in  Philadelphia.  Her  first  article,  an  essay  on 
Influence,  was  published  by  Bishop  B.  T.  Tanner  in  T/ie 
Christian  Recorder  when  she  was  a  mere  school  girl ;  and  up 
to  the  present  day  she  has  written  essays,  poems,  short 
stories,  and  race  sketches,  which  have  been  published  far  and 
near. 

She  was  especially  sought  for,  and  assumed  the  position  of 
editor  of  the  woman's  department  of  jyic  JVeiu  York  Frctmiayi 
and  The  Philadelphia  Eclw.  While  engaged  upon  these 
papers  she  also  reported  for  Tlie  Philadelphia  Press  and  IVie 
limes,  two  of  the  most  widely  circulated  papers  in  the 
country.  She  is  now  upon  the  staff  of  correspondents  of  IVie 
Indianapolis  Freeman,  Tlie  Richmoyid  Rankin  Institute,  and 
Our  Women  and  Children.  Though  a  regular  contributor  to 
these  papers,  she  nevertheless  writes  for  other  race  journals, 
from  the  great  A.  M.  E.  Review  to  the  smallest  paper 
published. 

Mrs.  Mossell  has  selected  journalism  as  her  profession, 
believing,  as  she  expressed  herself  once,  that  the  future  of 
women,  especially  of  Afro-American  women,  is  on  this  line  of 
literary  work.     In  her  writings  she  deals  particularly  with 


406  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

the  women  and  the  Afio- American  race  as  a  whole.  Sh« 
hopes  to  write  a  book  of  some  value  to  our  literary  world. 
She  is  alive  to  all  the  interests  of  our  race;  and  since 
journalism  is  her  mission,  she  is  ever  on  the  alert  to  ascertain 
some  way  in  which  to  make  it  a  success.  As  a  writer,  the 
reader  may  readily  learn  how  Mrs.  Mossell  ranks,  by  her 
very  pleasing  and  interesting  articles,  *'  Power  of  the  Press" 
and  "Women  in  Journalism." 

In  writing  to  TJie  New  York  Age  concerning  the  means  by 
which  success  may  come  to  us  in  journalistic  work,  she  says : 
"  I  hold  that  no  colored  journal  yet  has  done  all  it  could  do 
for  itself,  or  has  had  all  done  for  it  that  might  have  been  by 
its  friends.  Now  I  have  some  suggestions  to  make,  which  I 
believe  would  help  our  papers  to  succeetl.  I  have  never  yet 
seen  a  colored  newspaper  sold  on  the  »^treets  by  a  newsboy. 
We  sell  at  the  newsdealers;  we  get  subscriptions;  we  sell 
through  agents;  but  the  main  means  why  white  papers 
succeed,  we  do  not  use  at  all.  Sunday  morning  I  am 
awakened  by  the  white  boys  shouting  their  papers.  The 
Sunday  Mercuri/,  with  its  colored  column,  'Items  on  the 
wing,'  is  sold  all  through  the  street.  Now  we  live  in 
sections;  our  boys  would  not  have  to  walk  their  legs  off. 
See  to  it  that  boys  are  j^ut  on  the  streets  Sunday  morning, 
and  on  Saturday  night  where  colored  people  market.  Call 
out  the  name  of  the  paper  and  what  it  contains  of  interest. 
Hundreds  of  papers  would  be  sold. 

"Next,  the  papers  could  contain  more  valuable  articles. 
Let  The  Age^  The  Indianapolis  Freeman,  Detroit  Plairuieal^^ 
Washington  Peoples  Advocate,  and  Philadelphia  Sentinel,  or 
others  in  widely  separated  sections,  form  a  syndicate  and  pay 
the  best  colored  writers  to  write  on  a  given  subject.  Each 
could  pay  three  or  five  dollars,  and  good  articles  could  be 
written.  Very  few  people  t-ake  all  these  papers;  so  even  if 
they  do  not  appear  on  the  same  date,  it  would  be  of  little 


OtJR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  40? 

matter,  if  only  it  came  the  same  week.  The  most  successful 
articles  could  be  put  in  tract  form,  and  kept  for  sale  by  an 
open  letter  agency  of  the  syndicate," 

Mrs.  Mossell  is  a  telling  writer,  her  thoughts  being  clear 
and  clean-cut,  in  the  main.  We  append  the  following  tribute 
to  her  from  The  Indianapolis  Freeman :  "  Mrs.  Mossell  is  one 
of  the  most  gifted  as  well  as  versatile  women  writers  in  the 
country,  and  rightly  does  the  race  honor  and  appreciate  her 
genius.'* 

Miss  Ida  B.  Wells,  {Tola,)  General  Newspaper  Corre- 
spondent AND  Associate  Editress. 

That  "perseverance  overcomes  all  obstacles,"  is  fully 
verified  in  the  life  and  character  of  Miss  I.  B.  Wells,  who 
was  born  at  Holly  Springs,  Ark.,  and  reared  and  educated 
there.  Her  parents  died  while  she  was  ati ending  Rust 
University,  which  compelled  her  to  leave  school  in  order  that 
she  might  support  her  five  brothers  and  sisters,  all  being 
younger  than  herself. 

She  taught  her  first  school  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  and  with 
this  work  and  journalism  she  has  been  an  incessant  laborer. 
She  has  taught  in  the  schools  of  Arkansas  and  Tennessee, 
and  has  at  various  times  been  offered  like  positions  elsewhere  ; 
but  preferring  to  teach  her  people  in  the  Soutli,  she  has 
continued  to  labor  there.  For  six  years  she  has  followed  her 
vocation  as  teacher,  in  the  city  of  Memphis. 

During  this  time  she  began  to  write  for  the  press.  Her 
first  article  was  a  '*  write-up,"  at  the  request  of  the  editor,  of 
a  suit  for  damages,  in  which  she  was  the  complainant.  This 
paper  was  The  Living  Way,  which  she  contributed  to  for  the 
space  of  two  years.  This  engagement  introduced  her  to  the 
newspaper  fraternity  as  a  writer  of  superb  ability,  and 
therefore  demands  for  her  services  began  to  come  in. 


■„„'l„l,rj-l„-i..ri,.n  I„.h,- 


ILwl  Li'jhl.  and  eaitiesK  of  tli. 
Woiiuni  and  Chitdren,  of  whiul 
publisher.     Decidedly, "  lola"  is 
and   we  cau   but  feel  proud  ot 
energy  aervea  to  make  her  bo. 
journaliBte  of  Afro- American  coi 
her  election  as  aesintaDt  secret) 
American  Frees  Couvention,  at  L> 
her  unanimous   election   as  seer 
Convention,  which  met  at  Washin 
Miss  Lucy  W.  Smith  gives  an  accoi 
which  "  lola"  has  contributed. 

In  summing  up  her  character  i 
"Amen"  to  what  Miss  Smith  sa; 
Wells,  "loia,"  has  been  called  th 
and  she  has  well  earned  the  ti 
fraternity  not  excepted,  haa  been 
none  struck  harder  blows  at  the 
the  race. 


IDA  B.  WELLS. 


408  THE  AFBO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

T.  Thomas  Fortune,  after  meeting  her,  wrote  as  fbllowB: 
"She  has  become  fieunous  as  one  of  the  few  of  oar  women 
who  handle  a  goose-quill,  with  diamond  point,  as  easily  as 
any  man  in  the  newspaper  work.  If  lola  were  a  man,  she 
would  be  a  humming  independent  in  politics.  She  has  plenty 
of  nerve,  and  is  as  sharp  as  a  steel  trap.*' 

She  is  now  the  regular  correspondent  of  2%e  Detroit 
PkundecUer,  Christian  Index,  and  The  People's  Choice.  She  is 
also  part  owner  and  editor  of  ITie  Memphis  Dree  Speech  and 
Head  lAgkt,  and  editress  of  the  "  Home"  department  of  Our 
Women  and  ChUdren,  of  which  Dr.  William  J.  Simmons  is 
publisher.  Decidedly,  "  Ida"  is  a  great  success  in  journalism, 
and  we  can  but  feel  proud  of  a  woman  whose  ability  and 
energy  serves  to  make  lier  so.  She  is  popular  with  all  the 
journalists  of  Afro-American  connection,  as  will  be  seen  by 
her  election  as  assistant  secretary  of  the  National  Afro- 
American  Press  Convention,  at  Louisville,  two  years  ago,  and 
her  unanimous  election  as  secretary  of  the  recent  Press 
Convention,  which  met  at  Washington,  D.  C,  March  4,  1889. 
Miss  Lucy  W.  Smith  gives  an  account  of  the  many  papers  to 
which  '*  Tola"  has  contributed. 

In  summing  up  her  character  as  a  writer,  we  can  but  say 
"Amen"  to  what  Miss  Smith  says  of  her:  "Miss  Ida  B. 
Wells,  "lola,"  has  been  called  the  "Princess  of  the  Press," 
and  she  has  well  earned  the  title.  No  writer,  the  male 
fraternity  not  excepted,  has  been  more  extensively  quoted; 
none  struck  harder  blows  at  the  wrongs  and  weaknesses  of 
the  race. 

"Miss  Wells'  readers  are  equally  divided  between  the 
sexes.  She  reaches  the  men  by  dealing  with  the  political 
aspect  of  the  race  question,  and  the  women  she  meets  around 
the  fireside.  She  is  an  inspiration  to  the  young  writers,  and 
her  success  has  lent  an  impetus  to  their  ambition.  When  the 
National    Press    Convention,    of    which    she    was  assistant 


410  YdE  Ai'RO-AMti&IOAK  t'fifiSS. 

secretary,  met  in  Louisville,  she  read  a  splendidly  written 
paper  on  "  Women  in  Journalism;  or,  How  I  would  Edit." 

"  By  the  way,  it  is  her  ambition  to  edit  a  paper.  She  believes 
that  there  is  no  agency  so  potent  as  the  press,  in  reaching 
and  elevating  a  people.  Her  contributions  are  distributed 
amoug  the  leading  race  journals.  She  made  her  debut  with 
The  Living  Way,  Memphis,  Tenn.,  and  has  since  written  for 
The  New  York  Age,  Detrcii  PlcdndeoUer,  IruUanegpoUs  Worlds 
Qate  City  Press,  Mo.,  LUtle  Bock  8un^  American  Baptist,  Ky., 
Memphis  Watchman,  ChaUanooga  J%uAce,  ChariBltian  Index^ 
Fisk  University  Herald,  Tenn.,  Our  Women  and  Children 
Magazine,  Ky.,  and  the  Memphis  papers,  weeklies  and  dailies. 
Miss  Wells  has  attained  much  success  as  a  teacher  in  the 
public  schools  of  the  last-named  place."  All  in  all,  we  are 
proud  to  own  Miss  Wells  as  our  "  Mrs.  Frank  Leslie." 

Miss  Ione  E.  Wood,  Editress  Temperance  Department 

Our  Women  and  Children. 

Among  the  young  writers  of  to-day,  few  have  gained  a 
wider  celebrity  and  a  more  deep-rooted  recognition  in  the 
popular  niiiid  than  lone  E.  Wood.  Being  only  about  twenty 
years  old,  and  hence  with  but  a  brief  experience  in  journal- 
ism, the  rank  attained  by  her  exhibits  her  ability  in  a 
wonderful  degree. 

She  wa.s  born  in  New  Jersey.  At  an  early  age  she 
attended  the  public  schools  in  Burlington,  and  afterward  the 
mixed  high  school  in  Atlantic  City.  After  the  establishment 
of  the  State  University,  Louisville,  Ky.,  by  her  uncle,  Dr. 
William  J.  Simmons,  she  was  enrolled  as  a  student  of  that 
institution  for  the  purpose  of  pursuing  a  liberal  education. 
So  diligently  did  she  prosecute  her  studies  that  the  institu- 
tion, in  seeking  an  assistant  teacher,  found  in  her  the  material 
for  that  position.     Filling  the  appointment  with  such  general 


lONE  E.  WOOD. 


Ai 


,  Ml..-  Wou.l 


!'■' 


jj.l  ij 


gaiiiL'il   populiirity,     Aa  a 
vigoroua.     Her  subject  is  a. 
managed.     Her  language  is 
by-words,  and  is  smooth,  ag 
and    natural,   devoid   of   all 
sentences   drop   like   the  oar 
turn  of  mind  little  imaginat 
much  use  for  tropes  and  figui 
remarkable  clearness  of  ezpres 
lake.     From   the  first,  one  cai 
writer  aims.     She  pursues  it  w 
ing  to  neither  side,  and  has  1 
leave  a  point   when    made.     7 
writer  are  clearness,  force,  sin 
ness  and  agreeableness. 

Miss  Wood  is  now  a  stock-ho 
dren,  aa  well  as  a  regular  c 
assigned    her   is    the    promoti 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  113 

ori^inalitv  and  no  veil  y  lends  to  make  us  victims  of  cruel 
deception.  Language  is  often  used  to  give  color  and  attract- 
iveness to  vice  and  heartless  fashion.  In  view  of  this,  it  is 
no  small  compliment  to  say  of  this  young  writer  she  has  the 
Christian  ingenuity  to  intermingle  much  practical  piety  with 
what  she  writes.  Herself  a  staunch  Christian,  her  writings 
in  no  respect  belie  her  good  profession  of  faith. 

Mbs.  Lavinia   B.  Sneed,  Contributor  Afro-American 

Press. 

This  lady,  a  regular  and  excellent  writer,  was  born  near 
New  Orleans,  La.,  May  15,  1867.  Upon  moving  to  Louisville 
she  entered  the  public  schools,  and  afterward  attended  the 
State  University  which  was  established  in  1881.  Being  a 
new  institution  its  students  encountered  many  obstacles 
common  to  such  enterprises  in  their  incipiency.  Mrs.  Sneed, 
desiring  to  enhance  its  prosperity,  was  one  of  the  first  to 
travel  with  a  concert  troupe  for  the  purpose  of  raising  funds 
for  the  furtherance  of  the  work.  She  labored  zealously  for 
the  institution;  and  is  one  of  the  few  women  who  have 
received  the  title  of  A.  B.,  having  graduated  from  the  college 
department  of  this  university  as  valedictorian  of  the  class  of 
1887.  She  is  a  singer  of  merit,  as  well  as  an  elocutionist  of 
superior  ability. 

While  her  journalistic  life  has  not  been  as  great  as  others, 
yet  she  has  written  much  for  our  magazines  and  papers. 
Her  contributions  are  always  looked  upon  as  choice  English, 
'while  the  thought  is  pure,  clear,  and  easy  to  catch.  She  is 
indeed  a  writer  for  the  populace,  in  that  she  writes  so  that 
the  meagerly  educated  may  understand  the  purport  of  her 
articles.  In  most  of  her  writings  her  decided  ability  has 
been  made  apparent. 

In  the  summer  of  1888  she  married  the  highly  intellectual 


UBS.  LAVINIA  B.  8NEED. 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  416 

Prof.  Sneed,  by  whase  side  she  stands  with  unswerving 
fidelity.  Her  journalistic  future  is  bright  and  promising,  and 
the  idea  that  she  will  do  much  for  her  race,  through  the 
medium  of  her  pen,  is  the  thought  of  many. 

Miss    Maby   E.   Britton,   (Meb,)    Ex-Editor   and   Con- 
tributor Afro-American  Press. 

Miss  Britton  was  born  in  Lexington,  Ky.,  thirty-three 
years  ago,  and  still  resides  there.  She  was  educated  in  its 
schools,  and  at  present  is  a  teacher  in  one  of  the  public 
schools  of  that  city. 

Her  first  literary  publication  was  an  address  delivered  at 
the  close  of  her  school.  It  was  published  in  2'he  Ameiican 
CUizeny  a  Lexington  weekly,  now  extinct.  One  who  knows, 
says:  "It  was  a  strong  paper,  showing  the  relation  of 
parent,  teacher  and  pupil."  Her  next  publications  were  in 
the  interest  of  the  Afro- American  cause,  and  were  published 
in  The  Cincinnati  Commercial,  in  1877.  Mrs.  Amelia  E. 
Johnson  says:  "She  has  an  excellent  talent  for  comparing. 
explaining,  expounding  and  criticising,  and  has  made  no 
small  stir  among  the  city  oflScials  and  others  for  their  unjust 
discriminations  against  worthy  citizens,"  Articles  of  sucli 
nature  were  published  oft^n  in  The  Daily  Transcript,  a 
Lexington  paper. 

She  wrote  regularly  for  the  women's  column  in  Tlie 
Lexington  Herald.  Through  the  columns  of  this  paper  she 
agitated  a  reformation  in  society,  total  abstinence  from 
alcoholic  liquors  and  tobacco,  and  the  importance  of  active 
work  and  the  influence  of  example  upon  the  part  of  teachers 
and  preachers.  She  wrote  for  TJie  Herald  under  the  nom  de 
plume  of  "  Meb." 

She  has  contributed  literary  productions  and  discussions 
to  The  Courantf  an  educational  journal  published  in  Louisville, 


416  THE  AFPwO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Ky. ;  to  The  Cleveland  Oazelia,  Ohio ;  and  to  The  Indianapolu 
Wwld,  Ind.  She  wrote  for  27^€  iry,  a  paper  edit^  and 
puplished  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  in  the  interest  of  children  and 
youth.  Her  7io7n  de  plume  while  writing  for  Tlie  Ivy  was 
"Aunt  Peggy."  Her  contributions  to  this  journal  were 
chiefly  philosophical,  and  written  in  a  simple,  pleasing  and 
instructive  manner;  and  many  were  the  compliments  they 
received  from  the  young  folks,  who  thoroughly  enjoyed  her 
articles.  In  1887,  a  paper  on  "Woman's  Suffrage  as  an 
important  factor  in  Public  Reforms,"  was  published  in  The 
Atnerican  Catholic  Tiihune,  at  Cincinnati,  O.  She  writes  now 
for  Our  Women  and  Children,  and  for  TJie  Courant, 

Miss  Britton  claims  to  be  neither  a  poet  nor  a  fiction 
writer;  but  she  is  a  prolific  writer  on  many  subjects  of  a 
solid,  practical,  forcible  character.  Teaching  is  her  forte, 
and  she  prefers  to  perfect  herself  in  both  the  science  and 
art  of  the  profession.  As  a  teacher,  she  is  greatly  re.*=pected 
and  esteemed.  A  writer  to  The  Indianapolis  World,  Ind.. 
refers  to  her  and  her  work  in  the  following  appreciative 
terms:  "The  city  (Lexington)  officials  are  building  the 
colored  people  a  school-house  on  the  corner  of  4th  and 
Campbell  streets;  and  Miss  Mary  E.  Britton,  the  "Meb"  of  our 
literature,  smiles  even  more  pleasantly  than  usual.  8ht*  has 
done  a  great  deal  to  educate  the  youth  here,  under  the 
most  vexing  circumstances;  and  none  can  appreciate  or 
rejoice  more  in  better  facilities  than  she." 

Miss  Britton  is  a  specialist.  Recognizing  the  fact  that  one 
can  not  satisfactorily  take  in  the  whole  field,  she  wisely 
concludes  to  pursue  and  perfect  herself  in  such  branches  of 
it  as  she  feels  confident  are  hers  by  adaptation.  Such  a 
course  can  not  fail  to  give  success  to  the  one  pursuing  it. 
She  is  an  ardent  stiident  of  metaphysics,  and  a  firm  believer 
in  phrenology,  and  had  her  phrenological  character  written 
out  by  Prof.  0.  S.  Fowler.     He  describes  her  predominant 


mSS  MARY  E.  BKITTON. 


418  TEE  AFBO-AMEEIOAN  PBE88. 

characterifitic  as  "ambitioas  to  do  her  level  best.*'  He 
speaks  of  her  as  **  thoroughly  conacientions,  and  actaated  by 
ihe  highest  possible  sense  of  right  and  duty ;  as  frugal  and 
industrious  and  adapted  to  business."  This  description, 
added  to  her  natural  force,  resolution  and  vim,  can  be  fully 
corroborated  by  those  who  are  intimately  acquainted  with 
Miss  Britton. 

When  connected  with  The  Lexington  Herald  as  editor  of  its 
women's  column,  she  was  an  indefatigable  worker,  and 
rendered  efficient  aid.  She  was  spoken  of  by  that  jonmal  as 
follows:  '*The  journalistic  work  seems  to  be  the  calling  of 
Miss  Britton.  No  other  field  would  suit  her  so  welL  In 
manner  and  style,  her  composition  is  equal  to  any  of  her 
sex,  white  or  black.  As  an  elocutionist,  she  stands  next  in 
rank  to  the  accomplished  Hal  lie  Q.  Brown.  No  literary 
programme  gotten  up  by  the  Lexingtonians  is  complete 
without  the  rendition  of  some  choice  selection  by  her, — Miss 
Britton.  She  is  a  hard  student,  a  great  reader,  and  a  lover 
of  poetry.  Miss  Britton  is  an  acknowledged  teacher,  of  high 
intellectual  attainments." 

The  above  speaks  well  indeed  of  this  energetic  young 
woman,  while,  with  reference  to  her  ability  as  a  writer.  Hie 
Ainei'ican  Catholic  Tiibune  (Cincinnati),  has  this  to  say: 
*'  It  is  with  pleasure  that  we  call  the  attention  of  our  readers 
to  a  paper  read  by  that  talented  young  woman  and  rising 
journalist,  Miss  Mary  E.  Britton,  at  the  State  Teachers' 
Institute,  held  in  Danville,  Ky.,  last  week.  Without  comment 
on  the  terms  it  proposes,  we  give  it  to  the  public  for  careful 
perusal." 

Tlie  Christian  Soldier  (Lexington),  says:  "Miss  Mary  E. 
Britton  is  one  of  the  brightest  stars  which  shine  in  Dr. 
Simmons'  great  magazine,  Oar  Women  and  Children;  and  the 
magnitude  of  those  stars  is  national.  Lexington  never  gets 
left,  when  it  comes  to  pure,  good  and  sensible  women.** 


\. 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  419 

Who  can  say  that  the  perusal  of  this  sketch  can  fail  to 
benefit  and  inspire  our  yoang  girls.  Does  it  not  show  what 
can  be  done  by  them,  if  they  will  ?  Miss  Britton  is  not  an 
isolated  case  of  hardships  surmounted, — an  honorable  place 
gained  among  the  world's  busy  workers ;  for  the  colored  race 
possesses  many  women  of  brain,  nerve,  and  energy,  who, 
when  left  to  wage  a  hand-to-hand  combat  with  adversity, 
fight  along  bravely  and  well;  and  in  the  end  come  off 
victorious. 

Miss  Meta  E.  Pelham,  Reporteb  fob  Detroit  Plain- 
dealer. 

This  lady,  a  writer  of  much  culture,  was  born  in  Virginia. 
Her  parents,  when  she  was  quite  young,  moved  to  Detroit, 
and  Meta  found  her  way  into  the  mixed  schools  of  that  city, 
where  she  graduated  as  valedictorian  of  a  class  of  fifty-three 
pupils,  only  four  of  whom  were  AtVo-Ameiicans.  She  after- 
ward took  a  normal  course  at  Fen  ton  College  of  Central 
Michigan.  She  began  to  teach  school,  but  owing  to  declining 
health  she  had  to  return  home,  when  she  entered  The 
Plcdndealer  oflSce,  and  began  a  most  successful  career  as  a 
writer  for  newspapers. 

•  She  is  a  woman  of  most  excellent  traits  of  character,  and 
has  a  prolific  and  productive  brain.  In  her  newspaper 
experience  she  has  written  for  other  publications,  but  her 
work  on  The  Plaindealei'  has  been  marked  with  the  most 
fruitful  results. 

Miss  Pelham  is  not  so  well  known  as  many  lady  writers  of 
less  ability, — ^because,  in  her  entire  writings,  she  has  used  no 
fumi  deplume^  or  signature.  It  is  thought  that  she  will  soon 
edit  a  particular  part  of  Tlie  Plaindealei\  As  it  now  is,  she 
is  a  general  writ-er  upon  the  editorial  staff. 

2%e  Plamdealer^  in  its  anniversary  issue  of  May,  1888, 


420  THE  AFRO-AMEBIGAN  PRESS. 

speaks  at  length  eoncerning  the  achieyements  of  the  Afro- 
Americau  woiuan  in  newspaper  life.  It  has  the  following  iii 
regard  to  Miss  Pelham  and  her  connection  with  the  paper: 
''Since  the  inception  of  The  Plaindealer,  the  influence  of 
woman  luus  sustained  it  in  adversity;  the  product  of  her 
mind  Las  given  lustre  to  its  columns;  and  now,  more  than 
ever,  much  of  its  success  in  the  character  of  its  productions  is 
due  her.  To  Miss  Meta  Pelham  is  due  the  credit  of  this 
aid,  who  has  always  taken  an  active  interest  in  the  paper, 
and' often  contributed  to  its  columns.  For  the  past  two 
years  she  has  become  one  of  its  essentials  in  the  office,  and 
she  devotes  her  whole  time  to  the  work.  She  was  among 
the  first  A  fro- American  graduates  from  our  high  school,  and 
subsequently  took  a  normal  coui*se  at  the  Fenton  normal 
school.  She  also  spent  several  years  teaching  in  the  South, 
until  newspaper  allurements  became  more  tempting.  Her 
idea  of  a  newspaper  is,  that  it  should  be  metropolitan  in 
character,  deal  in  live  issues,  and  be  reliable." 

Her  idea  of  newspapers  makes  her  a  live  and  indispensable 
factor  in  the  fruitful  field  of  Afro-American  journalism,  and 
she  is  surely  destined  to  be  brought  prominently  before  the 
public  by  the  aid  of  her  pen. 

Mrs.  Frances  E.  W.  Harper,  Time-honored  Con- 
tributor TO  THE  Afro-American  Press. 

The  name  of  this  lady  naturally  brings  to  the  mind  of  the 
reader  the  heroic  efforts  she  made  in  the  dark  slavery  days 
for  the  freedom  of  those  in  bondage,  and  she  labors  now  for 
the  removal  of  those  things  that  she  considers  most  harmful 
to  her  race.  Her  endeavors  to  promote  the  "Prohibition 
Movement"  will  have  their  place  in  history,  as  well  as  her 
writings  which  have  inspired  the  youth  in  the  past,  as  they 
will  in  the  future. 


MRS.  FRANCES  E.  W.  HARPER. 


422  THE  AFRO-AMEBIGAN  PRESS. 

Mrs.  Harper  was  born  in  Maryland  in  1825,  and  grew  up 
there,  leaving  school  at  the  age  of  fourteen.  As  a  lecturer, 
she  has  few  equals,  and  poesibly  none  among  her  own  race. 
Mr.  Still  has  given  a  record  of  her  energetic  labors  in  Lis 

Utider-ground  Railroad,  as  has  also  William  Wells  Brown, 
in  his  Rising  Sun,  She  has  even  been  a  promoter  of 
Afro- American  journalism,  and  a  regular  contributor  thereto. 

I7i€  New  York  Independent,  The  Christian  Recoider,  I%e 
A,  il,  E,  Review,  and  Ute  Anglo-African,  have  been  made 
the  more  attractive  by  her  productions.  Her  poems  and 
prose  writings  have  been  found  in  other  papers;  but  those 
mentioned  are  the  most  prominent.  Her  poetical  and  prose 
writings  a.ie  excellent,  and  have  been  extensively  read  by 
white  peoi)le,  as  well  as  by  the  blacks.  Tlie  Afro-American 
press  would  suffer  a  great  loss  by  the  withdrawal  of  her 
intellectual  and  cheering  aid.  She  has  been  the  journalistic 
mother,  so  to  speak,  of  many  brilliant  young  women  who 
have  entered  upon  her  line  of  work  so  recently. 

Mrs.  a.  E.  Johnson. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  in  1858.  Her  parents 
were  botli  natives  of  Maryland.  She  was  educated  in 
Montreal,  Canada,  and  came  to  Baltimore,  Md.,  in  1874, 
where  ><he  has  made  her  home  ever  since.  She  was  married 
to  Rev.  Harvev  Johnson,  D.  D.,  in  1877. 

Mrs.  Johnson  began  literary  work  by  writing  short  poems, 
etc.,  for  various  race  periodicals.  In  1887  she  was  strongly 
impressed  with  the  idea  that  there  ought  to  be  a  journal  in 
which  the  writ(»rs  among  our  people,  especially  females, 
could  publish  stories,  poetry,  and  matter  of  a  purely  literar}' 
character,  for  the  perusal  of  young  people ;  so,  in  the  year 
above  mentioned,  she  launched  upon  the  uncertain  waves  of 
journalism  Tlie  Joy,  an  eight-page,  monthly  paper,  containing 


MBS.  A.  E.  JOHNSON. 


424  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PEESa 

origmal  stories  and  poems,  and  interesting  items  from  a 

number  of  exchanges,  solicited  for  the  purpose;  also,  pithy 

and  ibspiring  paragraphs  from  the  writings  of  people  of  oar 

race. 

The  contributors  to  The  Joy  were  fjedthful,  and  the  paper 

kept  up  in  interest  while  it  lived;  in  proof  of  which  we 

quote  the  following  extracts  from    The  Bcdlimore  Bcgptial^ 

the  widely-read  weekly  journal  of  the  white  Baptists   of 

Baltimore:    "The  cont^ts  were  original,  and  the  general 

tone  very  creditable  to  the  editor So  &r  as 

it  has  gone,  the  editor  must  be  conscious  of  having  done  a 

good  work,  and  shown  the  way  for  some  other  to  follow." 

Mi*8.  Johnson  has  a  large  collection  of  letters  and  newspaper 

clippings,  further  testifying  to  the  appreciation  in  which  her 

little  journal  was  held. 

Her  stories,  etc,  have  always  been  favorably  commented 
upon.  TJie  National  Baptist  of  Philadelphia  reproduces  one 
of  her  stories,  entitled  "  Nettie  Ray's  Thanksgiving-day,"  in 
its  "  Family  Page"  for  Thanksgiving  week ;  and  has  also,  at 
different  times,  short  poems  from  TJie  Joy,  The  NcUional 
Baptist  is  one  of  the  largest  circulated  white  denominational 
journals  in  the  country. 

Mrs.  Johnson  has,  in  the  past  year,  conducted  a  "  Children's 
Corner"  in  The  Sower  and  Reaper  of  Baltimore,  for  which  she 
wrote  "  The  Animal  Convention,"  "  The  Mignonette's  Mission," 
and  other  original  contributions. 

But  in  1889-90  she  reached  the  place  for  which  she  had 
been  aiming  and  preparing  herself.  She  wrote  for  publication 
a  manuscript,  which  was  purchased  by  the  American  Baptist 
Publication  Society,  one  of  the  largest  publishing  houses  in 
America.  The  Attiei^ican  Baptist  of  Louisville,  Ky.,  in 
alluding  to  this,  said:  "Mrs.  Johnson  has  the  deserved 
distinction  of  being  the  first  lady  author  whose  manuscript 
has    been    accepted    by    this    society."     The    Indianapolis 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM.  425 

Daify  Journal  referred  to  her  as  having  been  engaged  upon 
a  book  "  which  is  now  in  hand  by  the  Publication  Society, 
she  being  the  first  colored  woman  to  be  thus  honored;"  and 
I%e  Baltimore  Baptist  said :  *'  Mrs.  Johnson  is  a  fine  writer." 
Thus  was  given  to  the  public  "Clarence  and  Corinne;  or, 
God's  Way."  (12  mo.  187  pp.)  Of  this  little  book  the  prees 
speak  as  follows:  "This,  we  believe,  is  our  first  Sunday- 
school  library  book  written  by  a  colored  author.  Mrs. 
Johnson  is  the  wife  of  a  noted  and  successful  Baltimore 
pastor,  and  in  this  book  shows  talent  worthy  of  her  husband. 

The  tale  is    healthy  in  tone,  holds   the 

attention,  and  is  well  adapted  to  the  intermediate  classes 
of  Sunday-school  readers."  {T/ie  Missionary  Visitor,  Toulon, 
111.)  "It  is  a  pathetic  little  story."  (^Natioyial  Baptist, 
Philadelphia,  Pa.)  "The  interest  of  the  reader  is  early 
excited,  and  held  steadily  to  the  close,"  (^Baltimore  Baptist.) 
"One  feature  of  this  book  makes  it  of  special  interest, — it  is 
the  first  Sunday-school  book  published  from  the  pen  of  a 
colored  writer."     (^The  Baptist  Teacher). 

Rev.  Dr.  J.  B.  Simmons  of  New  York,  speaks  of  the 
"purity  of  style,  and  the  delightful  character  of  the  story;" 
and  a  lady  whom  we  do  not  feel  at  liberty  to  name,  but  who 
is  well  fitted  to  judge,  and  has  been  denominated  as 
"scholarly,  gifted,  and  a  wide  traveler,"  in  a  private  letter  to  ' 
Mrs.  Johnson  says:  "I  hope  you  will  still  keep  on,  and  let 
us  have  other  books  as  graceful,  as  earnest,  and  as  encouraging 
to  young  people,  and,  indeed,  to  all  folks,  young  and  old,  as 
this  first  fledgling  of  your  pen." 

All  of  the  foregoing  expressions  are  from  members  of  the 
white  race,  and  have  been  thus  quoted  because  they  were 
unexpected  tributes.  The  book  was  written  from  afiection 
for  the  race,  and  loyalty  to  it,  the  author  desiring  to  help 
demonstrate  the  fact  that  the  colored  people  have  thoughts 
of  their  own,  and  only  need  suitable  opportunities  to  give 


426  THE  AFBO-AMERXOAN  FBESa 

them  atterance.  Others  may  hA  led  tihtrongh  her  to  derekp 
a  gift  for  writing,  unconacioosly  pooBeaBed  hitherto. 

Oar  own  joomalB  have  also  been  ready  with  a  hearty 
reception  of  this  product  of  the  pen  of  a  Sallow-laborer. 
Tke  Bapdat  Mesaenger  of  Baltimore  says  that  "the  fiust  of  its 
being  published  by  the  American  Baptist  Publication  Society, 
speaks  volumes  of  praise  for  the  book ;"  and  again, — ^"  This  is 
one  of  the  silent,  yet  powerful  agents  at  work  to  break  down 
unreasonable  prejudice,  which  is  a  hindrance  to  both  races." 
7%e  Home  ProUdar  of  Baltimore  says:  ''It  ought  to  be  in 
every  home ;  and  parents  should  secure  it  for  their  children, 
and  see  that  they  read  and  re-read  it,  until  they  make  the 
principles  set  forth  by  the  writer  the  rule  of  their  life.'*  l%t 
NoUtumal  Monitor,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  says:  "The  story  is 
carried  on  in  a  natural,  graphic,  pathetic,  and  deeply 
interesting  way,  through  nineteen  chapters."  The  Soioer  and 
Reaper  says:  "As  a  literary  production,  it  is  a  most 
excellent  book,  a  model  of  perspecuity,  energy  and  elegance." 

The  author  of  "  Clarence  and  Corinne"  feels  confident  that 
there  are  those  among  the  race  who  needed  only  to  know 
that  there  is  a  way  where  there  is  a  will,  to  follow  her 
example,  and  no  doubt  far  surpass  this,  her  first  experience 
in  book-making;  and  she  is  happy  in  knowing  that  come 
what  may,  she  has  helped  her  people. 

These  are  by  no  means  all  of  our  women  in  journalism 
who  have  made  themselves  felt  in  that  sphere  of  life.  A 
host  of  them  are  doing  local  work  upon  newspapers  and 
magazines.  Some  quite  prominent  ones  have  not  as  yet 
been  mentioned. 

Virginia  scored  a  noble  record  for  Afro- American  women 
in  journalism  through  Miss  Caroline  W.  Bragg*8  editorial 
connection  with  The  Virginia  Lancet,  Miss  Bragg  proved 
herself  a  writer  of  much  ability,  and  met  in  a  commendable 
way  the  shots  hurled  at  her  from  male  joumaliBts. 


OUR  WOMEN  IN  JOURNALISM. 


427 


Mrs.  M.  E.  Lambert  of  Detroit,  Mich.,  edited  for  some  time 
&,  MaUhevia  Lyceum  Oazefte,  Mrs.  Lambert  is  a  clever 
gatherer  of  news  and  a  pleasing  writer. 

Mrs.  M.  S.  Crary  was,  for  a  long  time,  editor  of  The 
Provincial  Freeman  of  Canada,  which  was  considered  a  good 
journal. 

Miss  Clanton  of  Chattanooga,  Miss  Lewis  of  Philadelphia, 
Mi's.  F.  J.  Coppin  of  Philadelphia,  Miss  Mason  and  Mrs. 
Frank  Grimcke  of  Washington,  D.  C,  in  common  with  others, 
have  done  good  work  in  journalism,  either  as  reporter, 
contributor  or  regular  correspondent. 

There  are  at  present  distinctive  departments  for  women  in 
The  Afro- American  Budget  and  Tlie  Southland^  the  former 
heing  edited  by  Adah  M.  Taylor,  and  the  latter  by  Mrs. 
A.  G.  Cooper.  These  ladies  are  showing  remarkable  activity 
and  adaptiveness  to  the  work.  Tlie  A.  M.  E.  Review  always 
contains  articles  from  various  of  our  lady  writeis,  while  the 
newspapers  are  constantly  presenting  to  their  readers  some 
contributions  from  our  women  whose  talent  is  being  recog- 
nized. With  them,  there  is  nothing  in  the  past  that  warrants 
any  reason  for  discouragement  for  a  profitable  and  useful  life 
in  this  department  of  labor. 


CHAPTER  XXn. 

OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN  ON  THE  AFRO-AMERI- 
CAN PRESS. 


Author's  Inteoduction  to  Opinions. 

TO  the  unthoughtful  the  following  opinions  which  we  have 
solicited  would  seem  a  matter  of  poor  judgment  upon 
our  part.     In  fact,  some  have  doubted  our  propriety  in 
propounding   such   questions   to  those  who   have   so  kindly- 
given  us  their  views.     This,  of  course,  has  arisen  from  the 
lack  of  knowledge  as  to  our  aim  and  purpose.     All  cannot 
see  alike,  and  it  is  not  expected  that  the  reader  will  accurately 
see  our  purpose  until  it  shall  have  been  explained.     However, 
the  one  who  will  take  the  time  to  give  our  questions  mature 
thought,  will  see,  without  an  explanation,  that  our  purpose,  in 
a  nutshell,  is  to  get  the  expression  of  the  race  aa  to  whether, 
in  their  judgment,  our  press  has  been  fruitful  to  them,  and,  as 
such,  whether  it  has  been  a  success,  with  the  disadvantages 
encumbering  it ;  and  what  they  conceive  to  be  the  achieve- 
ments that  compose  such  a  success.     We  claim,  with  all  the 
right  thinking  people,  that  the  press,  an  expressor  of  the 
popular  will,  is  an  indispensable  part  of  the  nation's  freedom. 
We  claim  that  since  it  purports  to  work  for  a  race's  benefit ; 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  429 

since  it  purports  to  express  a  race's  thougbt  upon  all  questions 
affecting  their  material,  moral,  religious,  social  and  intellectual 
welfare,  their  civil  and  political  rights,  the  race  for  which  it 
labors  is  entitled  to  a  free  expression  as  to  its  success  and 
achievements.  The  question  is  liable  to  arise:  Do  the 
gentlemen  expressing  opinions  herein  represent  the  race  for 
which  the  Press  is  laboring?  The  answer  to  such  question  is 
evident  from  the  fact  that  those  who  here  ofier  their  opinions 
are  among  the  recognized  leaders  of  the  race,  in  the  various 
vocations  of  life.  We  are  fully  confident  the  race  will 
recognize  the  sentiment  here  expressed  as  theirs,  free  and 
unbiased.  We  claim  that  it  is  not  for  the  Press  to  say  that 
it  has  been  successful,  or  what  its  achievements  have  been. 
The  Afro- American  Press  has  guided  a  race  of  freemen  who 
have  been  watching  its  course  with  unabated  interest. 
These  are  the  people  whose  province  it  is  to  declare  what 
the  Press  has  accomplished  and  what  has  heen  its  success. 
Our  Press  continually  claims  a  lack  of  support  upon  the  part 
of  the  race,  for  whose  interest  its  labors  are  especially  directed. 
For  this  reason  we,  as  well  as  the  toiling  A tVo- American 
editor,  desire  to  know  the  cause.  If  the  rea.son  for  non- 
support  be  traceable  to  the  editor,  he  should  know  it;  if  to 
the  people,  they  should  know  it.  It  will  as.suredly  satisfy 
the  editor  to  learn  that  the  cause,  in  a  measure,  lies  at  his 
door,  and  also  at  the  door  of  his  people.  With  such  a 
conclusion  accepted,  the  remedy  can  be  readily  applied. 
The  future  of  the  Afro-American  is  bright,  in  the  majority 
of  instances,  while  deplorably  dark  in  others.  The  object  of 
the  question  is  to  learn  the  general  sentiment  as  to  the 
future  course  of  the  race,  if  it  be  possible.  The  fact  is 
prominent  that  the  answers  will  give  a  unity  of  purpose  in 
the  future  efforts  of  the  Press.  While  these  opinions  are  for 
the  editor  to  ponder  upon,  yet  it  must  be  conceded  that  it  is 
his  prerogative,  after  giving  them  the  thoughtful  consideration 


480  THE  AFBO-AMEBIGAH  FBESS. 

to  which  fhey  are  entitled,  to  acoepi  or  reject  them,  aa  in  hie 
jadgment,  he  deemsbest;  and  then  direct  hia  ooorae  accord- 
inglj.  They  will  aaBoredly  tend  to  hia  enlightenment^  and 
may  aid  him  materially.  We  aay:  Accept  the  good  and 
reject  the  bad. 

The  following  drcolar  was  addresBed  to  the  Hona.  Fred- 
erick DooglaaB,  John  R  Lynch,  Bey.  J.  C.  Price,  D.  D.,*  Bt 
Bey.  Benjamin  W.  Amett^  and  others,  to  which  replies  have 
been  receiyed: 

Ltnchbubg,  Va. 
Deab  Sib: 

I  am  impressed  with  the  idea  that  the  Afro-American 
Press  has  been  a  great  success,  and  that  it  has  wrought 
many  achievements,  and  has  been  a  great  benefit  in  promoting 
race  progress  among  our  people.  I  also  think  that  before 
both  the  religious  and  secular  press  lies  a  vast  field  for  doing 
good  among  our  people. 

Since  this  is  a  fact,  I  have  assumed  the  laborious  task  of 
compiling  the  history  of  Afro-American  journalism  and  its 
editors,  which  will  be  published  in  book  form,  to  be  known 
as  "  The  Afro- American  Press  and  its  Editors."  This  work 
is  expected  to  be  very  comprehensive  and  highly  illustrated. 
An  introductory  sketch  of  the  compiler's  life  and  work  will 
be  prepared  by  Prof.  Daniel  B.  Williams,  professor  of  Greek 
and  Latin  in  the  Virginia  Normal  and  Collegiate  Institute. 
Mr.  Williams  is  the  author  of  "  Science,  Methods  and  Art  of 
Teaching,"  "Life  of  Capt.  R.  A.  Paul,"  etc.,  and  has  the 
well-earned  reputation  of  being  one  of  the  ablest  and  most 
eloquent  writers  among  the  Afro-Americans  of  Virginia.  I 
shall  also  have  the  opinions  of  our  ablest  men,  lawyers, 
ministers,  doctors  and  teachers,  as  to  the  success,  achieve- 
ments and  the  future  prospects  of  the  Afro- American  Press. 

If  you,  as  a  foremost  lawyer,  minister,  doctor,  teacher  or 
politician,  whose  opinion  carries  with  it  pow&  and  infiaencCi 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  481 

will  consent  to  allow  yonr  opinion  to  be  pablished  in  the 
work,  as  coming  from  you,  kindly  answer  the  following 
questions,  carefully  and  concisely,  and  forward  to  me  by 
mail  within  thirty  days:    - 

Do  you  think  the  Press  in  the  hands  of  the  negro  has  been 
a  success? 

In  your  judgment,  what  achievements  have  been  the  result 
of  the  work  of  the  Afro- American  editor  ? 

Do  you  think  the  Press  has  the  proper  support  on  the  part 
of  the  Afro- American?  If  not,  to  what  do  you  attribute  the 
cause? 

What  future  course  do  you  think  the  Press  might  take  in 
promoting  good  among  our  people  ? 

If  you  will  furnish  the  opinion  in  thirty  days,  address  me 
a  postal  card  stating  the  same. 

Yours  for  the  Race, 

I.  GARLAND  PENN. 

Opinion  op  W.  S.  Scabborough,  A.  M.,  LL.  D. 

1st.  I  believe  that  the  Press  in  the  hands  of  the  negro 
lias  fully  demonstrated  the  possibilities  of  the  race,  in  all  the 
xx)atine  of  journalism.  The  success  of  the  negro  journalist 
lias  been  phenomenal^  notwithstanding  the  lack  of  encour- 
agement and  the  indifference  on  the  part  of  those  who  ought 
to  rally  to  his  support.  The  fact  that  the  negro  Press  has 
succeeded,  despite  advei*se  circumstances,  is  conclusive  proof, 
in  my  mind,  that  its  future  is  assured. 

2d.  Among  the  achievements  of  the  Afro-American 
editors,  the  first  and  foremost  has  been  the  establishment  of  a 
closer  bond  of  union  among  us,  by  which  we  have  been 
enabled  to  present  a  solid  front,  make  a  stronger  fight  for 
our  righta,  and  thereby  demand  fair  play  in  the  race  of  life. 
The  negro  editoi^by  virtue  of  his  position,  has  not  only 


432  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PRESS. 

become  a  live  factor  in  our  American  body-politic  aa  a 
dictator  and  molder  of  public  opinion,  in  common  with  the 
white  man,  but  he  is  the  spokesman  of  the  race,  and  the 
guardian  of  its  best  interests.  When  he  falters,  when  he 
becomes  derelict  in  regard  to  duty,  there  will  be  a  percep- 
tible dereliction  among  those  whose  cause  he  represents. 
Seven  millions  of  American  people  are  speaking  through  the 
negro  Press,  or  are  supposed  to,  at  least  Tbeee  journals 
have  become  a  part  of  the  race, — an  inseparable  part,  and  as 
such,  we  are  accustomed  to  turn  to  them  to  plead  our  cause. 
This,  too,  is  an  invaluable  achievement,  well  worth  the  money 
and  time  it  has  cost. 

3d.  The  Press  has  not  had  the  proper  support  on  the 
part  of  the  race.  If  it  had  been  otherwise,  the  humblest 
journal  among  us,  would  have  not  less  than  ten  thousand 
annual  subscribers, — which  is  not  the  case.  Leading  journals, 
such  as  The  Age,  Gazette,  Plaindealer,  World,  Planet,  8eniinel, 
Cbnsorator,  JStar  of  ZUni,  Louisiana  Pelican,  and  others, 
would  surely  have  not  less  than  thirty  thousand  subscribers, 
with  the  bulk  of  negro  advertisements  and  job  printing, 
etc,  etc.  "  Charity  begins  at  home,"  is  an  old  saying ;  but  it 
is  nevertheless  true.  The  negro,  like  other  people,  must 
look  out  for  No.  1.  If  he  fails  to  do  so,  he  is  very  likely 
not  to  succeed.  This  trite  maxim  may  be  studied  with  profit 
by  all  of  us.  If  the  negro  could  be  led  to  see  the  force  of  it, 
and  could  l>e  induced  to  act  accordingly,  we  should  very  sooa 
build  up  permanent  enterprises  of  our  own  that  would  add 
materially* to  the  solution  of  the  so-called  "Negio  Problem.'* 
I  attribute  the  cause  of  the  apathy  on  the  part  of  the  negro, 
at  this  time,  to  the  jealousy  among  the  non-intelligent  and 
to  the  ignorance  of  the  masses.  Time  will  evidently  bring 
about  a  change,  and  the  negro  editor  will  doubtless  see 
better  days.  Further,  the  editor  himself  is  not  always  a 
representative    man;    a    man   in  whom  tqc   people    have 


W  8  8CABB0E0L&H,  A    M    LL  D 


434  THE  AFBO-AMESIOAN  FBEEB. 

implicit  confidence;  a  man  of  mobli  leuning  and  wide 
experience,  whose  character  is  above  leproack;  and,  as  a 
result,  the  people  are  not  drawn  to  him  as  thej  should  he. 
This  is  the  exception,  however,  and  not  the  rule. 

4th.  Above  all,  avoid  printing  danderons  talk  and  state- 
ments against  one's  character,  unless  ita  eridanoe  is  so 
conclusive  that  there  is  no  doabt  as  to  the  guilt  oi  the  paiif 
in  question.  I  would  advise  as  little  puUioatiim  of  this  kind 
as  possible.  Further,  I  would  suggest  more  general  news  of 
a  racial  character,  gleaned  by  agents  located  tlirooglioat  the 
country,  who  make  it  a  specialty  to  gatibisr  eTOiytliing 
pertaining  to  the  moral,  intellectual,  sodal,  religious,  politiosl, 
and  commercial  relations  of  the  race.  Editorials  and  reviews 
of  a  comprehensive  nature  on  all  phases  of  the  race's  progress 
should  be  an  indispensable  part  of  the  joui-nals  of  our  people. 
No  compromise  should  be  allowed  at  the  expense  of  sound 
moriils.  Economy  should  be  advocated,  on  all  lines  where 
extravagance  now  reigns  among  us,  and  the  recognition  of 
the  negro,  in  all  that  the  term  implies,  or,  in  other  words, 
manhood's  rights.  There  should  be  a  vigorous  policy  and  an 
aggressive  movement,  whenever  the  exigencies  of  the  times 
demand  it.  The  race  Urst,  and  the  individual  second,  should 
be  the  editor's  motto. 

If*  the  Press  shoiild  take  this  proper  course,  it  will  be  more 
largely  instrumental  in  promoting  good  among  our  people. 

Opinion  of  Hon.  John  Merceb  Langston. 

Wliatever  appertains  to  the  freedom,  the  rights,  the 
advancement,  the  elevation,  the  prosperity,  the  happiness,  the 
welfare,  of  the  newly  emancipated  classes  of  our  country, 
dwelling  especially  in  the  Southern  section  thereof,  are 
subjects  for  our  thoughts,  our  readings,  our  nans,  our  journals, 
and  our  papers.     We  do  not  live  alone  in  this  great  nation. 


HON.  JOHN  MEBCEB  LAKOSTON. 
435 


436  THE  AFRO-AMEBICAN  PRESS. 

We  are  not  isolated,  neither  indeed  can  we  be.  We  compoee 
a  part  of  the  indivisible  natural  body.  So,  while  it  is  a  fact 
that  our  previous  condition  presents  some  special  wants  and 
lacial  peculiarities,  and  we  may  therefore,  in  some  sense,  be 
considered  a  distinct  branch  of  the  national  population,  yet 
we  require  no  special  appellation  or  peculiar  definition  to 
make  known  our  legal  and  political  status  as  American 
citizens.  Hence,  we  perceive  at  once  that  while  the  mission 
of  our  editors  and  journalists  may  more  especially  pertain  to 
our  class  and  its  interests,  we  may  not  limit  their  work  to 
it.  Whatever  concerns  the  general  welfiare  must  find  in 
them  a  judicious  and  proper  advocacy,  if  they  would  perform 
their  whole  duty  with  wisdom  and  efficiency.  Finally,  then, 
that  which  pertains  to  the  common  and  general  welfare  of 
the  whole  people  of  our  common  government,  a  united,  happy, 
and  prosperous  people,  dwelling  together  in  peace  and 
harmony,  their  education  cared  for  and  fostered,  their 
industry  wisely  maintained  and  promoted,  impartial  justice 
and  right  duly  su})ported  in  their  behalf,  with  their  general 
welfare  conserved,  alone  should  constitute  the  crowning 
consummation  of  our  editors.  May  God  speed  this  consum- 
mation, and  may  their  efforts  contribute  not  a  little  to  this 
end.  Such  is  the  duty  of  the  Afro- American  editor;  but  the 
object  sought  can  not  be  attained  unless  the  editor  insists 
upon  these  things  in  his  journals  and  papers:  First, 
considering  the  fact  we  are  Americans  by  nativity,  the 
measure  of  our  rights,  of  every  sort  and  kind ;  the  measure 
of  our  privileges  and  immunities,  of  every  sort  and  kind ;  the 
measure  of  our  opportunities  and  duties,  of  every  sort  and 
kind,  is  that  which  is  common  to  every  one  who  is  entitled  to 
the  name  and  status  of  American;  and  we  claim  such 
appellation  by  reason  of  our  nativity  alone.  No  surrender 
should  be  made.  Upon  this  point  the  journalists  and  editors 
must  insist  with  all  their  power. 


JOHN  B.  LYNCH. 


438  ItHfi  AFBO-AMEBICAl}  ^&£!8£L 

Secondly,  if  Americans  by  nativity,  we  are  citizeofi,  according 
to  the  opinion  of  the  late  Attomey-Gteneral  Bates,  which  is 
able  and  exhaustive  on  this  matter  of  citizenship;  and  in  the 
light  of  what  he  says,  if  the  law  be  enforced,  every  white 
citizen  will  be  accorded  his  rights,  and  every  colored  one 
will  be  protected  in  his.  The  editor  shoald  say  whether 
this  be  practicable,  for  he  is  the  wielder  of  the  pen  from 
which  should  come  such  information,  either  original  or  quoted, 
as  shall  give  the  mode  and  manner  of  procedure  that  shall 
accomplish  the  purpose  sought. 

Our  editors  should  see  to  it  that  our  race  and  cause  suffer 
no  detriment.  If  ability  be  required,  the  editor  should  have 
it;  if  learning,  he  should  gain  it;  if  sacrifice,  he  should 
cultivate  its  spirit,  and  make  it;  and  in  the  end  he  shall 
gain  the  fruition  of  a  glorious,  crowning  .success. 

There  is  to  be  no  compromise  connected  with  the  manly 
and  fearless  advocacy  of  all  that  pertains  to  the  rights,  the 
elevation,  the  advancement,  the  general  and  equal  good  of 
our  race.  No  mutual  repellency,  sometimes  called  prejudice, 
at  others'  hatred,  whether  claimed  to  grow  out  of  previous 
social  condition  or  complexional  and  race  peculiarities,  must 
be  allowed  to  weigh  even  an  atom  against  our  first  demand 
for  immediate  emancipation  from  every  sort  of  evil, — social, 
political,  or  official  thraldom.  The  editor  is  to  march  boldly 
forward  in  the  discharge  of  his  duty.  He  should  see  that 
our  interests,  especially  so  far  as  our  freedom  and  rights  are 
concerned,  are  in  no  wise  abridged,  circumscribed,  or  destroyed. 

Opinion  of  John  R.  Lynch. 

Your  circular  received.  In  answer  to  the  question,  "  Do 
you  think  the  Press  in  the  hands  of  the  negro  has  been  a 
success?"  I  must  say,  financially.  No ;  but  the  Afro- American 
editor  has  accomplished  some  good  in  shaping  public  opinion 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  439 

in  the  right  direction.  A  majority  of  the  papers  receive, 
perhaps,  as  much  support  as  their  merit  deserves.  Some, 
however,  do  not  receive  what  they  merit.  This,  in  my 
opinion,  is  due  to  two  causes :  First,  the  poverty  and  illiteracy 
prevailing  among  the  blacks,  and,  secondly,  the  inferiority 
of  the  papers  published  as  mediums  of  news. 

To  the  question,  "What  future  course  do  you  think  the 
Press  might  take  in  promoting  good  among  our  people?"  I 
would  say,  the  publication  at  some  imjiortant  point,  the 
the  national  capital,  for  instance,  of  an  ably  edited  daily 
newspaper  which  shall  be  the  equal  of  other  daily  metro- 
politan papers  published  in  different  parts  of  the  country. 
One  such  paper,  with  capital  at  its  back,  and  brains,  integrity, 
and  principles  at  its  head,  would  do  more  good  in  the 
direction  spoken  of  than  all  the  other  colored  papers  in  the 
United  States  combined.  With  suitable  effort  on  the  part  of 
reputable  persons,  I  think  such  a  paper  can  be  established, 
and  would  be  a  success. 

Why  can  not  a  number  of  those  now  engaged  in  the 
publication  of  unimportant  local  papers  unite  their  means 
and  efforts,  and  undertake  the  publication  of  such  a  paper? 

Opinion  of  Dr.  William  H.  Johnson. 

I  do  most  decidedly  think  that  the  Afro-American  Press 
has  been  a  success,  and  is  to-day  doing  a  Plerculean  work 
for  the  up-building,  the  development,  and  the  broadening 
of  the  true  and  manly  character  of  the  A  fro- American.  I 
thank  God  for  it.  Were  it  not  for  the  intelligent  and 
aggressive  Afro-American  editor  of  these  states,  the  Afro- 
American  would  be  in  a  deplorable  condition. 

I  remember  vividly,  with  profound  satisfaction,  the  grand 
pioneer  work  iu  the  anti-slavery  crusade  performed  by  snch 
publications  aa  The  Rama  Horn,  The  Noi'ih  Star,  and  a  paper 


440  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

edited  by  Stephen  Myers  and  his  gifted  wife  Harriet,  in  this 
city,  away  back  in  the  "  forties."  It  was  from  the  teachings 
and  precepts  of  these  advanced  journaUsts,  that  I  received 
my  first  inspiration  for  public  work. 

The  achievements  of  the  Afro-American  editor  have 
resulted  in  the  unification  of  the  Afro-American  people  and 
the  development  of  race  pride,  as  well  as  the  proper  diffusion 
of  knowledge ;  and,  above  all,  in  the  far-reaching  publication 
of  the  educational,  moral,  business,  agricultural,  and  mechanical 
resources  and  capabilities  of  the  race. 

The  A  fro- American  Press  has  not  been  properly  supported 
by  the  race.  There  are  a  hundred  and  one  reasons  that 
might  be  assigned  for  this  state  of  affairs.  It  will  suffice  for 
me  to  say  that  all  these  reasons,  whatever  they  are,  are  fast 
giving  way,  and  a  substantial  and  healthy  sentiment  is 
crystal i zing  in  favor  of  race  papers.  This  is  hopeful  in  the 
extreme. 

Not  being  a  journalist  myself,  I  will  not  venture  an  opinion 
as  to  the  fourth  question.  However,  I  believe  that  the 
Afro-American  Press  is  essential  to  race  development  as  men 
and  citizens,  as  are  the  genial  rays  of  the  sun  and  the  warm 
rains  to  an  abundant  harvest.  The  Afro-American  Press  has 
done  much,  but  there  is  room  to  do  more.  It  can  and  ought, 
withont  fear  or  favor,  to  point  out  to  our  brethren  in  the 
South  the  line  of  policy  that  alone  will  conserve  to  our  best 
and  lasting  interest.  The  Press  can  do  much  in  molding 
public  sentiment,  since  experience  has  demonstrated  beyond 
the  possibility  of  a  doubt  that  laws,  be  they  ever  so  just  and 
proper,  can  not  be  enforced  successfully  against  public  opinion. 

The  sentiment  of  the  old  South  is  to-day  against  a  free 
ballot.  By  forbearance,  discretion,  and  judicious  deportment, 
the  new  South  may  be  enlisted  in  the  cause  of  a  free, 
untrammeled  ballot.  No  people,  once  oppressed,  ever  suc- 
ceeded in   reaching   the  goal   of  their  ambition,   none   ever 


iVIl  I  I  iM  II    JOHNSON. MD. 


442  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PRESS. 

demoDjitrated  their  claima  to  pre-eminence  and  distinction, 
except  through  triala  and  much  suffering.  The  Afro- 
American  is  no  exception  to  this  rule.  The  guarantees  in  the 
amended  Constitution  are  all  right;  so,  also,  are  the  enforce* 
ment  laws  on  the  statute  books.  The  l^acy  is  ours.  Our 
cause  is  in  the  courts  of  public  opinion,  and  if  our  adyocatee 
are  strong,  learned,  zealous  and  untiring,  the  verdict  in  the 
end  will  justify  our  dearest  hopes. 

Opihion  07  Pnor.  Fbavx  Tbimw 

I  think  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  n^pro  press  has 
been   a  success.     My  opinion  is,  that  the  Press  voices  the 

feelings  of  the  public  toward  the  negro,  and  puts  him  upon 
a  more  amicable  plane  with  respect  to  all  nations,  both 
abroad  and  in  America ;  and  it  has  presented  the  true  status 
of  our  race,  so  that  a  fair  mind  could  not  be  mistaken  in  its 
comprehension  of  the  great  questions  relative  to  the  negro. 

Were  it  not  for  the  negro  Press,  the  country  would  be  in 
comparatively  total  darkness  as  to  the  negro's  real  condition, 
on  all  the  lines  of  human  treatment  and  improvement ;  and 
his  freedom  might  as  well  be  taken  from  him,  as  to  deprive 
him  of  his  journalistic  privileges.  In  my  opinion,  the  greatest 
boon  of  our  American  citizenship  is  the  free  Press;  quench  it, 
and  we  shall  begin  to  wane. 

Many  of  our  papers  are  shamefully  neglected.  We  should 
ascertain  which  of  them  deserve  to  live  and  which  should 
die;  and  that  as  early  as  possible.  I  fear  that  the  poor 
support  of  our  Press  is  largely  due  to  the  lack  of  a  proper 
conception  the  majority  of  the  race  have  of  the  importance  of 
its  unity,  and  of  its  concert  of  action  in  all  matters  pertaining 
to  the  race's  weal  or  woe.  Our  daily  papers  should  be  more 
liberally  patronized  by  our  people.  The  negro  Press  has  no 
specific  lines  upon  which  to  move,  other  than  the  presentation 


Prof  FEA^K  TEIGG 


444  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PBESS. 

of  thoee  facts  which  look  to  the  np-bnildiiig  of  the  noe. 
It  is  certain  that  the  fatare  negro  Press  will  be  more 
liberally  supported,  because  each  succeeding  generation  will 
perceive  its  duty  more  clearly  with  respect  to  its  newspapers, 
and  thereby  enable  them  to  be  improved,  year  by  year. 

Opinion  of  Pbof.  D.  Augustus  Stsaksb. 

To  the  question,  Do  you  think*  the  Press  in  the  hands  of 
the  negro  has  been  a  success?  which  is  a  very  general  inquiry, 
I  answer  generally,  Tes.  Whatever  may  have  been  the 
failures  in  the  management  of  journalism  by  the  negro, 
however  poor  the  financial  profit  has  been  to  one  and  all 
engaged  in  this  pursuit,  yet  the  net  result  shows  success,  and 
not  failure.  To-day  we  have  newspapers  published  by  the 
negro,  which  demand  and  receive  the  recognition  of  competent 
journalists,  who  once  stood  as  uncompromising  critics,  and 
non-believers  in  the  capacity  of  the  negro  for  intellectual 
advancement.  The  Press,  in  the  hands  of  the  negro,  has 
been  a  success  in  the  work  of  the  education  of  white 
Americans  respecting  the  manhood  and  capacity  for  advance- 
ment of  the  negro. 

The  second  question  is  so  intimately  connected  with  the 
former,  that  the  answer  to  it  must  be  regarded  as  a  continua- 
tion of  that  to  the  first.  The  achievements  of  the  Press  in 
the  hAnds  of  the  negro  have  been  numerous.  After  the 
schools,  the  Press  has  done  more  for  the  intellectual  advance- 
ment of  the  negro  than  anything  else ;  and  in  his  moral 
advancement  it  has  been  the  efficient  handmaid  of  the  church. 
Before  the  publication  of  newspapers  by  the  Afio- American, 
little  or  nothing  was  known  of  the  true  status  of  the  negro 
in  America.  Prejudice  and  blind  unbelief  of  others  placed 
him  on  the  lowest  round  of  the  ladder.  We  were  unknown 
in  history,  in  art,  in  science  and  in  industry.    Through  the 


PROF.  D-  AUGUSTUS  8TBAKEB,  LL.  D. 


446  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

work  of  the  Afro-American  editor,  the  public  to-day  under- 
stands to  what  extent  the  negro  is  a  tax-payer.  lu  regard  to 
his  millions  of  dollars  in  property,  his  school-houses,  churches, 
private  dwellings  and  his  bank  deposits,  the  country  is  now 
well  informed.  His  place  and  achievements  in  the  schools 
and  universities  are  known.  If  his  rights  are  violated,  the 
fact  is  proclaimed  and  his  oppressor  denounced.  His 
writings  are  published.  Indeed,  to  my  mind,  the  Press,  in 
the  hands  of  the  Afro- American  editor,  is  doing  the  work  of 
reviving  the  lost  arts  among  us,  and  pointing  us  to  the  way 
to  success  on  the  one  hand  and  the  achievements  of  the  race 
on  the  other. 

Unquestionably,  I  answer  No  to  the  third  question.  I 
attribute  the  cause,  first,  to  our  financial  weakness  as  a  race, 
and,  secondly,  because  our  journals  are  too  much  African, 
instead  of  American,  thus  keeping  our  minds,  as  a  race, 
isolated  from  the  great  mass  of  American  citizens,  instead  of 
making  us  a  pnrt  of  the  great  whole. 

To  the  fourth  question,  I  would  say  to  the  Afro-American 
Press  go  ahead  in  the  course  you  are  pursuing.  Let  justice 
be  your  gui<le,  integrity  your  sword  of  defense,  and  virtue 
your  pedestal.  Teach  the  people  that  rights  which  are 
worthy  of  being  received  should  be  protected,  even  at  the 
cost  of  their  lives.  We  must  die  to  rise  again.  This  should 
be  the  motto  of  our  journals. 

Opinion  of  Prof.  B.  T.  Washington. 

Few  agencies  for  the  uplifting  of  the  colored  people  have 
accomplished  more  good  than  the  negro  newspapei*s.  These 
papers  have  served  to  create  race  confidence,  in  that  they 
have  taught  the  colored  people  that  the  colored  man  could 
manage  a  business  requiring  the  out-lay  of  money,  brains 
and  push  that  a  newspaper  enterprise  demands.    The  colored 


PEOt    B   T    W  \t^r^^OTON 


448  THE  AFBO-AHEBIOAIT  FBE88. 

editors  hare  rendered  moet  valiuble  senrioe  to  ilie  c«im  at 
edacation  hj  conatantly  itimaUting  Mid  eDCOonging  oar 
people  to  educate  themaelves  and  their  children. 

The  papers  have  served  as  edooaton  to  the  white  noe,  in 
matters  that  pertain  to  the  progress  of  Uie  negro.  The  white 
preaa  readily  aeea  onr  dark  side,  bat  is  not  dl^oeed,  ■■  • 
rule,  to  go  far  out  of  ita  way  to  let  the  world  Imow  of  the 
negro's  advancement. 

The  work  of  the  colored  newsp^iers  has  tbns  &r  been  nte 
of  love  and  self-sacrifice,  few  if  anj  of  than  paying  in 
dollars  and  cents;  but  there  hoa  been  evident  growth,  both 
in  the  make-up  of  the  papers  and  in  the  paid  circulation, 
and  I  apprehend  that  the  day  is  not  for  distant  when  they 
will  bring  in  an  encouraging  revenue.  Already  Mr.  B.  T, 
Harvey  is  publishing  in  Golnmbue,  Ga.,  a  colored  daily,  and 
he  seems  to  be  supported  in  his  efforts  to  an  encouraging 
degree, 

Ofinioh  of  Hon.  F&edebice  Dodblass. 

Ist.     Yes,  but  only  as  a  beginning. 

2d.  It  Las  demonstrated,  in  lai^e  measure,  the  mental 
and  literary  possibilities  of  the  colored  race. 

3il.  I  do  not  tbink  that  the  Preaa  has  been  properly 
Bupported,  and  I  find  the  cause  in  the  fact  that  the  reading 
public,  among  colored  people,  as  among  all  other  people,  will 
spend  its  money  for  what  seems  to  them  best  aud  cheapest. 
Colored  papers,  from  their  antecedents  and  surroundings,  cost 
more,  and  give  their  readers  leas,  than  papers  and  publications 
by  white  men. 

4th.  I  think  that  the  course  to  be  pursued  by  the  colored 
Freas  is  to  say  lees  about  race  and  claims  to  race  recognition, 
and  more  about  the  principles  of  justice,  liberty,  and  patriot- 
ism.    It  should  say  more  of  what  we  ought  to  do  for  omselveB, 


HON.  FBEDEBICE  DOUOLASa 


450  THE  AFBO-AMESIOAN  PBESa 

and  less  about  what  the  Goyernmeiit  ought  to  do  for  qb; 
more  in  the  interest  of  morality  and  economy,  and  less  in  the 
interest  of  office-getting;  more  in  commending  the  fiuAfol 
and  inflexible  men  who  stand  up  for  our  rights,  and  leas  for 
the  celebration  of  balls,  parties,  and  brilliant  entertainments; 
more  in  respect  to  the  duty  of  the  Government  to  protect  and 
defend  the  colored  man's  rights  in  the  South,  and  leas  in 
puffing  individual  men  for  office;  less  of  arrogant  asBomptim 
for  the  colored  man,  and  more  of  appreciation  of  his  disad- 
vantages, in  comparison  with  those  of  other  yaiieties  of  men 
whose  opportunities  have  been  broader  and  bcftter  than  his. 

Opinion  of  Bev.  A.  A.  Bublsigh. 

I  am  of  the  opinion,  let.,  That  if  we  judge  journalistic 
pursuits  in  the  light  of  the  vicissitudes  common  to  it  as  a 
business,  Afro-American  journalism  will  compare  favorably 
with  that  of  any  other  class  in  our  country. 

2d.  I  am  of  the  opinion  that,  as  a  lucrative  business,  it 
has  been  largely  a  failure;  but  viewed  from  the  higher 
standpoint  of  worth  and  usefulness,  its  success  and  achieve- 
ments are  as  unique  and  unprecedented  as  has  been  the 
progress  of  our  race  in  other  respects,  because  (a)  it  has 
largely  furnished  a  causeway  and  outlet  for  our  stifled  public 
sentiment,  and  given  public  expression  to  the  under-current 
of  thought  among  our  people,  the  8i?ic  qua  won  of  freedom 
and  happiness;  (6)  it  has  greatly  assisted  in  the  unifying 
and  centralizing  of  this  thought,  thus  infusing  a  spirit  of 
ambition  and  activity  in  the  hearts  of  our  people. 

8d.  I  am  of  the  opinion,  that  our  Press  has  had  neither  a 
fair  and  adequate  support  nor  recognition  from  our  race. 
The  causes  are  far-reaching  and  varied.  Among  them  may 
be  noticed :  (a)  Lack  of  confidence  and  appreciation  among 
the  masses;  a   spirit  inoculated  by  the  subtile  influence  of 


REV.  A.  A.  BUIlLEIGir,  A.  M. 


452  THE  AFRO-AMEBIOAN  PBESS. 

slavery;  (&)  unequal  competition  with  est&bliahed  oomnt 
literature ;  (c)  intellectual  and  financial  inability,  as  manifested 
in  collecting,  selecting,  classifying,  and  arranging  matter;  (I 
have  reference  here,  not  to  appearance  on  the  printed  psge 
but  to  its  fitness,  force  and  character,)  also,  a  fieulure  to  get 
into  the  markets  and  homes. 

4th.  The  future  course  of  our  Press.  This,  doubtless, 
would  ap})ear  to  be  suggested  from  what  has  been  said.  Let 
me  add,  that,  as  a  fact,  the  colored  man's  success  in  every 
avocation  will  depend,  not  so  much  at  being  at  '*par*'  with 
the  white  man,  but  the  circumstances  force  it,  and  the  future 
demands,  that  he  should  be  par-excellent  to  the  average  white 
man ;  not  that  he  must  know  more,  or  be  more  wealthy,  but 
his  standard  must  be  higher.  Loyalty  to  the  eternal 
principles  which  alone  can  secure  human  success  and 
happiness,  must  be  his  constant  and  single  aim. 

Opinion  of  James  T.  Still,  M.  D. 

I  think  from  my  limited  acquaintance  with  negro  jour- 
nalism, I  am  not  able  to  give  unqualified,  positive  or  negative 
answers  to  the  questions  in  regard  to  the  Press  in  the  hands 
of  the  negro.  If  a  statement  of  my  opinions  may  be  of  any 
value,  they  are  as  follows:  I  think  the  negro  has,  upon  the 
whole,  done  an  immense  amount  of  good,  not  for  his  race 
only  but  for  the  American  people  also,  by  the  part  he  has 
taken  in  journalism.  Witliin  a  few  years,  his  participation  in 
this,  to  him,  new  occupation,  has,  by  the  fascinating,  conta- 
gious fever  of  imitation,  rivalry,  and  emulation,  caused 
hundreds  of  our  people,  young  and  old,  male  and  female,  to 
bring  forward  their  thoughts,  ideas,  and  desires  before  the 
public ;  it  is  true,  too  generally,  in  rude  garb,  chirographically, 
typographically,  grammatically,  and  rhetorically;  yet,  upon 
the  whole,  the  volumes  of  these  compositions  have  been  of 


JAMES  T.  STILL,  M.  D. 


454  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PBESS. 

great  value,  and  a  better  understanding  has  been  eatabliahed 
between  the  two  races  that  might  never  have  existed  other- 
wise. Heuce,  I  think  the  Press  in  the  hands  of  the  negro  has 
•been  a  great  success.  It  has  been  supported  as  well,  probably, 
as  could  have  been  reasonably  expected.  Bemembering  our 
position  and  condition  when  this  new  vocation  was  first 
eagerly  entered  into, — so  much  ignorance  and  want  of  general 
culture  existing  among  us,  it  seems  but  natural  that  envy, 
jealousy  and  strifes,  the  children  of  this  ignorance  on  the  one 
side,  and  possibly  a  consciousness  of  snperioriiy,  imaginaiy  or 
real,  on  the  other,  has  caused  much  less  support  to  be  given 
to  negro  journals  than  ambitious  or  verdant  editors  anticipated. 
I  think  the  future  of  the  negro  press  will  be  bright,  if 
conducted  upon  wise  and  business-like  principles.  Its  motto 
should  be  one  adapted  to  all  ventures  that  hope  for  life  and 
progress,  viz:  Excelsior.  In  order  to  advance  under  this 
noble  banner,  our  editors  should  adopt  some  such  gene i-al  rules 
as  these,  which  must  be  surely  winning  ones:  Originality, 
accuracy,  truthfulness,  promptness,  manly  independence. 
Thus  conducted,  I  believe  we  should  soon  have  one  of  tlip 
gi'eatest  and  grandest  forces  for  the  promotion  of  invaluable 
good  among  the  Afro-American  people. 

Opinion  of  Ex-Gov.  P.  B.  S.  Pinchback. 

I  think  that  the  Afro- American  Press  has  done  good,  but 
has  fallen  far  short  of  being  a  success.  It  is  not  half 
sui)ported.  This  is  owing  to  several  causes,  viz:  Illiteracy 
of  the  Afro-American  masses,  and  the  abundance  of  other 
and  much  better  publications,  etc.,  etc..  If  the  Afro- 
American  Press  will  assail  more  vigorously  the  enemies  of 
the  people  it  represents,  adhere  strictly  to  principles,  be 
lenient  in  criticising  the  A  fro- Americans,  and  elevate  their 
moral  tone,  it  will  accomplish  much  good.     I  advise  leniency 


GOV   PES  PI^CUBiCK 


458  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS, 

in  critifising  the  fanll«  of  the  A  fro- American,  because  tliei 
enemies  never  fail  to  cril.icise  them  without  slint. 


Opimos  OF  Bishop  Benjakib  W.  Arsett,  D.  D. 

There  is  but  one  answer  to  ths  finit  questiou,  oo  matter 
from  whftt  ataadpoiat  I  look  at  it,  whether  na  to  number, 
rircuiaiion,  or  editorial  ability  displayed  in  the  columua  of 
the  A  fro*  American  newspaper.  Aa  regards  number,  I  can 
.  remember  when  we  had  only  one  journal  in  the  country,  77itf 
Mystery,  published  by  that  grand  hero  and  pioneer.  Dr. 
Martin  R.  Delaney,  in  1847.  In  1848,  the  A.  M.  E.  church 
started  Tlie  Chrialian  Herald,  the  first  religion  a  paper 
controlled  by  colored  men.  Rev.  A  K.  Green  was  moonger 
and  editor. 

Frederick  Douglass  entered  the  journaliatic  world  and 
pleaded  the  cause  of  bis  race,  on  two  continenta,  with  both 
tongue  and  pen.  Others  followed,  until  to-day  over  two 
hundred  intelligent  colored  men  are  engaged  in  speaking 
for  the  race  by  their  journals,  in  almost  every  state  of  the 
Union. 

Some  think  that  there  ia  no  necessity  for  colored  news- 
papers; that  papers  owned  and  controlled  by  white  men 
would  answer  all  purposes;  but  I  think  that  it  is  as  essential 
to  have  a  newspaper  to  speak  for  us  as  a  race,  as  it  is  for 
each  individual  to  have  a  mouth  and  a  tongue  to  speak  his 
own  sentiments.  It  is  impossible  for  a  white  man  to  enter 
into  the  ai«pirations  of  another  race,  as  one  who,  when  he 
e:tpresses  his  own  aspirations,  expresses  theirs  also.  We 
must  have  some  one  who  can  understand  our  position  from 
within  and  without,  and  present  it  to  the  world  in  tha 
strongest  light. 

Now,  whether  the  Afro- American  newspapers  are  supported 
as  well   as  they  ought  to  be :     They  are  not  receiving  the 


BISHOP  BENJAMIN  W.  ARNETT,  D.  D. 


458  THE  AFBO-AMERIGAN  FBESS. 

support  I  would  like  them  to  have.  But  there  are  aevenl 
things  to  be  considered  in  explanation.  We  have  had  only 
twenty-five  years  of  training,  in  the  matter  of  a  taste  fiur 
reading  newspapers.  Previoos  to  that  time  we  were  not 
allowed  to  read  the  Bible,  much  less  a  newspaper.  It  is  a 
very  hard  thing  to  overcome  in  manhood  and  old  age,  the 
habits  of  youth;  so  we  have  had  to  acquire  the  ability  to 
read,  and  create  a  taste  for  it,  within  the  short  space  of 
twenty  years.  It  is  marvelous,  therefore,  to  perceive  that  we 
have  done  so  well.  There  is  no  historical  parallel,  to  it 
The  people  need  to  be  congratulated  rather  than  censured, 
for  the  manner  in  which  they  support  newspapers. 

Many  of  our  people  buy  other  than  Afro- American  news- 
papors ;  therefore  we  mu.«t  not  take  the  list  of  subscribers  to 
Afro-Americiiii  journals  as  the  full  representation  of  their 
support  of  newspapers.  There  is  no  class  of  persons  who  take 
as  many  newspapers  and  buy  as  many  books  as  the  Afro- 
American,  North  and  South,  according  to  population  and 
wealth.  There  is  a  large  number  of  agents  for  books  and 
periodicals,  entirely  supported  by  the  Afro-American.  The 
Afro-American  Press  ought  to  utilize  these  men  and  make 
them  contribute  to  the  success  of  black  as  well  as  white 
enterprises.  These  people  will  take  papers  printed  by  white 
men,  if  they  are  brought  to  tlieir  door;  but  if  the  Afro- 
American  newspaper  was  brouglit  to  the  door  in  competition, 
nine  times  out  of  ten  the  Afro- American  paper  would  be 
taken. 

As  to  the  fourth  question,  I  say, — First :  Let  those  who 
write  do  so  from  beneath  the  shadow  of  the  Cross,  and  teach 
the  people  that  the  Gospel  is  more  potential  than  dynamite ; 
that  men  can  do  much,  but  God  can  do  more;  that  it  is  better 
to  trust  in  the  Lord  and  their  own  individual  efforts,  than  it 
is  to  trust  in  any  political  organization. 

Secondly:     The  next  good  thing  the  Press  can  do,  is  to 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  459 

organize  the  moral  and  religious  forces  and  set  them  in 
motion  to  bring  the  pulpit,  printing-press,  school-room, 
college,  board  of  trade,  and  farm,  in  communication  with 
each  other,  and  fight  against  sin,  crime,  intemperance, 
ignorance  and  poverty ;  to  cultivate  in  every  man  a  personal 
pride,  in  every  home  a  family  pride,  in  every  individual  a 
race  pride ;  to  encourage  charitable  and  benevolent  societies 
and  the  organization  of  co-operative  associations;  to  support 
each  other  in  business,  encourage  young  men  to  learn  trades, 
and  to  start  some  in  business. 

Thirdly:  By  encouraging  the  formation  of  organizations 
for  the  care  of  the  living,  instead  of  burying  the  dead ;  to  buy 
clothes,  instead  of  shrouds;  to  buy  houses,  instead  of  coffins; 
to  buy  lots  in  the  city  of  the  living,  instead  of  in  the  city  of 
the  dead;  and  to  teach  our  people  that  money,  education, 
religion,  morality  and  integrity,  are  the  powers  of  race 
elevation;  that  the  spelling  book,  Bible,  and  blank  book  are 
as  potential  as  the  ballot,  and  that  one  of  the  greatest  needs 
of  the  race  is  "commercial  power."  We  cannot  enjoy,  to  its 
fullest  extent,  our  social,  civil,  political  and  religious  rights, 
without  the  aid  of  it. 

Opinion  of  Rev.  J.  C.  Price,  D.  D. 

Yes,  I  think  the  Press  in  the  hands  of  the  negro  has  been  a 
decided  success,  especially  if  we  take  into  consideration  the 
great  disadvantages  under  which  the  negro  has  labored. 
The  Afro-American  editor  has  been  instrumental  in  demon- 
strating the  intellectual  capability  of  the  race  and  its  eminent 
fitness  for  literary  work.  He  has  been  the  means  of  informing 
the  public  as  to  the  negro's  development,  achievements  and 
progress.  I  do  not  think  that  the  Press  has  received  a  proper 
support  on  the  part  of  the  Afro- American.  This  is  attribu- 
table to  more  than  one  cause.     In  the  first  place,  the  masses 


460  THE  AFBO-AMEBICAN  PBES8. 

are  unedacated,  and,  as  a  matter  of  course,  they  do  not  take 
to  literary  enterprises.  We  are  permitted,  however,  to  hope 
for  more  encouragement  in  the  near  and  distant  future. 

Secondly :  Some  of  the  Press  are  a  little  to  blame  for  this 
lack  of  support.  A  great  many  newspapers  have  been  of  the 
mushroom  order;  they  spring  up  in  a  day  and  die  equally  as 
soon.  Subscriptions  are  often  paid,  and  one  or  two  copies  of 
the  })aper  received,  and  then  it  is  reported  dead.  On  account 
of  such  ezpeiiences  the  confidence  of  the  people  and  the 
Press  is  greatly  shaken. 

Thirdly :  The  Press  has  not  always  made  itself  attractive. 
Some  papers  contain  a  few  locals,  but  real  food  for  thought 
aud  instruction  has  not  always  been  given  the  reader,  I 
am  glad  to  know  there  are  notable  exceptions.  There  are 
Afro- American  editors  who  expect  the  people  to  take  their 
journals,  simply  from  the  fact  they  are  published  by  coloied 
men,  and  not  because  they  give  an  equivalent  for  value 
received,  in  the  make-up  of  their  paper. 

As  to  the  future  course  of  the  Press  in  promoting  good 
among  our  people,  I  think  it  well  first  to  inspire  contidenoe 
ius  to  its  stability  and  devotion  to  the  interests  of  the  race ; 
and  at  all  times  to  take  an  uncompromising  stand  against 
those  who  outrage,  oppress  and  malign  the  negro.  I  now, 
and  always,  hope  to  be  the  friend  of  the  Press,  and  shall  be 
glad  to  do  all  I  can  to  advance  its  interests. 

Opinion  of  Prof.  Geobge  E.  Stephens. 

Ist.  The  negro  Press  has  been  a  success,  relatively 
speaking.  I  do  not  understand  the  question  to  have  an 
absolute  sweep.  There  are  many  milestones  between  it  and 
its  goal  to  be  reached  yet.  In  my  opinion,  paradoxical  as  it 
may  seem,  its  true  success  will  have  been  reached  when  our 
Press  ceases  to  depend  entirely  upon  the  negro  for  support, 


PBOF.  OEOBOB  E.  STEPHENS. 


462  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  FRE80. 

and  shall  have  assimilated  fully  with  the  white  Preas,  and 
be  considered  a  component  part  of  the  news-bearing  instm- 
ments  of  our  country,  and,  I  might  add,  of  the  world. 

2d.  The  achievements  of  the  Afro-American  editor  have 
been  of  a  twofold  character,  and  they  presage  the  final 
triumph,  if  he  adjust  his  views  to  the  advancement  of  the 
public  thought ;  or  if  he  keep  pace  with  the  progressive  ideas 
appertaining  to  a  wide-awake  country  and  age  like  ours. 
His  constituents,  when  he  first  began  to  mold  public  sentiment 
among  them,  had  small  conception  of  the  power  of  the  Press. 
In  the  years  that  have  elapsed  a  change  has  been  going  on, 
and  the  negro  has  given  tangible  proof  of  it  in  the  increased 
patronage  he  has  given  his  own  Press. 

3d.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  state  that  the  efficiency  of 
the  negro  Press  is  the  measure  of  its  support.  I  have  already 
intimated  that  our  newspapers  must  be  cosmopolitan.  An 
intelligent  man  wishes  to  know  the  doings  of  all  the  people 
of  his  own  country  and  of  the  civilized  world.  The  nofryn 
is  but  a  fractional  part  of  it.  A  paper  that  purports  to 
contain  the  news  must  be  a  medium  of  it  all.  In  looking  ;it 
the  negro  Press  from  this  standard,  it  is  clearly  seen  that  it 
lacks  proper  support  from  those  for  whom  it  is  especially 
published. 

4th.  While  party  fealty,  according  to  the  .shibboleth  of 
very  modern  politics,  deserves  recognition,  it  may  be  safe  to 
assert  that  the  great  masses  of  all  parties  are  far  more 
interested  in  good  government  than  in  political  preferment. 
The  negro's  attention  should  never  be  divorced  from  an 
intelligent  appreciation  of  and  interest  in  the  afiairs  and 
principles  of  good  government;  but  he  needs  to  be  told 
plainly,  positively,  and  continually,  that  neither  parties  nor 
office  can,  in  themselves,  bring  him  place,  unchanging  power, 
and  unfailing  consideration  in  this  country. 

Far  greater  attention,  now  and  for  a  long  time  to  come, 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  463 

needs  to  be  given  to  the  principles  of  political  economy  and 
to  tlieir  practical  exemplification  among  us.  The  money 
men  of  the  race  should  invest  in  enterprises  calculated  to 
give  us  a  standing  in  the  great  mining,  manufacturing,  and 
commercial  pursuits  of  the  land. 

The  negro  must  be  taught  thorough  race  pride  and  confi- 
dence. He  should  be  urged  to  combine  in  various  kinds  of 
business  enterprises,  and  pay  less  attention  to  petty  organiza- 
tions, limited  largely  to  ministrations  to  the  sick  and  the 
burial  of  the  dead.  If  the  papers  will  discuss  the  welfare  of 
the  race  along  these  lines,  a  reformation  and  revolution  will 
take  place,  that  must  bring  the  negro  and  his  Press  in 
thorough  aasimilation  with  his  country  and  age.  This  may 
not  come  in  the  memory  of  the  youngest  child  now  living; 
still  it  must  come,  and  if  the  acquisition  of  this  power  rests 
upon  good  character,  nothing  beneath  the  sun  can  dispkce 
the  negro. 

Opinion  of  Hon.  Josiah  T.  Settle,  LL.  B. 

Considering  the  anany  difhculties  whicli  the  negro  has 
encountered  in  journalism,  the  Press  in  liis  hands,  has  been 
as  great  a  success  a^s  tlioughtful  men  couKl  have  anticipated. 
When  his  opportunities  to  prepare  himself  for  journal  ism, 
and  the  length  of  time  he  has  been  actively  engaged  in  it,  and 
the  field  to  which  his  opportunities  are  ])rin(i pally  confined 
are  considered,  there  can  be  no  question  as  to  ihe  suecesK  uf 
the  Press  in  the  hands  of  the  negro.  No  other  race,  l.-dxiring 
under  the  same  difficulties,  has,  in  the  same  time,  dune  as 
well. 

The  Afro- American  editor  has  demonstrated  the  capacity 
of  his  race  to  win  success  and  distinction  in  every  dej^arlment 
of  life  in  which  he  finds  his  white  brother  a  competitor.  He 
has,  by  his  capacity  for  his  work,  both  natural  and  acquired, 


464  THE  AFBO-AMEBIGAM  PRESS. 

demoiisti-ated  to  the  world  that  he  doM  not  repreaent  a  race 
of  mere  iiuitaton,  but  a  race,  which,  ander  the  same  oonditioiu, 
is  capable  of  doing  all  the  Anglo-Saxon  race  cai(  accomplinh. 

No  agency  has  been  more  potent  in  compelling  a  just 
recognition  of  the  negro,  as  a  man  and  a  citisen,  than  the 
Press  in  his  hands.  Through  this  agency  he  shows  what  the 
race  is  doing  in  the  world  of  letters  and  in  all  the  other 
depai-tments  of  life,  with  a  minuteness  which  would  otherwise 
be  impossible ;  thereby  inspiring  an  earnestness  and  enthusiasm 
in  his  own  race,  and  compelling  the  respect  and  admiration 
of  all  otlierH.  Through  his  paper,  the  editor  stamps  his 
individuality  upon  the  public  opinion  of  the  day,  and  this 
individuality  permeates  the  entire  field  of  his  circulation, 
making  him  a  part  of  the  body  politic,  and  gives  him  a 
power  for  good  or  evil,  which  no  other  agency  possibly  can. 
The  editor  is  a  daily  teacher  and  the  reading  public  are  his 
pupils,  and  with  a  well-filled  mind  and  a  trenchant  pen,  his 
capacity  for  good  is  only  limited  by  his  ability  and  his 
industry. 

The  A  fro- American  editor  has  done  more,  probably,  than 
any  other  to  acquaint  the  world  with  the  exact  condition  of 
his  race,  and  to  him,  more  than  any  other,  belongs  the  credit 
and  honor  of  opening  the  way  through  w^hich  the  negro  is 
able  to  make  his  just  demands  upon  those  in  high  places,  to 
whom  is  intrusted  the  ^niardianship  of  every  right  that 
belongs  lo  him  as  a  man  and  a  citizen,  as  well  as  n  member 
of  a  political  party.  Pie  has  made  it  impossible  to  oppress 
his  race  in  socrccv  and  silence,  and  has  established  a  sure 
and  permanent  mvdium  through  which  the  doings  for  and 
against  his  race  are  given  to  the  world.  He  has  done  all 
this  and  more ;  he  has  exploded  the  doctrine  of  race  inferi- 
ority, and  established  the  moral  and  intellectual  equality  of 
his  race,  as  well  as  his  ability  to  win  success  and  distinction, 
whenever  and  wherever  the  opportunity  is  given. 


BON.  JOSIAH  T.  SETTLE,  LL. 


466  THE  AFRO-AMERIOAN  PRESS. 

Not  being  connected  with  the  Press,  but  actively  eugaged 
in  the  practice  of  the  law,  I  can  not  say  to  what  extent  the 
Press  is  supported  by  the  Afro- American.  That  it  should 
receive,  at  his  hands,  all  the  support  necessary  to  insure  its 
success,  should  not  for  a  moment  be  questioned.  If  the 
proper  support  is  withheld,  the  cause  may  rest  with  both  the 
members  of  the  Press  and  the  people.  The  editor  should 
strive  to  make  his  paper  the  equal  of  any  of  its  kind,  giving 
his  readers  as  much,  both  in  quantity  and  quality,  as  any 
other  paper  of  a  similar  size  and  character.  The  negro  has 
passed  the  point  in  life  when  mere,  printed  matter  satisfies 
his  reader's  appetite ;  he  wants  food  for  thought. 

He  should  have  current  news  of  the  day.  The  scissors 
can  not  always  supply  the  place  of  brains  in  the  editorial 
chair,  and  while  we  may  not,  and  do  not,  expect  the  associate 
pre^  news  to  be  contained  in  all  of  our  journals,  we  do 
expect  such  news  as  will  inform  us  upon  all  the  important 
issues  of  the  day,  and  suet  editorials  as  will  educate  the 
readers  upon  questions  of  public  import.  Less  society  news, 
and  more  general  information,  would  impart  a  healthier  tone 
to  most  of  our  race  journals.  In  fact,  business,  and  not 
sentiment,  is  what  the  masses  want. 

When  our  race  journals  present  the  best  medium  of  reaching 
the  masses  of  our  people,  the  business  men  of  a  community 
will  not  be  slow  to  avail  themselves  of  their  use.  Sentiment 
and  prejudice  can  not  weigh  against  business  principles  and 
business  interests,  and  the  more  business  our  journals 
represent,  the  more  readers  they  will  reach.  We  can  not 
expect  support  and  patronage  for  an  inferior  journal  because 
it  happens  to  come  from  our  race ;  nor  can  the  reading  public 
expect  an  inferior  article  at  superior  prices  and  with  inditferent 
suj^port.  The  annual  conventions  held  by  the  Afro-Ameri- 
can members  of  the  Press,  are  doing  a  great  work  in  extending 
its  usefulness, 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  467 

My  opinion  as  to  what  future  course  the  Press  should 
take  to  promote  the  good  of  our  people,  may  be  expressed  in 
a  very  few  words :  Have  all  of  our  people,  as  far  as  possible, 
read  our  papers,  and  then  make  our  papers  just  what  they 
should  be.  The  Press  must  devise  its  own  means  of 
extending  its  field  of  operation,  and  our  people  must  open 
their  hearts  and  purses.  The  direct  benefits  resulting  will 
be  reciprocal,  and  as  a  result  the  highest  and  best  interest  of 
our  oppressed  race  will  be  promoted. 

Opinion  of  Hon.  Jere  A.  Brown. 

Allow  me  to  say,  first,  that  I  know  the  Press  in  the  hands 
of  the  negro  has  been  a  success,  when  and  wherever  it  has 
been  conducted  in  the  interest  of  the  race  and  not  for 
self-aggrandizement  or  mercenary  motives.  In  arriving  at 
this  conclusion  my  mind  reverts  to  the  events  of  the  past 
forty  years,  when  I  read,  for  the  fi;st  time,  a  newspaper, 
owned  and  edited  and  controlled  by  the  late  Major  M.  R. 
Delaney,  known  as  TJie  Mystei'y,  and  published  at  Pittsburgh, 
Pa.  Short-lived  as  it  was,  it  clearly  demonstrated  its  worth 
and  the  necessity  for  a  race  paper. 

Coming  down  through  the  dark  days  of  our  history,  here 
and  there,  throughout  the  northern  states,  newspapers  edited 
by  colored  men  sprang  into  existence.  Their  specific  work 
and  object  was  the  overthrow  of  slavery,  and  well  did  they 
perform  their  work.  Here  was  a  channel  through  which  we 
could  advocate  our  cause,  without  the  fear  of  having  it 
misrepresented,  smoothed  over,  or  in  any  manner  shorn  of 
the  truth ;  for,  as  a  general  thing,  the  Press  was  subsidized 
largely  by  the  influences  created  through  our  enforced 
servitude.  Thus  it  was  that  we  brought  our  woes,  burdens, 
and  grievances  before  the  enlightened  world,  pressing  our 
own  way  against  the  monster,  as  the  az  does  its  work  for  the 


468  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

pioneer  of  the  forest.  Therefore,  I  regard  the  Press,  in  tlie 
hands  of  the  negro,  as  one  of  the  most  potent  levei-s  in 
assisting  in  the  total  destruction  of  American  slavery,  that 
existed  in  the  ante-bellum  days,  which  is  the  greatest 
achievement,  to  my  mind,  accomplished  in  the  history  of  our 
country,  and  fully  answers  the  second  question. 

At  present,  I  do  not  think  the  Press  has  the  proper  support 
that  it  should  have  from  our  people.  This  is  a  question  that 
has  many  attributable  causes,  if  one  is  allowed  to  judge  from 
the  eiivironments  of  special  sections  of  the  country  where 
such  periodicals  are  issued.  Of  course  we  must  speak  of  this 
matter  in  a  general  or  national  sense.  As  a  rule,  our  people 
are  poor,  earning  a  precarious  livelihood,  which  demands  the 
liist  penny  to  meet  the  necessities  of  their  families.  We  are 
not  yet  educated  to  that  spirit  of  appreciation  we  should 
possess  for  those  who  are  struggling  to  perfect  themselves  in 
journalism.  The  great  mass  of  our  people  do  not  look  upon 
our  Press  as  educators,  or  even  truthful  reporters  or  delineatoi*s 
of  the  live  issues  of  the  day.  Most  of  our  papers  are  issued 
weekly,  generally  containing  news  read  in  the  daily  Press, 
and  many  things  are  found  in  them  foreign  to  a  woll- 
conducted  newspaper,  which  some  denominate  gossip;  and 
again,  there  is  a  demand  for  light  reading  matter  to  the 
exclusion  of  all  other.  How  much  foundation  there  is  for 
these  reasons,  all  of  which  I  have  heard  mentioned,  I  leave 
for  others  to  decide.  My  opinion  is  this,  and  it  is  given 
frankly,  without  reference  to  any  particular  person  or  j»aper: 

First:  We  do  not  yet  possess  a  paper  that  we  can  cull  a 
national  organ ;  if  we  did,  it  would  demand  national  support. 

Secondly:  Most  of  our  editors  are  comparatively  young 
men,  who  have  lately  entered  the  field  of  journalism,  often 
without  the  experience  demanded,  which,  before  they  gain, 
their  efforts  are  of  that  kind  that  alienate  rather  than  draw. 
Although  doing  their  best,  they  find  themselves  in  debt,  and 


HON.  JEBE  A.  BBOWN. 


470  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

their  subscription  list  reduced  to  such  an  extent  that  their 
venture  perishes. 

Again :  The  absence  from  the  field  of  such  a  veteran  in 
journalism  as  Frederick  Douglass,  is  to  me  another  cause; 
for  such  as  he  could  demand,  nay,  command  the  support 
from  our  people  of  any  paper  he  should  edit.  It  is  true,  that, 
in  time,  these  causes  I  have  just  mentioned  will  be  removed, 
as  our  young  men  advance  in  age  and  become  thoroughly 
familiarized  with  journalism.  Having  carefully  watched  the 
rise  and  progress  of  many  of  our  Western  papers,  notably 
The  Cleveland  Oazeite,  Detroit  Plaindcaler,  Indianapolis  World, 
Chicago  Conservator  and  others,  the  improvement  has  been  so 
marked,  both  in  style,  perspicuity,  terseness,  tone  and  vigor, 
that  it  appears  to  be  a  transformation,  although  so  gradual  as 
to  be  almost  imperceptible  to  the  casual  reader.  Hence  it  is, 
I  say,  that  we  are  gradually  arriving  at  that  stage  of 
proficiency  so  essential  for  success  in  this  particular  field. 

The  future  course  of  our  Press,  to  promote  good  among  our 
people,  (I  only  speak  of  the  secular  Press,)  is  the  teaching  of 
good  morals;  the  education  of  our  youth;  the  necessity  of 
possessing  refinement  and  culture,  which  stamp  the  true  lady 
and  gentleman ;  to  teach  every  colored  man,  woman  and 
child  that  he  is  an  American,  in  all  that  the  word  implies, 
until  this  idea  permeates  the  whole  race;  to  teach  that  "the 
cause  of  one  is  the  cause  of  all ;"  that,  as  we  are  equal  in  the 
sight  of  God  as  men,  we  must  be  equal  in  all  things  that 
pertain  to  the  happiness  of  all  men;  that  we  were  men  before 
man  made  any  law  that  detracted  or  abridged  any  of  our 
inherent  rights ;  to  teach  patience,  forbearance,  kindness  and 
love  towards  those  who  are  our  enemies,  and  not  seek  to 
convince  them  of  their  injustice  by  saying  hard  words  or 
writing  threats  against  them ;  to  teach  our  youth  that, 
although  our  race  was  enslaved,  in  the  history  of  this  now 
proud,   arrogant   and    haughty   race   which    so  persistently 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  471 

domineers  over  us,  they  can  read  and  learn  of  the  conquest 
and  subjugation  to  slavery  of  the  Anglo-Saxon ;  that  he  did 
not,  in  one  hundred  years  after  emerging  from  the  Norman 
yoke,  show  as  much  advancement  as  the  American  negro  has 
in  twenty-five. 

Last,  but  not  least,  teach  an  implicit  faith  in  Him  who 
created  all  men ;  and  although  his  ways  may  appear 
inscrutable  to  us.  He  is  still  the  God  of  our  Fathers  who  led 
us  from  the  dark,  pernicious,  and  baneful  effects  of  an 
enforced  servitude. 

Let  me  add  as  words  of  encouragement  to  the  men  and 
women  of  our  race,  the  future  of  our  youth  depends  largely 
upon  our  teachings,  as  it  depended  upon  those  who  preceded 
us.  We  have  a  great  work  to  perform,  and,  no  far,  it  has  been 
nobly  done,  and  I  am  confident  we  shall  yet  do  grander  work. 
But  beware  of  strifes  against  each  other,  bickering,  jealousies, 
and  sentimental  effusions;  for  we  need  the  undivided  support 
of  each  other  to  gain  that  of  which  we  have  been  robbed. 
Let  us  take  courage  from  the  lessons  of  the  past;  girding  on 
our  armor  with  renewed  vigor  and  energy  still  advance, 
working  out  our  own  destiny,  and  we  shall  soon  solve  that 
•  great  question,  which  only  exists  in  prejudiced  minds,  "the 
Negro  Problem." 

Opinion  of  Rev.  T.  G.  Stewart,  D.  D. 

Twenty-five  years  ago,  when  Emancipation  became  a  fact, 
and  the  enfranchisement  of  the  colored  people  of  the  South 
became  a  political  necessity,  many  reasons  combined  to  urge 
the  adoption  of  the  most  comprehensive  and  most  effective 
measures  to  secure  their  rapid  education.  Christianity, 
humanity,  and  patriotism,  all  said  these  people  must  be 
taught  to  read  at  once,  in  order  that  the  important  lessons 
relating  to  conduct,  in  all  its  bearings,  might  be  successfully 


472  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

imparted  to  them.  Under  these  influences,  schools  were 
opened  in  all  parts  of  the  South ;  and  the  good  work  begun 
by  the  Northern  people  has,  to  some  extent,  been  supple- 
mented by  the  people  of  the  South,  and  by  the  colored 
people  themselves,  in  opening  and  maintaining  such  schools 
as  Morris  Brown  College  at  Atlanta,  Allen  University  at 
Columbia,  and  Paul  Quinn  College  at  Waco,  with  others  of 
equal  or  lower  grade.  As  a  result  of  all  this  educational 
work,  it  is  now  quite  certain  that  one-third  of  all  the  colored 
people  of  the  South,  over  ten  years  of  age,  can  read;  and 
while  we  must  not  forget  the  other  two-thirds  who  can  not 
read,  yet  in  locating  the  field  for  the  colored  man*s  paper, 
the  one-third  who  can  read  must  be  given  the  chief  place. 
From  these  must  come,  in  the  main,  the  subscribers;  and 
without  subscribers  the  publisher  of  a  paper  can  not  hope  to 
command  advertisements. 

The  reading  population,  among  whom  the  colored  man 
must  circulate  bis  paper,  is  probably  about  equal  to  the 
city  of  New  York.  I  am  now  speaking  with  reference  to  the 
South  alone.  Two  things  will  at  once  present  themselves  to 
our  view,  as  we  attempt  to  survey  this  field.  Firet,  we  will 
notice  that  the  literary  ap2-)etite  is  quite  weak,  and  the  taste 
undeveloped ;  and,  second,  we  will  observe  that  the  field  is 
very  poorly  supplied.  In  regard  to  the  appetite,  I  make 
one  remark  to  point  out  its  weakness.  It  is  a  recognized  fact 
that  colored  readers  in  the  South  care  almost  exclusively  for 
local  news.  Indeed,  they  simply  desire  to  see  their  own 
locality  written  up.  The  news  of  the  great,  wide  world,  or 
even  the  news  of  the  great,  wide  country,  or  the  news  even 
narrowed  down  to  the  experiences  and  doings  of  their  own 
race,  as  they  are  scattered  abroad  throughout  our  land,  is 
not  desired  to  any  great  extent  by  them.  They  have  but 
little  appetite  for  it,  and  so  are  not  willing  to  pay  for  it. 
This  localism  can  not  be  disregarded  at  present. 


EEV.  T.  O.  STEWART,  D.  D, 


474  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

A  word  as  to  the  tast«:  It  must  be  remembered  that 
these  people  have  not  been  reading  long,  and  consequently 
have  not  read  much.  The  colored  editor  can  not  mold  his 
weekly  after  the  literary  weekly  of  the  country,  nor  after 
the  daily  of  the  city.  His  model  must  be,  rather,  the 
average  countiy  weekly;  an4  he  must  afford  such  reading 
matter  as  will  suit  his  customers.  The  great  colored 
newspaper  must  begin  at  the  bottom  and  grow  up  with  the 
advancing  race.  So  far  as  I  am  able  to  judge,  neither  the 
great  newspaper,  nor  the  great  editor,  has  yet  appeared ;  but 
I  have  no  doubt  that  the  editor  will  come,  and  come  from 
the  ranks  of  those  who  are  passing  through  the  experience 
common  to  those  who  have  been  enslaved. 

Many  things  in  politics,  religion,  and  philosophy  seem  to 
combine  to  point  out  for  the  American  negro  an  important 
and  commanding  future.  The  great  poets,  orators,  and 
literary  men  of  the  nation  ought  to,  and  I  believe  will,  come 
from  this  race.  Compelled  to  come  up  fresh  from  fii-st 
principles,  they  will  throw  a  glow  of  warmth  and  originality 
over  American  literature,  which  the  world  will  not  fail  to 
recognize.  To  ap.«i.«t  in  shaping  the  course  of  the  writers  and 
bringing  out  this  literature,  is  the  mission  of  the  colored 
man's  paper.  Up  to  the  present,  he  has  been  presenting 
ornde  and  cheap  thonght<5,  and  dealing  with  unimportafit. 
petty  facts,  and  reeling  off  much  jargon.  He  is  runnin'i  ul\ 
the  froth  of  an  effervescent  race;  but  the  good  wine  will 
come  after  a  while,  and  these  rich,  fresh  minds  will  give 
out  their  brilliant,  sparkling  thoughts  in  charming  melody, 
and  the  colored  man's  newspaper,  purged  of  its  dross,  will 
be  as  pure  gold.- 

I  do  not  leave  out  of  account,  in  marking  out  the  field  for 
the  colored  man's  journal,  the  thousands  of  colored  peoj>le 
scattered  throughout  the  North.  These  are  the  Old  Guard. 
They  have  shown  their  faith,  over  and  over  again,  by  their 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN.  475 

works.  But  it  must  be  remembered  that,  to  a  large  extent, 
through  the  public  schools  and  other  methods,  they  have 
become  amalgamated  with  the  general  citizenship,  and  a 
race  paper  does  not  appeal  to  them  with  the  force  which  it 
did  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago. 

The  great  field  for  journalism  to  be  represented  by  the 
Afro- American  Press  must  be  in  the  late  slave  states;  and  it 
is  a  field  which  promises  an  abundant  harvest,  in  both  literary 
and  pecuniary  results.  To  mold  and  solidify  this  race  in  the 
South-land,  to  inspire  and  direct  the  Afro- American,  I 
conceive  to  be,  in  conjunction  with  other  forces,  the  mission 
of  the  Afro- American  Press. 

Opinion  of  Prof.  J.  H.  Lawson. 

To  the  Ist  and  2d  questions,  I  answer,  I  do.  I  use  the 
term  success  as  commonly  understood.  The  negro  Press  is 
part  of  the  American  Press.  It  is  a  vital  part.  It  has  done 
much  in  elevating  a  favorable  sentiment  in  regard  to  the 
negro  question.  This  I  consider  a  positive  gain.  It  has 
done  much  in  vindicating  local  rights  of  negroes.  It  has 
been  the  chief  source  of  knowledge  as  to  how  the  machinery 
of  government  is  operated.  It  has  demonstrated  negro 
capacity.  It  is  the  mouth-piece  of  negroes  in  legislative 
halls,  where  they  can  not  speak.  In  fine,  whatever  claim  is 
set  up  for  the  great  American  Press,  a  proportional  part  is 
due  to  the  negro.  As  the  body  is  not  whole  if  deprived  of 
any  of  its  members,  so  the  American  Press  is  shorn  of  its  full 
praise,  if  the  negro's  contribution  to  it  goes  unnoted  and  for 
naught. 

To  the  third  question  I  must  say:  I  think  it  does. 
Colored  papers  are  too  costly.  I  can  buy  The  New  Ymk 
IHbune  for  three  cents,  but  I  can  not  buy  a  negro  paper  for 
less  than  five  cents.     I  have  yet  to  see  the  colored  paper, 


PROF.  J.  a.  LAWSON. 


OPINIONS  OF  EMINENT  MEN. 


477 


with  texture  and  quality  equal  to  The  Hibune.  It  seems  to 
me,  now,  that  an  intelligent  man,  or  one  simply  desiring 
information,  would  see  what  benefit  he  is  getting  for  his 
money,  in  taking  a  paper.  It  is  the  principle  in  all  other 
matters.  I  can  see  no  reason  why  it  should  not  apply  here. 
As  a  rule,  both  editorial  and  news-matter  are  of  higher 
quality  in  white  papers.  The  news- matter  in  colored  papers 
is  absolutely  worthless.  Whatever  news  there  is  of  public  or 
special  interest,  is  first  procured  by  white  papers,  which,  for 
the  most  part,  have  agents  on  the  spot.  For  news,  the 
colored  paper  falls  back  upon  the  white  paper.  Sympathy, 
on  the  ground  of  race  pride,  is  an  unjust  and  unmanly 
demand.  It  is  dangerous  as  well,  since  unworthy  papers 
might  feed  upon  public  patronage  and  usurp  the  field  of 
meritorious  ones. 

To  the  fourth  question  I  answer: 

1st.     To  consolidate  in  dailies. 

2d.     To  employ  good  editors,  managers  and  correspondents. 

3d.  To  use  the  same  means  employed  by  the  best  papers 
of  the  country. 


CHAPTER  XXIII. 

THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  EDITOR'S  MISSION,  BY  EML 

NENT  JOURNALISTS. 


The  Author's  Introductory. 

IN  the  light  of  the  opinions  here  rendered  regarding  Afro- 
American  j  Hirnalism,  the  purpose  and  aim  of  the  author 
is  to  have  actual  assertions  from  three  of  the  prominent 
personages  in  the  field  as  to  their  idea  of  the  great  work 
intrusted  to  their  keeping.  The  press,  the  most  potent  tactor 
for  good  on  the  one  hand,  or  for  evil  on  the  other,  must  be 
piloted  in  the  light  of  the  knowledge  as  to  how  it  will 
subserve  the  best  interests  of  the  nation.  It  must  of  all 
forces  be  pure,  and  free  from  any  contaminating  influence, 
be  it  in  the  religious  or  secular  field,  it  being  far  from  our 
aim  to  insert  here  articles  from  these  personages  merely  to 
"fill  up,"  but  to  give  an  interested  public  the  information  as 
to  what  we  are  striving  for  in  our  exercise  of  the  freedom  of 
the  press.  At  the  instance  of  the  foregoing  letters,  Hon. 
T.  Thomas  Fortune,  representing  the  secular  press,  Rev.  L.  J. 
Coppin,  D.  D.,  the  religious  press,  and  Mrs.  N.  F.  Mossell,  our 
women,  give  us  the  benefit  of  what  they  conceive  to  be  the 
telling  work  at  their  command.     The  following  is  a  copy  of 


THE  EDITORS  MISSION.  479 

the  communication  sent  them:  The  Afro-American  editor 
should,  most  assuredly,  know  for  what  he  is  .striving,  and  the 
public,  in  whose  welfare  he  is  interested,  should  know,  through 
this  medium,  in  what  way  he  is  using  his  freedom  in  their 
behalf.  Will  you,  aa  an  Afro-American  editor,  kindly 
consent  to  give  me  your  purpose  in  journalism,  and  your 
views  as  to  tlie  mission  of  Afro- American  newspapers? 

Dr.  Coj>pin  was  requested  to  give  his  views  upon  "Our 
Work  as  Journalists;"  while  Mrs.  Mossell  was  asked  to  give 
hers  upon  "The  Power  of  the  Press,"  and  "Our  Women  in 
Journalism."  How  near  the  views  of  these  writers  meet  the 
expressions  of  the  many  whose  opinions  will  be  found  in  the 
preceding  chapter  of  this  book,  can  be  readily  seen  by  the 
editor  and  reader.  As  Mr.  Fortune  savs  in  his  letter: 
"Editors  are  servants  of  the  people,  more  than  any  other 
class  of  servants,"  and,  as  such,  the  people's  right  to  under- 
stand in  what  wav  their  servants  are  strivinoj  for  their  total 
freedom,  is  a  right  of  theirs  which  in  no  way  can  be  denied. 

Opinion  of  T.  Thomas  Fortune. 

If  the  institution  of  slavery  hung  for  four  years  upon  a 
doubtful  contingency,  and  was  overthrown  at  last  by  the 
proclamation  of  President  Lincoln  and  the  obstinacy  of 
President  Davis,  it  will  readily  be  perceived  that  the  final 
adjustment  of  the  question*  arising  from  the  conditions  of 
negro  citizenship  offers  as  many  snares  for  the  wary  feet  of 
statesmen  of  the  present  and  the  future,  as  did  the  questions 
growing  out  of  the  conditions  of  the  negro  as  a  slave  to 
statesmen  of  the  past,  many  of  whom  beat  themselves  to 
death  against  those  questions,  and  carried  with  them  to  the 
grave  their  shattered  hopes  and  tarnished  fame. 

If  the  negro  did  not  carry  with  him  in  his  face  a  procla- 
mation of  his  race  and  previous  condition  of  servitude,  as 


480 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


lepers  in  Orientiil  countries  are  compelled  to  cry  aloud  upon 
the  approacli  of  strangers  their  accursed  isolation  from  the 
rest  of  mankind,  a  half-century  would  have  sufficed  to 
obliterate  from  the  minds  of  men  the  facts  that  slavery 
once  prevailed  in  the  Republic,  and  that  the  slaves  were 
now  free  men  and  citizens,  equal  under  the  Constitution  and 
before  the  laws  and  the  other  citizens  of  the  country;  but 
the  mark  of  color  remains  and  makes  its  possessor  a  social 
pariah,  to  be  robbed,  beaten  and  lynched, — and  a  political 
nondescript,  who  has  got  his  own  salvation  to  work  out,  of 
equality  before  the  laws,  with  almost  the  entire  whit« 
j)Opulation  of  the  country  arrayed  against  him. 

Surely,  no  race  of  people  ever  had  a  larger  job  on  their 
hands  than  have  the  colorod  citizens  of  the  United  States. 
The  older  llioy  grow,  the  larger  the  job  will  become;  so  that 
fifty  years  hence,  it  will  be  to  this  government  all  that  the 
Irish  queption  is  to-day  to  the  government  of  Great  Britain, 
and  perhaps  more.  Read  by  the  light  of  history,  the  signs 
of  the  times,  since  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  all  point 
unerringly  to  the  conclnsioii  here  reached.  There  are  those, 
I  am  mindful,  learned  in  the  wisdom  of  age  and  experience, 
who  regard  this  view  of  the  situation  as  that  of  an  alarmist; 
but,  as  Patrick  Henry  derlared,  "I  have  but  one  lamp  by 
which  mv  feet  are  j^uided,"  and  that  is  the  liistorv  of  the 
vicissitudes  of  other  races,  whose  condition  was  not  unlike,  in 
manv  respects,  the  condition  of  the  colored  citizens  of  this 
Ilepnblic.  Alieady  we  are  in  the  iury  and  heat  of  the 
conflict,  but  thousands  of  us  do  not  know  it,  or,  knowing, 
take  no  heed  of  the  awful  fact,  and  will  continue  to  nui^se  the 
ignorance  Alexander  Pope  declared  to  be  bliss,  until  aroused 
bv  some  shock  which  shall  destrov,  once  for  all,  the  citadel 
where  we  have  harbored  our  sublime  confidence. 

It  is  here  that  the  ndations  the  negro  Press  sustains  to  the 
negro  problem,  are  thrown  out  as  clearly  as  the  sun  in  the 


THE  EDITOR'S  MISSION.  481 

heavens,  against  the  mountainous  wall  of  observation.  The 
newspaper  has  become,  in  every  country  where  modern 
civilization  exists,  the  oracle  of  the  people.  More  than 
that,  it  has  become  the  defender  of  the  just  rights  of  the 
people  against  the  encroachments  of  the  ambitious  and  the 
covetous  few ;  so  that  it  may  of  a  truth  be  said  that  error  and 
wrong  can  not  long  prevail  where  the  Press  is  left  free  to 
combat  them.  The  editors  of  the  great  newspapers  are 
more  absolutely  the  servants  of  the  people  than  any  of  the 
servants  placed  in  positions  of  trust  and  profit  and  power  by 
their  votes.  They  are  more  faithful  to  the  people  s  interest, 
they  are  more  inaccessible  to  the  allurements  of  corruptionists, 
they  have  generally  a  clearer  and  more  thorough  under- 
standing of  the  rights  of  the  people,  and  voice  their  demands  * 
with  greater  accuracy  and  force,  than  any  other  class  of  men 
in  the  Republic,  simply  because  they  live  nearer  to  the  people 
and  are,  in  many  respects,  the  servants,  in  a  more  general 
sense,  of  the  public  opinion  to  which  they  give  voice.  The 
people  are  true  to  the  editors  only  just  as  long  as  the 
editors  are  true  to  the  people.  An  editor,  with  no  readers  of 
his  paper,  is  in  a  much  more  pitiable  plight  than  a  lawyer 
without  briefs,  or  a  preacher  without  a  charge. 

Only  those  who  understand  thoroughly  the  serious  nature 
of  the  contention  of  colored  citizens  for  the  cession  to  them  of 
their  full  rights  under  the  Constitution,  and  the  magnitude 
and  power  of  those  who  are  now  withholding  those  rights, 
and  who  also  correctly  estimate  the  commanding  influence  of 
the  modern  newspaper  in  creating,  as  well  as  giving,  voice  to 
public  opinion,  can  have  a  correct  idea  of  the  great  work 
reserved  to  the  colored  newspapers  of  the  country.  Even  the 
colored  people  themselves  do  not  understand  it.  Some  of 
them  even  declare  that  colored  newspapers  are  a  nuisance ; 
and  so  they  are,  in  a  measure,  just  as  the  colored  people  are  a 
nuisance,  in  so  far  as  they   have  a  grievance  which  they 


482  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

persistently  obtrude  upon  the  notice  of  others,  who  either 
have  no  such  grievance  themselves,  or  do  not  wish  to  be 
reminded  of  the  fact  that  they  have  one.  As  long,  however, 
as  men  are  struck,  they  will  cry  out  in  protest  or  indignation 
until  the  wrongs  are  avenged. 

A  sufficient  answer  to  all  those  who  do  not  understand 
why  we  have  colored  newspapers,  would  seem  to  be  the  fact 
that  white  men  have  newspapers ;  that  they  are  published  by 
white  men  for  white  men;  give,  in  the  main,  news  about 
white  men,  and  pitch  their  editorial  opinions  entirely  in  the 
interest  of  white  men.  I  know  that  there  are  many  papers 
in  the  country  whose  editors  make  great  profession  of  love 
for  colored  citizens ;  but  they  are  partisan  advocates,  striving 
for  partisan  advantage,  and  have  no  more  real,  practical  love 
for  the  negro  than  the  editors  of  newspapers,  avowedly  their 
enemies.  I  have  more  respect  for  the  latter  than  for  the 
former.  An  open  enemy  is  an  easier  man  to  handle  than  a 
hypocritical  friend.  A  man  who  preaches  one  thing  and 
practices  another,  is  beneath  contempt.  Is  there  one  paper 
published  by  white  men  in  any  one  of  the  eleven  Southern 
states  to-dav,  in  which  colored  men  receive  the  same  news 
and  editorial  treatment  that  white  men  receive?  Let  those 
ignorant  negroes,  who  pretend  that  they  can  not  understand 
why  colored  newspapers  are  published,  answer  this  question; 
and  if  they  can  not,  let  them  slink  away  out  of  the  sight  oi 
honest  men  who  understand  the  serious  nature  of  the  negro 
problem,  and  are  honestly  endeavoring  to  solve  it  in  the 
right  way.  I  confess  that  I  have  small  patience  with  this 
sort  of  negro  Jonah,  I  would  throw  him  overboard  in  short 
order,  and  with  no  thought  or  care  that  he  find  a  haven  from 
death  in  some  vagrant  whale's  belly. 

As  a  regrettable  fact,  the  white  Press  of  the  South  is 
leagued  against  the  negro  and  his  rights,  and  it  is  re-enforced 
by  quite   two-thirds  of  the  Press  of  the  North   and  West. 


THE  EDITORS  MlSslOX 


4^^::; 


How  are  we  to  overcome  this  rreineiKlcais  iiiilu..'nce'!^  Arc 
we  to  prevail  against  our  enemies  not  a.s  other  men  prevail 
against  theirs?  Can  we  reasonably  expect  other  men  to  use 
their  lungs  to  cry  out  for  us  when  we  are  wronged  and 
outraged  and  robbed  and  murdered?  If  we  do,  let  us  look 
at  the  white  papers  of  the  South  and  learn  from  them  the 
necessary  lesson,  that  the  only  way  we  can  hope  ever  to  win 
our  fight  is  to  arm  ourselves  as  our  opponents  do,  support 
those  newspapers  alone  that  support  us,  and  support  those 
men  alone  who  support  us.  In  following  this  rule,  white 
men's  newspapers,  and  white  men's  schemes  of  ambition  or 
profit,  will,  very  generally,  be  weighed  in  the  balance  and 
found  wanting. 

The  colored  newspapers  of  the  United  States,  some  one 
hundred  and  twenty-five,  are  the  only  papers  that  are 
making  a  square,  honest  fight  for  the  rights  of  our  race.  Not 
one  of  them  receives  the  support  it  deserves;  and,  mainly  on 
that  account,  not  one  is  doing  the  work  it  could  and  should 
do.  A  colored  newspaper,  with  one  hundred  thousand 
subscribers,  would  be  a  greater  power  for  good  than  any  other 
agency  colored  men  could  create, — than  even  fifty  black 
members  of  Congress  would  be;  and  until  we  have  new-spapers 
equal  in  circulation  to  those  controlled  by  our  enemies,  the 
contest  for  our  just  righta  under  the  Constitution  will  remain 
pitiably  unequal.  We  mu.><t  realize  this  fact  before  we  can 
expect  to  cope  with  the  enemy. 

Opinion  of  Rev.  L.  J.  Coppin,  D.  D. 


The  subject,  "Our  Work  as  Journalists,"  is  a.s  important  as 
it  is  comprehensive.  The  journalist  has  the  largest  audience 
of  all  the  public  speakers.  The  Pulpit  and  the  Rostrum 
address  themselves  to  the  hundreds  who  come  within  hearing 
distance ;  but  their  utterances  are  taken  up  by  the  Press  and 


484  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

given  to  the  multiplied  millions  who  read.  Such  an  oppor- 
tunity to  be  heard  is  accompanied  with  grave  responsibilities ; 
therefore,  to  faithfully  echo  the  voice  of  others  is  among  the 
first  and  most  important  duties  of  the  journalist. 

The  journal  that  simply  seeks  to  attract,  without  a  due 
regard  for  truth,  justice  and  fair  play,  dishonors  itself  and 
the  journalistic  fraternity ;  is  unworthy  of  public  support,  and 
will  eventually  be  crowded  out  by  more  worthy  contempo- 
raries. The  columns  of  a  public  journal  should  never  be 
used  as  a  sewerage  for  that  which  is  harmful  and  degrading. 
Such  matter  may  tickle  the  ear  of  the  gossip-seeker,  and  by 
attracting  a  large  class  of  such  readers,  enable  its  editor  to 
boast  of  "  the  largest  circulation ;"  but  it  is  the  prostitution 
of  a  high  office,  which,  in  the  end,  will  meet  its  just  deserts. 
In  these  days,  when  sensational  and  degenerate  literature 
is  doing  so  much  to  corrupt  our  youth,  I  say  to  every 
journal  in  the  land,  "  Keep  thyself  pure." 

The  journalist  is  the  people's  attorney.  He  has  every 
man's  case,  and  can  rightfully  have  but  one  purpose,  which 
is,  justice  to  all.  It  is  no  fault  of  his,  if  justice  itself  makes 
against  his  client;  his  only  business  is  to  be  a  faithful 
recorder  of  the  facts  in  the  case.  As  a  public  recorder  of 
facts,  then,  our  work  as  journalists  is  to  make  faithful  entries, 
in  all  cases,  and  we  are  not  at  liberty  at  any  time  to  so  change 
things  as  to  make  them  suit  our  fancy. 

The  journalist  is  a  molder  of  sentiment;  or,  as  it  is,  perhaps, 
more  frequently  called,  "  public  opinion."  It  is  a  mistaken 
idea  for  a  journalist  to  suppose  that  it  is  his  business  to  take 
the  "public  pulse"  and  then  adapt  himself  to  whatever 
condition  he  finds  to  exist.  It  is  his  business  to  educate  and 
to  elevate  public  opinion ;  and  if  he  is  true  to  his  trust,  he 
will  find  himself  equal  to  the  task.  Public  opinion  is  an 
organism,  and  must  have  something  to  feed  upon,  in  order  to 
live.     True  to  nature,   its  development  will  be  after   the 


TfiE  EDITOR'S  MISSION.  485 

manner  of  the  food  it  eats.  Sometimes  a  false  growth  is 
made,  and  then  it  is  the  business  of  the  journalist  to  use 
corrective  measures. 

For  many  years,  it  was  the  prevailing  opinion  in  this 
country  that  a  man  had  a  perfect  right  to  own  men  and 
women,  and  to  deal  in  them  as  marketable  property.  Had 
there  not  been  among  those  who  were  in  the  minority  brave, 
wise,  and  good  men  to  protest  against  such  an  evil,  slavery 
might  have  remained  until  to-day.  This  minority  was  weak 
at  first,  but  possessing  the  elements  of  right,  it  possessed  also 
the  elements  of  power.  And  so  with  all  moral  reforms;  they 
are  brought  about  finally  in  answer  to  a  public  demand;  but 
a  demand  upon  the  public  had  first  to  be  made,  in  order  to 
bring  it  into  the  right  way  of  thinking,  and  to  induce  it  to 
act  according  to  duty.  While  we  should  hesitate  to  make 
any  one  agency  responsible  for  the  course  that  public  opinion 
finally  takes,  we  venture  the  assertion  that  no  agency  is  so 
fruitful  in  this  direction  as  that  of  the  public  Press. 

There  was  a  time  when  the  public  speaker  had  almost  sole 
charge  of  this  business.  But  the  printer's  ink  has  largely 
taken  his  place;  that  is,  it  multiplies  his  words  a  thousand 
fold.  Give  us  wise,  judicious,  reliable  and  high-toned  news- 
papers, and  we  are  most  likely  to  have  a  public  opinion  that 
is  safe,  and  worthy  to  be  consulted. 

But  "Our  Work  as  Journalists,"  as  we  take  it,  has  special 
reference  to  colored  journalists.  We  liave  purposely  first 
called  attention  to  those  general  rules  which  govern  journalism, 
because  they  are  applicable  to  all.  This  is  a  comparatively 
new  field  for  colored  men,  and  their  work  is  specially 
important  because  it  is  two-fold.  Besides  representing  the 
public  in  a  general  way,  as  we  have  already  remarked,  they 
stand  in  a  particular  sense  for  their  people.  It  is  folly  for 
any  one  to  shut  his  eyes  to  the  fact,  that  the  war  for  human 
rights  in  this  country  is  not  closed.     When  the  agitation  for 


486  THE  APftO-AMElRiCAN  PRESS. 

freedom  began,  the  colored  man  was  not  in  the  position  to 
speak  for  himself;  so  the  work  had  to  be  done  almost  entirely 
by  his  friends.  But  in  his  new  condition,  he  must  be  the 
principal  actor  iu  securing  the  rights  and  privileges  yet 
denied  him.  We  must  have  leaders,  just  as  all  people  have ; 
and  this  fact  brings  the  colored  people  to  the  front.  Our 
newspapers  must  be  a  reliable  source  of  thought  and  direction 
for  the  masses  of  our  people.  Here  their  grievances  must  be 
recorded,  with  suggestions  as  to  how  they  may  be  redressed. 

Another  department  of  work  among  us  as  journalists,  is  to 
guide  the  masses  into  the  best  way  of  living.  No  people 
can  be  legislated  into  greatness.  All  we  ask,  all  we  can  ask, 
all  that  any  people  can  ask,  of  the  Government  is,  that  a 
fair  chance  in  the  race  of  life  shall  be  gisaranteed.  We  must 
do  the  running  ourselves.  There  are  certain  things  that 
tend  to  the  elevation  of  a  people,  and  without  these  no 
substantial  progress  can  be  made.  First  of  all,  we  should 
say  a  good,  solid  character  must  be  built  up  and  maintained. 
History  unites  with  reason  in  recording  the  fact,  that  no 
people  of  weak  and  corrupt  morals  has  been  able  to  endure. 
Slavery  left  us  an  abundant  heritage  of  moral  weakness 
which  must  be  overcome.  The  fact  that  it  is  inherited  can 
be  no  excuse  for  its  continued  existence.  In  rising  to  positions 
of  responsibility  and  trust,  the  same  demand  for  virtue  will 
be  made  upon  us  that  is  made  upon  others;  and  less  than  this 
would  not  be  for  our  good. 

The  accumulation  of  wealth  is  also  a  necessary  factor  in 
the  elevation  of  a  people.  Poverty  is  weakness.  Especially 
is  this  true  when  predicated  of  a  people  situated  as  we  are, 
in  the  midst  of  a  strong  nation.  Weakness  can  not  dictate 
terms  to  strength.  To  remain  en  viassc  in  the  position  of 
servants,  is  to  be  handicapped  and  kept  down.  With  great 
odds  against  us,  great  sacrifices  must  be  made  in  order  to 
materially    change    our   present    condition.      Industry   and 


THE  EDITOR'S  MISSION.  487 

economy  must  go  hand  in  hand ;  for  it  is  not  so  much  what 
men  earn  that  makes  them  rich,  as  what  they  save. 

Great  stress  has  been  laid  upon  the  work  of  education 
among  us.  We  should  not  feel  free  to  recommend  an 
abatement  of  this  work ;  but  it  is  already  apparent  that  an 
industrial  education  must  form  no  little  part  of  it.  Unskilled 
labor  demands  small  revenue,  compared  with  skilled;  and, 
besides,  for  that  kind  of  work  the  supply  is  greater  than  the 
demand.  As  yet  we  are  largely  of  the  laboring  class,  and 
in  order  to  make  any  headway,  must  make  our  labor  valuable. 
It  behooves  the  journalists  among  us  to  consider  well  such 
questions  as  these  and  to  give  no  uncertain  sound  in  bringing 
them  before  the  public. 

Opinion  of  Mrs.  N.  F.  Mossell. 

Every  few  months  we  find  some  amateur  literary  associa- 
tion discussing  the  question  of  the  comparative  power  of  the 
Press  and  the  Pulpit.  It  used  to  be  a  standing  subject  for 
discussion  and  amusement,  but  the  laugh,  in  the  opinion  of 
the  religious  world,  has  completely  died  out. 

That  the  Press  is  intrenching  on  the  power  of  the  Pulpit 
is  growing  more  evident  daily.  People  are  coming  to  prefer 
to  sit  by  their  own  cosy  firesides  and  read  sermons  at  their 
leisure,  to  traveling  in  inclement  weather  to  the  house  of 
worship ;  and  the  poor  feel  they  are  thus  on  a  level  with  the 
rich,  or,  at  least,  are  not  pained  by  the  contrast  in  their 
conditions,  as  they  often  are  when  assembled  in  the  house  of 
God. 

What  world  of  meaning  in  the  phrase,  "The  Power  of 
the  Press!"  Our  colored  men  are  realizing  its  latent  force. 
Through  this  medium  they  are  rapidly  pushing  their  way, 
strengthening  race  pride,  and  making  their  wants  and 
oppressions  known.      Every  corporation   or  large  business 


483  THE  AFBO-AMERIGAN  PRESS. 

booae  now  bas  its  own  journals,  adveitimng  its  goods,  and 
delighting  its  patrons  with  its  liteiaiy  feast  The  Press  is  a 
sleeping  lion,  which  men  are  jnst  'waking  into  life.  We 
dioold  estimate  rightly  the  great  obligation  that  is  npon  w 
to  n»  this  immense  power  rightly.  We,  of  all  people^  can 
iU  afford  to  make  blunders.  We  mnst  teach  wisely  and  lead 
aright,  that  the  generation  to  come  may  bless  ns,  as  we  bless 
those  who  haye  passed  before  ns.  Onr  Press  association  is 
well  organized,  and  we  should  be  able,  at  its  meetings,  to 
g^Te  each  other  wise  counsel. 

The  study  of  other  journals,  from  every  point  of  view,  has 
its  benefits :  their  circulation  and  where  they  circulate ;  the 
editonals,  the  news  letters,  the  personals ;  every  department ; 
reading  articles  on  journalism;  noting  our  own  experiences 
from  dav  to  day:  and  getting  the  advice  of  those  who  Lave 
grown  grar,  aiA  perhaps  lost  fortunes  in  the  cause. 

We  should  study  the  field  from  which  our  support  must 
come.  One  New  York  publisher  knows  every  county  in 
everv  state  and  the  literarv  caliber  of  its  inhabitants,  and  is 
therefore  able  to  put  each  book  he  has  for  sale  on  the 
market,  at  the  best  advantage  to  himself  and  the  author. 
How  manv  of  our  editors  have  thus  studied  the  colored 
constituenov  of  the  various  states? 

m 

We  must  watch  'the  signs  of  the  times  and  show  business 
tact.  I  am  forcibly  reminded  that  the  white  race,  even  the 
ignorant  portion,  possesses  this  faculty  largely  beyond  our 
own  people,  even  the  intelligent  ones  among  us.  A  white 
man,  knowing  it  was  a  season  for  negro  revivals,  furnished 
himself  with  a  goodly-size  bundle  of  spiritual  hymns,  and 
wont  shouting  them  up  and  down  the  street,  and  the  colored 
l«eople  flocked  to  him  with  their  pennies.  Not  a  single  white 
face  did  I  see  among  them  but  that  of  the  singer,  who  was 
gathering  in  the  dimes  and  nickels  from  our  poor.  It  was  fit 
tribute  to  his  business  tact. 


Mfia.  N.  F.  MOSSELU 


I 


490  TH£  Af  BO-AME&tGAil  PBS8S. 

Oar  joanuJs  should  improTe  greatly  in  thiB  deoadA  upon 
which  we  are  now  entering, — ^this  bright  opening  of  the  New 
Year  and  century.  Let  the  work  and  field  be  atodied,  a 
policy  marked  out;  and  the  greatest  good  to  the  greatest 
number  be  the  aim  of  each.  Get  the  intelligent  sympathy 
and  advice  of  all  connected  with  publications.  Form 
syndicates  and  pay  for  good  articles  on  selected  subjects  firom 
our  best  writers  and  authors.  Secure  the  assistance  of  some 
wise,  helpful,  intelligent,  and  enthusiaetic  woman.  Do  your 
best,  and  success  will  surely  crown  your  effort 

Before  closing,  we  must  speak  of  "Our  Women  in  Joomal- 
ism."  ^They  are  admitted  to  the  Press  association  and  are  in 
sympathy  with  the  male  editors;  but  few  have  become 
independent  workers  in  this  noble  field  of  effort,  being  yet 
satellites,  revolving  round  the  sun  of  masculine  journalism. 
They  still  remain  willing  captives,  chained  to  the  chariot 
wheels  of  the  sterner  element,  and  deem  it  well,  if '  united 
they  stand.* 

Let  us  have  a  few  more  years  of  co-operative  work.  Our 
women  have  a  great  field  in  literary  work.  Sex  nor  color 
does  not  bar,  for  neither  need  be  known.  As  reporters, 
women  are  treated  with  the  courtesy  due  their  sex.  We 
have  tact,  quick  perception,  and  can  readily  gain  access  to 
both  sexes.  Again,  we  are  "lookers  on  in  Venice."  We  ai»* 
not  in  the  thick  of  the  battle.  We  have  time  to  think,  fin  in.' 
our  purposes,  and  carry  them  into  effect,  unlike  the  editor 
harassed  with  both  literary  and  business  work  and  other 
great  responsibiltties  incident  to  such  an  enterprise. 

Women  can  do  much  to  purify  and  strengthen  life  through 
the  columns  of  the  daily  press,  or  the  weekly,  or  monthly 
journals.  Right  well  do  they  seem  to  appreciate  tlieir 
opportunities ;  and  a  broad  view  of  life  and  its  purposes  will 
come  to  them  through  tliis  source.  Let  one  who  desires 
journalism  as  her  lite- work,  study  to  acquire  a  good  knowledge 


THE  EDITOR'S  MISSION. 


m 


of  the  English  language,  and  of  others,  if  she  desires;  but 
the  English  language  she  must.  Be  alive  to  obtain  what  is 
news,  what  will  interest.  Let  the  woman  select  her  nom  dc 
plume^  or  take  her  own  name,  if  she  prefei'S,  and  use  it 
always,  unless  for  some  special  purpose  it  is  changed.  Write 
oftenest  for  one  journal  and  on  one  subject ;  or  on  one  line, 
at  least,  until  a  reputation  has  been  established.  Work 
conscientiously,  follow  the  natural  bent,  and  the  future  will 
not  fail  to  bring  its  own  reward. 

I  shall  close  this  article  by  a  note  on  our  late  advancement 
in  journalistic  eflfort.  We  have  one  daily,  published  in 
Georgia;  an  illustrated  paper,  published  in  Indianapolis; 
(^The  Freeman,  E.  E.  Cooper  editor  and  proprietor  ;  one  paper 
published  as  the  only  journal  in  the  town  ;  one  colored  editor, 
H.  0.  Flipper,  editing,  temporarily,  a  white  journal,  in  the 
absence  of  its  editor;  and  several  women  editors  of  various 
publications  and  departments. 

Hoping  that  these  few  scattered,  irregular  thoughts  on  *'  The 
Power  of  the  Press"  and  "  Our  Women  in  Journalism"  mav 
serve  as  seed-thought«  to  lead  to  more  serious  thinking,  I 
bid  my  readers  adieu,  believing  that  no  brighter  path  opens 
before  us,  as  a  race,  than  that  of  the  journalism  of  the  present 
age. 


-^Vfefe///^, 


CHAPTER  XXIV. 

THE   ANGLO-SAXON    AND    THE   AFBO-AMEMCAN 

PRESS. 


TO  the  reader  of  our  current  literature,  and  to  the  slightest 
observer  of  our  literary  efforts,  the  positions  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  and  the  Afro- American  newspaper  seems  curious 
and  interesting,  as  well  as  important.  The  former,  through 
its  many  years  of  existence,  has  been  backed  and  supported  by 
an  intellectual  and  reading  people,  whose  love  for  the  sublime 
and  beautiful  in  literature,  as  well  as  a  thirst  for  an  actual 
knowledge  of  the  affairs  of  the  world,  has  been  transmitted 
from  generation  to  generation.  In  the  exercise  of  its  power 
it  has  know^n  no  opposition,  save  the  little  friction  occurring 
between  the  North  and  South.  Its  resources  are  manifold ; 
while  its  ability  to  create  sentiment  among  the  people  for 
whom  it  is  especially  published  is  readily  conceded.  The 
latter  has  not  been  backed  and  supported  by  a  reading  people ; 
the  masses  of  its  readers  now  have  only  been  allowed  the 
privilege  of  reading  within  the  last  twenty-five  years;  there- 
fore, with  respect  to  support  upon  the  part  of  its  people  there 
is  no  comparison.  Then  allowing  for  the  great  lack  of  edito- 
rial ability  upon  the  part  of  many  whit«  and  black  journals, 
all  things  considered  from  a  comprehensive  standpoint,  there 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  493 

is  no  equality  between  the  Anglo-Saxon  and  Afro- American 
Press.  The  reader,  with  but  little  reflection,  can  produce  ten 
able  and  competent  Anglo-Saxon  editors  to  one  of  our  people ; 
to  say  more  than  ten,  would  be  a  questionable  matter,  since 
**  the  solution  of  the  race  problem"  would  most  likely  render 
some  editor  barren  of  editorial  food. 

There  is  a  wide  distribution  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  papers, 
while  the  readers  of  such  are  easily  impressed  with  good  or 
bad  by  their  ready  ability  to  understand  properly  what  they 
read.  The  white  papers  have  for  their  field  of  readers  both 
the  Anglo-Saxon  and  Afro- American ;  in  fact,  the  entire 
world.  It  knows  no  rejection ;  it  seeks  the  uttermost  parts  of 
the  globe  to  deliver  its  news. 

From  a  recent  calculation,  it  seems  that  100,000  (perhaps 
more,  certainly  not  less)  A  fro- Americans  are  regular  sub- 
scribers to  the  white  journals,  not  including  the  vast 
number,  who,  while  traveling,  or  in  public  places,  etc., 
incidentally  purchase  the  products  of  their  more  favored 
brother's  brains.  The  writer  is  under  the  impression  that 
two-thirds  of  the  reading  Afro-Americans  support  the  white 
dailies  and  weeklies,  at  a  cost  of  from  one  to  six  dollars  per 
annum,  -while  many  of  them  fail  to  support  the  black  papers, 
even  at  the  lower  cost  of  from  seventy-five  cents  to  two 
dollai-s  per  annum. 

There  is  much  argument  put  forth  by  those  who  support 
white  journals  in  preference  to  our  black  ones,  which  is 
plausible,  and  which  we  shall  not  refute  or  affirm;  neither 
are  these  thoughts  penned  as  a  denunciation  of  those  who 
support  white  journals ;  nor  is  an  attempt  made  to  injure  the 
patronage  of  the  above-named  papers. 

JThere  are  other  vast  difierences  that  go  to  make  up  the 
relative  inequality  of  the  two  presses.  Enough  has  been 
said,  however,  to  show  their  relation,  and  tjie  reader,  in  a 
concluding  thought  on    this   point,  must  be    compelled   to 


494  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

concede  the  superior  power  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  press.  The 
Afro-American  is  also  left  to  see  that  his  press  will  nevei 
be  able  to  overcome  the  arguments  he  makes  against  it,  in 
his  support  of  the  white  journals,  until  his  big  heart  causes 
him  to  correspondingly  support  his  race  papers. 

We  can  now  see  the  relation  of  the  two  presses  to  each 
other,  and  that  not  only  is  there  no  equality  between  them, 
but  a  vast  inequality;  hence,  an  organized  efFort  of  one 
against  the  other  admits  of  no  argument,  and  the  suppression 
of  one  by  the  other  of  no  commendation.  Let  us  ascertain 
the  duty  of  the  two,  and  let  us  examine  the  claim  which  a 
country  has  upon  the  Press,  unmindful  of  its  color,  its 
size  or  circulation,  the  previous  condition  of  its  editors,  or 
what  not.  Let  us  at  once  admit  the  fact,  that  for  tlie  welfare 
of  the  country,  its  development  and  its  progress,  the  safety  of 
its  people  and  its  institutions,  the  perpetuity  of  its  govern- 
ment, something  is  demanded  of  the  Press,  which  has  been 
termed  in  another  chapter  of  this  volume  a  bulwark  of  the 
nation. 

For  convenience  and  brevity,  we  will  consider  in  order  the 
various  demands  made  upon  the  Press  of  a  common  country: 

1st.  It  pleads  for  a  recognition  of  the  fact,  that  in  the 
Press  rests  the  ability  to  cause  the  development  of  a  country. 

2d.  Equality  of  citizenship,  and  constant  entreaty  for 
law  and  order  in  the  community  and  respect  for  the  eternal 
principles  of  law,  which  make  up  a  good  government. 

3d.  An  advancement  of  every  measure  for  the  protection 
of  life,  property  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness,  which  has 
been  handed  down  from  JefFersonian  times,  and  which  will 
remain  sacred  and  true  for  all  generations. 

These,  with  hundreds  of  other  demands,  the  Press  should 
work  for.  There  should  be  no  friction  in  contending  for 
these  cardinal  principles,  only  when  there  is  a  legitimate  and 
reasonable  difference  of  opinion  in  the  advocacy  of  them. 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  496 

Certainly,  no  friction  ought  to  arise  on  account  of  the  fact 
that  a  white  man  or  a  black  man  edits  the  journal.  Are  we 
not  all  here  to  stay,  both  white  and  black?  Are  we  not  all 
black  or  white  citizens?  Are  we  not  all  expected  to 
respect  the  majesty  of  the  law?  Is  not  an  editorial,  written 
in  the  interest  of  the  country's  development,  an  article  in 
favor  of  the  black  man,  as  well  as  the  white? 

We  feel  assured  that  the  reader  has  already  arrived  at 
the  conclusion  that  a  suitable  response  to  the  above  questions 
is  Yes.  We  wonder  why  every  man,  as  well  as  every  editor, 
does  not  see  that  God  created  all  men  equal,  and  that  He  is 
recorded  in  His  Holy  Word  as  a  non-respecter  of  persons. 
We  wonder  why  the  Afro- American  yet  suffers  for  a  lack  of 
protection;  why  it  is  that  the  argument  brought  forth  is 
"their  condition,"  since  there  are  men  and  women,  with 
Ethiopian  blackness,  acknowledged  to  be  great  orators, 
editors,  teachers,  etc. ;  yet  these  persons,  though  well  behaved, 
neatly  dressed,  and  with  plenty  of  money,  can  not  be 
admitted  to  first-class  accommodations  upon  the  trains,  in  the 
hotels,  and  many  places  of  public  amusements.  But  amid 
our  wonderings,  we  come  to  the  conclusion  that  this  is  not 
the  state  of  affairs  in  all  the  land;  that  there  is  vet  a 
phalanx  of  our  more  favored  brothers.  North  and  South, 
who  recognize  the  "  Fatherhood  of  God  and  the  brotherhood 
of  man." 

We  have  been  noticing  the  duty  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  and 
Afro-American  press  in  a  common  country.  Now  let  us  lift 
the  curtain  and  behold  the  Anglo-Saxon  press,  North  and 
South,  its  views  of  our  race,  and  its  manly  fight  for  and 
against  us.  We  shall  also  beg  indulgence  while  we  give 
expression  to  some  views  of  eminent  white  men.  North  and 
South,  on  the  race  question,  which  so  decidedly  divides  the 
press.  With  regard  to  the  commendatory  Opinions  of  Afro- 
Americans,   great  stress  has  been  laid  upon  the  statement, 


496  THE  AFBO-AMEBICAN  FBESS. 

(which  is  generally  admitted  among  na  as  a  fiust)  that  the 
entire  North  has  been  our  friend  and  the  entire  South  oar 
enemy.  This  the  author  connders  a  very  erroneous  view  of 
the  matter.  Let  us  consider  it  in  the  light  of  past  and 
present  circumstances,  and  see  if  we  can  not  find  men,  both 
in  the  North  and  South,  who  take  a  friendly  view  of  the 
Afro-American.  We  do  not  propose,  however,  to  question 
the  belief  that  the  majority  of  the  Afro-Americans*  strongest 
friends  are  in  the  North ;  but  in  both  the  North  and  South 
we  assert  that  the  Anglo-Saxon  newspapers  and  individuals 
may  be  divided  into  three  distinct  classes, — ^the  friendly, 
the  semi-friendly,  and  the  unfriendly.  The  majority  of  the 
white  citizens,  North  and  South,  thank  God,  are  friendly 
to  us.  The  friendly  class  of  editors  are  of  that  humane  and 
Christian  sect  that  recognize  the  Afro-American  as  a  man, 
created  in  the  image  of  God,  susceptible  to  the  same  improve- 
ment as  any  other  race,  and  entitled  to  a  fair  chance  with 
others  in  the  ways  of  life,  especially,  in  the  necessary 
educational  advantages  of  which  he  was  so  recently  unlaw- 
fully deprived ;  and  also  to  a  filial  consideration  from  those 
for  whom  they  labored  so  long,  without  even  a  kind  word  or 
a  pleasant  look  for  a  reward, — whose  families  they  protected 
from  harm  or  danger,  while  "  Master"  was  unable  to  protect 
them  himself.  They  are  those  editors  who  encourage  the 
education  of  the  black  man,  justice  and  equality  to  him  as  a 
citizen,  with  a  fair  chance  for  the  exercise  of  suffrage,  upon 
the  plea  that  he  is  a  man,  a  brother,  and  a  citizen,  regardless 
of  the  educational  ability,  en  viassc,  for  such  exercise.  The 
friendly  editors  waste  not  their  time  and  talents  in  advocating 
the  disfranchisement  of  the  black  man,  when  he  is  daily 
increasing  in  literary  ability,  wealth,  and  social  importance. 
They  are  those  who  have  the  good  sense  to  know  that  twenty 
years  after  such  rights  have  been  granted  the  Afro- 
Americans,  it  is  positively  foolish  to  advocate  their  nullification 

r 


'     THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PEESS.  497 

The  friendly  men  who  do  nofc,  as  the  editor,  wield  their 
pens  in  the  black  man's  defense,  liberally  respond  to  his  call 
for  help.  They  glory  in  the  advancement  of  the  Afro- 
American;  and  accord  him  intellectual,  moral,  and  religious 
position.  They  are  those  who,  from  the  sacred  desk,  the 
hustings,  the  marts  of  trade,  plead  for  the  elevation  of 
the  Afro-American  from  the  depth  of  ignorance  and  super- 
stition. They  are  those  who  do  not  argue  that  the  condition 
of  the  black  man  is  the  cause  of  his  rejection  and  non- 
recognition,  and  offer  no  remedy  for  his  elevation ;  but  they 
heed  the  black  man's  continued  cries  for  assistance,  in  his 
efforts  to  advance;  those  who  give  a  listening  ear  as  he 
cries — "Save  me,  or  I  perish."  This  friendly  class  knows 
that  we  are  seeking  for  educational,  moral  and  religious 
improvement,  not  social  equality ;  and  when  others  demand 
the  expulsion  of  the  race  from  America,  though  we  have 
been  here  three  hundred  years,  they,  in  accents  loud  and 
strong,  proclaim  our  freedom.  They  say :  "  Educate  him ; 
make  him  a  man ;  let  him  stay."  Oh,  for  a  phalanx  of  such 
friends !  Who  knows  but  that  God  has  entrusted  this  home 
mission  to  this  phalanx?  While,  as  has  been  noted,  these 
friends  are  found  in  the  South,  an  well  as  the  North,  yet 
when  it  comes  to  this  mission  work,  they  know  no  South,  no 
North,  but  the  broad  United  States,  where  the  Afro- 
American  is  to  stay,  and  where  he  is  to  be  prepared  for  the 
duties  of  citizenship. 

For  the  benefit  of  the  reader,  and  to  support  the  assertions 
here  made  by  actual  expressions  of  some  of  the  editors,  let 
us  behold  their  testimony.  The  Indianapolis  Jouimal  says: 
*'  From  present  indications,  the  colored  race  in  this  country 
will  not  much  longer  be  lacking  in  numerous  examples  of 
men  who  have  earned  recognition  by  their  ability,  education 
and  force  of  character.     The  election  of  a  colored   student 

as   class-orator   at  Harvard    University,  has  already  been 
32 


498  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  FBESS. 

mentioned  in  Uie  JoumaL  The  same  thing  came  near  hap* 
pening  last  week  at  GornelL  Prof.  Langston,  of  Virginia^  who 
is  now  making  speeches  in  Ohio,  enrprises  the  people  of  that 
State  by  his  cultivated  oratory  and  eloquence.  Prof.  W.  S. 
Scarborough,  a  negro  of  unmixed  blood,  who  fills  the  chair  of 
Oreek  and  Latin  in  Wilberforce  Universitj,  is  one  of  the 
finest  Oreek  scholars  in  this  country,  the  author  of  a  Greek 
text-book  now  used  in  Harvard,  Yale,  and  other  colleges, 
the  translator  of  many  Oreek  classics,  and,  though  lees  i^an 
forty  years  old,  a  recognized  authority  in  Oreek  literature. 
He  ranks  high  as  an  essayist  and  lecturer,  and  has  published 
papers  which  have  attracted  attention,  on  "Andocides  and 
the  Andocidean  orations,"  the  "Eclogues  of  Virgil,"  the 
"Greek  Verb"  and  "Fatalism  in  Homer  and  Virgil."  Prof. 
Scarborough  was  born  a  slave  in  Georgia  in  1852,  and  is  a 
graduate  of  Oberlin  College,  Ohio.  He  has  pursued  the 
right  course  to  obtain  recognition  for  his  race  and  himself, 
and  nobody  can  make  him  believe  that  the  negro  is 
incapable  of  progress,  or  that  the  way  is  not  open  for  him  if 
he  has  the  qualities  to  win." 

On  the  question  of  Afro- American  emigration,  I7ie  Joui^al 
further  remarks :  "  Tfie  Journal  sees  no  reason  why  colored 
people  should  desire  to  emigrate  from  the  United  States  to 
Mexico.  This  is  a  better  country  than  Mexico,  in  every  way, 
— better  to  be  born  in,  to  live  in,  and  to  die  in.  It  is  better 
for  the  black  man,  as  well  as  the  white  man.  Circumstances 
have  made  it  the  black  man's  home,  as  much  as  the  white 
man's.  The  colored  people  have  done  their  share  towards 
contributing  to  the  prosperity  of  the  country,  and  have  a 
right  to  stay  here.  There  is  work  for  them  here,  as  well  as 
in  Mexico.  There  is  abundance  of  room  for  them  here,  and 
more  avenues  of  usefulness  and  happiness  open  to  them  than 
they  would  find  in  Mexico." 

In  various  editorial  articles  on  this  subject.  The  Hartford 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  499 

(Conn.)  Cburani  and  ITie  /S.  Paul  (Minn.)  Pioneer   Press 
indorse  The  Journal  by  taking  the  same  view  of  the  question. 

The  Chicago  (111.)  Inter-Ocean^  one  of  the  largest  and 
most  widely  circulated  papers  of  the  Northwest,  gives  the 
following  opinion  of  Afro- American  progress:  *'In  the 
Entire  history  of  mankind,  no  race  has  ever  made  such  rapid 
progress  against  tremendous  odds  as  the  colored  people  of 
this  country  have  since  the  chains  of  slavery  were  stricken 
off,  less  than  a  generation  ago.  Nor  did  emancipation, 
followed  as  it  was  by  enfranchisement,  remove  their  disabilities. 
The  negro  color  has  remained,  with  all  its  disadvantages." 

Commenting  on  the  election  of  Mr.  C.  G.  Morgan  to  the 
class  oratorship  of  Harvard  College,  it  says;  "Such  a 
star  as  Clement  Gerrett  Morgan  relieving  the  darkness,  is  a 
star  of  hope  for  the  entire  race.  By  doing  him  justice,  his 
college  associates  performed  a  higli  duty,  which  can  not  fail 
to  exert  a  most  wholesome  general  influence  upon  the  public 
sentiment  of  the  country,  and  pre])are  tbe  way  for  the 
enforcement.  South  as  well  as  North,  of  the  last  and  crowning 
amendment  to  our  national  Constitution.  It  will  not  long  be 
possible  to  deny,  and  with  impunity  trample  under  foot,  the 
political  rights  of  a  race  that  has,  in  this  centennial  year  of 
the  Constitution,  borne  off  what  may  fairly  rank  as  the 
highest  of  collegiate  honors." 

These  are  only  a  few  of  the  comments  on  the  progress  of 
the  race  from  Northern  journals:  We  will  name  a  few  of 
the  hundreds  that  declare  for  his  development  incessantly: 
The  New  York  Independent^  New  York  Press,  Philadelphia 
Press  J  New  Yo)'k  IVibune,  8pHng field  Republican,  Boston 
Herald^  Philadelphia  Evening  Bulletin,  Rochester  Democrat 
and  Chronicle^  Tlie  Baltimore  Anie^'ican,  TJie  Minneapolis 
Tribune^  and  The  JownalisL 

Let   us  examine   the  views  of  the  Southein    press,   and 
ascertain  its  opinion  of  the  Afro- American  and  his  condition, 


500  THE  AFBO-AMEBICAN  PBE8& 

etc. :  The  view  of  Ihe  San  AnUndo  (Tex.)  Easpr^a^  bx  in 
tlie  suiiuy  South,  is  the  first  whose  testimony  sounds  friendly. 
Says  I'he  Express:  "All  schemes  for  the  removal  of  the 
Afro-American  are  schemes  and  nothing  more.  He  has 
lived  in  America  long  enough  to  become  part  and  parcel  of 
it.  He  will  not  be  taken  to  Africa,  South  America  or 
Mexico,  or  anywhere  else.  If  the  promoters  of  these 
attempts  to  get  rid  of  a  very  valuable  and  necessary  class  of 
citizens  could  revisit  the  earth  100  years  from  now  and  see 
the  man  and  brotlier  in  his  perfected  state  of  development^ 
they  would  return  to  their  graves  with  a  feeling  of  weariness 
over  the  fact  that  tliey  could  have  been  so  foolish  in  life." 

T/ie  Natchez  (Miss.)  Democrat  is  awakening  to  a  sense  of 
its  duty,  as  the  following  clipping  will  show :  "  The  negro 
is  here  to  stay,  and  it  is  the  part  of  wisdom  and  humanity  to 
make  his  condition  as  prosperous  and 'contented  under  just 
laws  as  circumstances  will  permit  and  the  higher  civilization 
of  the  dominant  whites  demands  it  should  be." 

To  our  mind  this  argument  is  good.  Higher  Christian 
civilization  will  not  suffer  itself  to  oppress  the  w^eak  and 
ignorant ;  it  rather  seeks  to  lift  them  up, 

TJie  Cliaitanooga  Timcf^,  another  Southern  contemporary, 
says :  *'  That  the  negro  has  acquired  twenty  millions  worth 
of  taxable  property  in  Texas  and  two  hundred  millions  in 
the  late  slave  states, — these  things  go  for  naught  with  the 
crusaders  who  w^ould  hustle  them  oflf  the  continent  as 
aggregated  nuisances.  These  attacks  on  the  race  by  a 
section  of  the  press  have  undoubtedly  encouraged  attacks  on 
quiet  negroes  and  a  wanton  abuse  of  them  in  many 
instances." 

A  most  commendable  and  sensible  view  of  the  race 
question  is  also  taken  by  The  Baleigh  (N.  C.)  News  and 
Observer  in  the  following  language,  which  can  not  fail  of 
appreciation  and  interest.     Speaking  of  the  race,  the  editor 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  601 

says :  "  We  wish  to  see  them  all  elevated  and  brought  to  a 
full  realization  of  the  duties  of  citizenship,  and  all  enlightened 
as  to  society,  to  the  state,  and  to  the  community  in  which 
they  live  and  of  which  they  form  a  part.  Notwithstanding 
the  white  race  has  been  the  most  progressive,  known  in 
history,  notwithstanding  they  have  been  entirely  free  since 
their  original  settlement  in  the  wilderness  of  this  new  world, 
we  find  among  our  white  people  here  in  North  Carolina 
much  poverty,  much  illiteracy,  much  backwardness  in  the 
progressive  ways  of  the  world." 

There  are  other  Anglo-Saxon  newspapers  in  the  South 
which  take  a  kindly  and  sympathetic  view  of  the  race  as  is 
done  in  the  North.  The  most  prominent  are  the  following: 
The  Knoxville  (Tenn)  Jom-nal,  The  Petei^shurg  (Va.)  Index 
Appeal^  The  Memphis  Conunerdal,  lite  Charleston  (/SI  (7.) 
News  and  Courier ^  The  Ailanixi  (Ga.)  Cansiituticm^  The 
Charlotte  (N.  C.)  Chronicle,  The  New  Orleans  (La.)  Picayune^ 
and  The  St.  Lmiis  Repvhlican. 

The  progress  of  the  race,  however,  has  called  forth  louder 
and  more  friendly  expressions  from  whites  in  the  North  and 
South,  than  from  editors  of  new<«papers.  We  can  not  fail  to 
call  attention  to  some  of  these  views  from  our  friends.  At 
the  suggestion  of  Ex-President  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  Mr. 
A.  K.  Smiley,  proprietor  of  the  Mohonk  Lake  House,  one  of 
the  New  York  summer  resorts,  invited  a  conference  of  leading 
men,  North  and  South,  recently,  to  assemble  at  his  hotel  for 
a  discussion  on  the  **  race  question."  Addresses  were  made 
by  distinguished  white  men  of  the  country  favorable  to  the 
A  fro- American,  prominent  among  whom  were  Gen.  S.  C. 
Armstrong  of  the  H.  M.  and  Agr.  Inst,,  Dr.  Allen  of  the 
Presbyterian  Board  of  Missions,  Dr.  A.  F.  Beard  of  the 
American  Missionary  Society,  President  Gill  of  theSwarth- 
more  College,  Judge  Tourgee,  President  W"oodworth  of 
Tougaloo  University,  and  Andrew  D.  White, 


602  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PBEEB. 

One  of  the  greatest  and  most  telling  speeches  made  during 
he  conference  was  by  Rev.  Joseph  K  Roy,  whose  effort  on 
*'  The  Higher  Education  of  the  Negro,— ^No  Mistake,'*  was  a 
high  compliment  to  the  race  and  an  exhaustive  account  of 
our  situation  in  the  South.  In  the  course  of  his  speech  he 
introduced  the  following  expression  from  Ck>L  J.  S.  L.  Preston 
of  Lexington,  Va.,  which  speaks  well  for  our  situation  in  that 
state:  ''I  speak  advisedly  when  I  say  that  the  negro 
population  in  this  locality  has  made  surprising  progress  in 
material,  intellectual,  moral  and  religious  departments,  since 
their  emancipation." 

Upon  the  question  of  higher  education,  or  the  danger  of 
over-education  on  the  part  of  the  Afro-American,  Mr.  Roy 
quotes  Prof.  A.  K.  Spence  as  follows:  "None;  the  danger 
is  just  the  opposite,  that  of  under-education.  A  smattering 
of  knowledge  may  work  conceit,  while  thorough  study  makes 
men  modest.  The  black  man  is  a  7)ian;  apj>ly  to  him  all  the 
rules  of  humanity.     Good  for  white,  good  for  black." 

This  conference,  familiarly  termed  The  Lake  Mohonk 
Negro  Conference,  passed  resolutions  as  a  result  of  their 
deliberations,  commending  the  Afro- American  as  educators, 
students,  land  owners,  etc.,  and  urged  better  home  life 
among  them  as  a  mass,  industrial  training  in  connection  with 
the  education  of  the  head,  and  the  formation  of  enlightened 
Christian  sentiment  on  the  race  question  and  an  unselfish 
service  'on  the  part  of  the  whites,  in  helping  the  Afro- 
American  to  help  himself.  The  fact  of  Ex-President  Hayes 
having  been  elected  president  of  the  conference,  brings  to 
mind  his  Fourth  of  July  oration  in  1888,  at  Woodstock, 
Conn.,  on  whi^'h  occasion  he  said : 

*'  The  colored  people  were  held  in  bondage,  and  therefore 
in  ignorance,  under  the  Constitution  of  the  nation.  They 
were  set  free  and  made  citizens  and  voters  by  the  most 
solemn  expression  of  the  nation's  will;  and  now«  therefore. 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  503 

the  duty  to  fit  them  by  education  for  citizenship  is  devolved 
upon  the  whole  people." 

The  sentiment  of  Bishop  Fowler  of  the  M.  E.  church  is  one 
ringing  with  truth  and  encouragement.  Says  he  :  "  One 
hnndred  and  thirty  years  hence,  and  the  Stars  and  Stripes 
will  float  over  a  thousand  million  citizens, — almost  as  many 
as  the  entire  population  of  the  earth  to-day.  What  a 
privilege  to  have  a  hand  in  forming  and  developing  the 
institutions  of  to-day !  The  six  million  colored  people  will  be 
grown  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  million,  with  great  univer- 
sities and  renowned  scholars,  with  statesmen  and  rulers, 
with  honors  second  to  none  known  to  the  race.  It  can  not 
be  a  vain  thing  to  purify  the  fountain,  out  of  which  such 
a  vast  stream  shall  flow,  Brothers,  be  patient.  With  one 
hundred  and  fifty  millions  back  of  you,  nothing  shall  be 
impossible  to  you." 

Bishop  Whipple,  in  delivering  the  opening  address  at  the 
Episcopal  convention  in  New  York  City,  October,  1889,  said: 
•*  We  have  some  problems  peculiar  to  ourselves.  Twenty-five 
years  ago,  four  million  slaves  received  American  citizenship. 
The  nation  owes  them  a  debt  of  gratitude.  During  all  the 
horrors  of  our  civil  war,  they  were  protectors  of  Southern 
women  and  children.  Knowing  the  failure  of  their  masters 
would  be  the  guarantee  of  their  freedom,  there  was  not  one 
act  that  master  or  slave  might  wish  to  blot  out.  We  ought 
not,  and  God  will  not  forget  it.  To-day  there  are  eight 
millions  of  negroes.  They  are  here  to  stay.  They  will  not 
be  disfranchised.  Through  them  Africa  can  be  redeemed. 
They  ought  to  be  our  fellow  citizens  in  the  kingdom  of  God." 

The  Rev.  Michael  Burnham,  D.  D.,  of  Springfield,  Maas., 
is  quoted  as  having  said  to  the  students  of  Livingstone 
College,  in  an  address,  May  22,  1889,  the  following  cheerful 
words :  "  As  a  people,  you  have  had  on  you  the  eyes  of  the 
world, — all  this  nation.     As  a  people,  you  have  manifested 


504  THE  AFBO-AMEKIOAN  PRESS. 

the  spirit  and  deeds  of  herolBm,  which  can  never  be  forgotten. 

From  four  millions,  in  a  quarter  of  a  century  yon  have 
become  eight  millions,  with  schools  established  at  many 
points;  and  the  necessity  is  laid  upon  the  hearts  of  the 
people  of  Grod  in  America,  to  educate  and  make  Christians  of 
eight  millions  of  people." 

At  a  recent  meeting  of  Afiro- Americans  in  Rochester,  N.  Y., 
Mayor  William  Carroll  delivered  the  welcome  address.  To 
them  he  said :  "  Since  my  youth,  I  have  aspired  to  see  a 
race  which  was  down-trodden  come  up  and  receive  recognition 
as  fellow-citizens.  Forty  years  sl^  I  was  in  St  Louis  and 
saw  how  badly  the  escaped  slaves  were  used.  How  awful  it 
was  for  men  to  b^  human  beings  I  We  are  all  descendants 
of  Adam  and  Eve,  aud  yet  some  people  had  the  privilege  of 
selling  and  buying  others.  Wicked  act  though  it  was,  it  was 
sanctioned  by  the  law  of  the  land.  How  much  Providence 
has  done  for  the  colored  man  since  1850!  He  has  been 
freed  and  made  the  equal,  as  to  rights  Of  citizenship,  of  the 
white  man.  The  war  of  the  Rebellion  did  this  when  the 
people  of  the  nation  declared  in  favor  of  freedom  for  all." 

Hon.  Geo.  Raines  uttered  the  following  sensible  words,  at 
the  same  gathering:  "This  city  has  a  record  for  kindness 
and  liberality  toward  your  race  for  many  years,  even 
extending  back  to  the  days  when  it  was  dangerous  to 
advocate  any  rights  for  the  colored  men.  In  Rochester,  the 
colored  people  have  been  people  of  character  and  ability. 
They  have  enjoyed  with  us  all  the  benefits  of  living  in  this 
city,  and  have  taken  a  fair  share  in  the  work  and  responsi- 
bility. It  is  therefore  most  proper  that  the  delegates  to  the 
Afro-American  league  should  be  welcomed  to  this  city. 
We  are  one  with  you  in  sympathy  for  the  objects  of  your 
organization.  We  rejoiced  with  you  when  the  barriers  that 
held  you  down  in  former  years  were  removed.     We  are  glad 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  505 

to  see  you  join  the  great  mass  of  laboring  people,  working  for 
the  commercial  greatness  of  the  country.  In  your  efforts  to 
widen  the  field  of  your  race,  in  diversifying  the  industries  in 
which  to  participate,  you  will  assist  the  material  progress  of 
the  state."  The  reader  will  pardon  us  for  not  further  indulg- 
ing in  these  cheering  expressions  from  our  Northern  friends. 
We  wish  to  turn  your  face  Southward  and  consider  the  men's 
view  of  us  with  whom  the  mass  of  us  live.  What  our  former 
masters  have  to  say  complimentary  to  us  will  be  read  with 
interest.  We  are  satisfied  that  the  Sumner,  Grarrison  and 
Phillips  spirit  still  pervades  the  North. 

In  the  South,  there  is  a  considerable  portion  of  the  white 
population  who  are  friendly  to  the  Afro- Americans,  and  they 
are  people  of  wealth  and  of  the  best  blood.  They  are  too 
intellectual  and  aristocratic  to  be  so  silly  as  to  worry  them- 
selves about  a  people  who  are  two  hundred  and  fifty  years 
behind  them  in  the  race  of  life.  They  believe  in  helping  the 
Afro-Americans  to  a  higher  civilization  and  letting  them 
climb  the  ladder  if  they  will.  Among  these  is  the  Hon. 
Joseph  E.  Brown,  U.  S.  Senator  from  Georgia.  In  an  address 
before  the  Senate,  in  advocacy  of  the  Blair  bill,  the  senator 
uttered  these  words :  '*  A  grave  problem  arises  here  for 
solution.  They  must  be  educated;  but  we  are  not  able  to 
educate  them. 

During  the  period  of  slavery  it  was  not  our  policy  to  educate 
them ;  it  was  incompatible,  as  we  thought,  with  the  relation 
existing  between  the  two  races.  Now  that  they  are  citizens. 
we  all  agree  that  it  is  policy  to  educate  them.  As  they  are 
citizens,  let  us  make  them  the  best  citizens  we  can.  I  am 
glad  to  see  that  they  show  a  strong  disposition  to  do  every 
thing  in  their  power  for  the  education  of  their  children. 

I  confess  I  h^ve  better  hopes  of  the  race  for  the  future 


606  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

than  I  had  when  Emancipation  took  place.  They  have 
shown  capacity  to  receive  education  and  a  dispoaition  to 
elevate  themaelves,  which  is  exceedingly  gratifying,  not  only 
to  me  hut  to  every  right  thinking  Southern  man." 

The  Hon.  Gustavus  J.  Orr,  LL.  D.,  once  School  Gommifl- 
sioner  of  Georgia,  gave  a  manly  expression  on  the  progress 
of  the  race,  in  an  address  before  the  Chautauqua  Association, 
some  summers  ago,  his  subject  being,  "  The  Education  of  the 
Negro;  his  Rise,  Progress  and  Present  Status."  Dr.  Orr 
asserts — ^"They  have  been  declared  free;  to  this  we  most 
heartily  consent.  They  have  been  admitted  to  all  the  rights 
of  citizenship ;  in  this  we  acquiesce.  Our  state  constitutions 
and  our  laws  have  declared  that  they  shall  be  educated.  To 
bring  about  this  result  we  will  do  all  that  in  us  lies." 

We  quote  this  to  show  the  expressed  will  of  the  better 
class  of  white  citiz(?ns  to  aid  us  in  our  education.  Let  us 
state  here  for  the  commendation  of  the  South,  that  forty 
millious  of  dollars  have  been  spent  by  the  states  in  Afro- 
American  education.  Half  of  this  amount  has  been  donated 
by  the  North. 

Bishop  A.  G.  Haygood,  decidedly  the  best  friend  to  the 
black  man  in  the  South,  says  these  laudable  words  in  regard 
to  his  progress : 

•*  The  mob't  unique  and  altogether  wonderful  chapter  in  the 
history  of  education  is  that  which  tells  the  story  of  the 
education  of  the  negroes  of  the  South  since  1865.  No  people 
were  ever  helped  so  much  in  twenty-five  yeai-s,  and  no 
illiterate  people  ever  learned  so  fast."  This  tribute  Bishop 
Haygood  paid  the  Afro-American  in  Harpers'  Magazine  of 
Jufy,  1889. 

Mr.  Lewis  H.  Blair,  a  wealthv  and  influential  merchant  of 
Eichmond  City,  has  written  a  work  entitled  "The  I'rosperity 
of  the  South  dependent  upon  the  Elevation  of  tl  e  Negro." 
In  this  he  speaks  gloriously  of  the  Afro-American  and  his 


THE  Anglo-Saxon  press.  507 

development.  He  remarks:  "When  on  Sundays  we  enter 
negro  churches  and  behold  large,  well-dressed,  and  well 
behaved  audiences,  presided  over  by  pastors  of  good  standing 
and  ability;  when  we  observe  their  numerous  benevolent 
societies  conducted ;  when  we  enter  their  schools  and  see 
large  numbers  of  obedient  pupils  diligently  studying  theii 
books,  and  when  in  their  high  schools  we  see  exhibitions  of 
scholarship  that  would  be  creditable  to  the  whites,  with  all 
their  present  and  antecedent  advantages,  we  must  confess 
that  here  is  an  immense  advance." 

There  are  dozens,  yea,  hundreds,  whose  views  are  similar 
to  these  that  have  been  quoted.  These  people  behold  every 
day,  by  contact  and  observation,  the  progress  of  the  race,  and 
they  are  always  ready  to  commend  us  and  bid  us  "go  on." 

(We  will  now  deviate  a  bit  from  our  stated  topic,  but  the 
reader  will  indulge  us  in  so  doing,  we  trust,  since  he  may 
be  benefited  by  a  knowledge  of  the  facts  we  are  about  to 
state, — having  briefly  given  which  we  shall  return  to  the 
subject  proper.) 

The  greatest  progress  made  by  us  has  been  in  the  profes- 
sions of  teaching  and  preaching.  This  has  been  a  sensible 
and  manly  step;  since  the  education  of  the  children  depends 
upon  good  Christian  teachers  and  divine  instruction  from 
competent  preachers.  A  devout  and  well-trained  preacher  is 
necessary  to  a  moral  and  virtuous  people.  The  foundation 
for  a  legal  or  medical  education  must  be  laid  by  the  pious 
and  God-fearing  teacher. 

In  1889,  there  were  16,000  common  schools  in  the  South, 
taught  by  Afro- American  teachers,  and  1,000,000  Afro- 
American  children  attending  such  schools.  There  are  now 
in  the  South  2,000,000  freemen  who  can  read  and  write. 
The  ministry  is  receiving  many  additions  of  brilliant  and 
competent  young  men.  The  Conferences,  Conventions,  Asso- 
ciations, Presbyteries  and  Councils,  will  not  admit  men  who 


608  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PRESS. 

are  noi  trained  for  pastoral  labors.  In  other  words,  they 
have  severely  shut  down  on  ignorance  in  the  pulpit.  We 
have  never  seen  an  estimate  of  the  value  of  our  church 
property,  but  it  is  safe  to  say  it  would  run  up  into  the 
millions.  In  Lynchburg  alone,  Afro-Americans  own  church 
property  valued  at  |75,0(K)  or  |I00,000. 

In  almost  every  city  of  the  South  there  are  Afro-American 
physicians,  from  one  to  three  or  four  in  number.  There  are 
also  many  of  them  practicing  in  the  North  and  West  These 
phyfflcians  are  getting  much  of  the  practice  of  the  race  and 
also  much  of  the  white  practice,  where  they  show  superior 
fitness.  Many  are  growing  weslthy,  possessing  property 
estimated  at  ranging  from  |20,000  to  |95,000. 

The  Baltimore  American  states  that  there  are  two  hundred 
and  tiriv  lawvers  in  the  United  States,  some  of  whom  have 
a  practice  worth  from  $1000  to  $3500  per  annum. 

The  Afro- American  8  personal  property  in  the  United 
States  is  placed,  at  a  close  calculation,  at  $263,000,000: 
Texas,  $20,000,000;  Louisiana,  $18,100,528;  New  York, 
$17,400,750;  Pennsylvania,  $15,300,648;  Mississippi,  $13,- 
400.213;  South  Carolina,  $12,500,000;  North  Carolina, 
$11,010,652;  Georgia,  $10,415,330;  Tennessee,  $10,400,211; 
Alabama,  $9,200,125.  The  other  states  range  among  the 
millions.  The  New  Souths  alluding  to  these  figures,  states 
very  confidently :  **  These  speak  volumes  in  themselves  and 
show  very  plainly  that  this  race  problem  is  not  such  a 
diflicult  one  after  all.  It  needs  only  a  little  patience  and 
forbearance  on  the  part  of  those  who  come  in  contact  with 
the  question,  coupled  with  fidelity  to  duty,  and  it  will  soon 
settle  itself.  Indeed,  there  would  be  no  problem  to  settle. 
What  constitutes  the  problem  is  the  lack  of  these  very 
things  in  so  many  of  those  who  have  to  deal  with  the  question, 
in  one  way  or  another." 
The  race  has  also  furnished  from  two  hundred  and  Mtj 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  509 

to  three  hundred  authors  of  creditable  volumes.  If  the 
authors  of  pamphlets  were  included,  the  list  would  be 
surprisingly  large. 

The  reader  is  to  understand  that  the  number  of  teachers 
named  heretofore  does  not  include  the  many  Afro- Americans 
who  are  now  instructors,  professors,  and  presidents,  in  our 
seminaries,  colleges  and  universities. 

We  have  feebly  attempted  to  discuss  that  kind  and  lovable 
class  of  friendly  white  editors  and  individuals,  from  Maine 
to  the  Gulf.  The  next  class  which  we  wish  to  look  at  is  the 
one  which  may  be  termed  the  unfriendly.  To  a  certain 
extent,  it  is  our  impression  that  conscience  would  lead  every 
being  to  a  sensible  and  manly  view  of  the  race  question ;  in 
other  words,  to  a  view  of  equality  as  to  creation  and 
susceptibilities.  Especially  is  this  the  case  with  the  class 
we  are  considering.  In  short,  they  recognize  all  that  the 
first  class  does,  only  their  prejudiced  thoughts  will  not  be 
guided  by  their  consciences,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  fear 
of  ostracism  and  non-support  forbids  an  expression  of  what 
their  consciences  teach,  on  the  other. 

This  halt- friendly  class  of  newspapers  are  supported  by 
what  they  conclude  to  be  a  prejudiced  community;  and  while 
the  editor  may  be  conscientious  in  his  views,  he  is  bound  to 
meet  the  popular  demand.  He  says  a  word,  now  and  then, 
in  favor  of  the  black  man,  because  his  conscience  is  so 
greatly  moved  upon  by  a  sense  of  right  that  lie  can  not  do 
otherwise. 

This  editor,  again,  is  passingly  polite  to  the  gentleman  of 
ebony  hue  in  the  office,  and,  to  all  intents  and  purposes,  he 
passesses  friendly  feelings  for  the  race ;  yet  in  his  next  paper 
you  may  see  an  editorial,  in  which  he  sends  the  Afro- 
American  to  the  very  courts  of  destruction.  He  will  declare 
the  Afro- American  an  inferior  in  the  editorial ;  while  in  his 
sanctum,  a  while  ago,  he  treated  him  as  a  gentleman  and  an 


610  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

equal.  Personally,  lie  knows  the  difference  between  a  bmta  I 
ul  tlio  rase  tiiid  a  gentleman,  but  editorially  we  are  all  alik^  J 
with  not  6.  particle  of  ditfereuce  among  us.  Tliie  cla£e  af  1 
editors  always  carry,  BtampeJ  npoa  tlieir  consciences,  i 
editorial  with  tlie  caption,  "Consistency,  tlioii  art  a  jewe!."j 
EditofB,  with  the  at^ve  (■liai-act«riBticB,  prevail  in  the  Souti-.l 

There  ie  a  vlnfs  of  Bemi-friendly  editors  and  individuals  that  1 
inhabit  the  North.  They  profeaa  frieiidtihip  for  the  race,  yet 
are  always  eager  to  injui-e  us  in  the  eyes  of  our  Northern 
friends,  Thi^y  talk  about  "liberalizing  fleutiment."  Some  of 
the  editors  prate  about  the  Afro-Aroericai]  being  able  to 
maintain  himself  unaided  now;  others  that  he  is  doing 
nothing  with  whut  the  North  has  given  him.  They  jtublish 
diapatchea  from  thp  South,  which  always  put  the  Afro- 
American  in  a  bad  light.  In  short,  they  are  those  who  are 
ever  anxious  to  parade  the  faults  and  fallacies  of  the  race. 
If  they  demand  equal  justice  for  the  Afro- American,  it  is  in 
the  hope  of  reaping  a  political  harvest  in  the  future.  Thev 
parade  an  harmonious  and  mellifluous  speech,  like  that  of  the 
immortid  Grady  in  Boston,  in  1889,  in  ihe  hope  of  injui-ing 
the  kindly  relation  of  the  Northern  friend  to  the  Afro- 
American. 

The  semi-friendly  individual  is  he  who  accept*  the  teachings 
of  the  semi-friendly  journal.  There  is  a  great  number  of 
Buch  people,  and  they  represent  the  average  wealth  and 
intelligence. 

Let  Hs  now  briefly  pay  our  respects  to  the  class  of 
unfriendly  editors  and  individuals.  Let  us  see  who  they  are, 
whence  cometh  their  liatred  to  us,  and  what  effect  their 
unfriendliness  has  upon  their  brother  in  black. 

This  class  is  to  be  found  prevailing  in  the  South  to  an 
alarming  extent,  while  the  second  cla-ss  will  be  found  in  the 
majority.  North,  The  third  class  of  editoi-s  have  only  the 
race  question  to  subsist  upon.     The  editorial  columns  of  their 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS.  511 

papers  are  forever  filled  with  articles  on  some  phase  of  the 
race  question.  They  are  more  or  less  of  an  abusive  and 
disturbing  nature.  They  delight  in  advocating  race  emigra- 
tion, mob  violence  at  the  polls,  and  the  supremacy  of  one 
people  over  another ;  forgetting  that  wealth  and  intelligence 
will  rule.  The  Afro- American  knows  he  can't  rule  as  yet, 
and  does  not  desire  to ;  so  it  is  a  waste  of  precious  time  to 
discuss  the  matter.  These  editors  would  be  without  a  subject 
to  write  upon,  if  they  were  to  let  their  hobby  alone.  Their 
littleness  can  be  seen  at  once.  It  is  the  same  class  of 
"scribblers"  whom  TJie  Chattanooga  Ihiies  so  completely 
condemns  in  the  following  editorial  paragraph:  **We 
believe  these  scribblers  are  responsible,  in  a  great  measure, 
for  the  existing  discontent  and  defiant  mood  of  the  negroes, 
and  we  do  not  wonder  that  discontent  exists.  The  negro  is 
an  impressionable  creature,  whose  emotions,  rather  than 
perceptions  and  judgment,  determine  his  moods  and  actions. 
It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  he  will  be  content  under  the 
rude  clamor  raised  in  favor  of  his  exclusion,  first,  from  all 
rights  and  privileges  heretofore  granted  him,  and,  finally, 
from  the  country  where  he  was  born  and  reared,  and  which 
his  labor  has  enriched  and  is  still  enriching." 

These  editors  also  glory  in  encouraging  lynch  law,  by 
publishing  the  press  dispatches,  under  such  bold  captions  as 
**  Served  him  right,"  *'  The  good  work  of  Judge 
Lynch."  The  person  lynched  may  deserve  speedy  punish- 
ment in  that  way,  yet  the  better  element  of  the  press  should 
encourage  a  respect  for  justice  and  the  eternal  principles  of 
law. 

It  has  been  estimated  that  of  the  illiterate  people  of  the 
South,  at  least  a  million  are  poor  whites.  Ignorance  being  a 
dangerous  element  in  the  white  man,  as  well  as  the  black,  it 
is  a  wonder  that  they  have  not  come  together  with  a  greater 
crash. 


512  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

It  is  our  impression  that  those  who  compose  the  ku-klux 
gangs,  the  regulators,  and  mobs  for  lynching,  are,  in  the 
main,  of  this  illiterate  class,  urged  on  by  a  few  intelligent 
and  prejudiced  persons,  who  stand  to  see  their  fiendish  work 
well  done.  The  author  is  in  possession  of  a  private  letter 
from  the  "Sunny  South,"  that  warrants  this  belief.  Our 
informant  exalts  the  better  and  liberty-loving  whites  in  his 
section,  and  states  that  he  was  ordered  to  leave  a  district  in 
which  he  was  assigned  to  teach,  by  the  chief  of  the  regulators 
for  that  district  who  did  not  know  the  first  letter  of  the 
alphabet. 

There  is  much  danger  in  this  illiteracy  among  the  whites 
and  blacks,  and  serious  conflicts  may  be  looked  for  until  each 
receives  a  Christian  education.  The  great  and  good  Bishop 
John  P.  Newman  is  very  explicit  on  this  point.  He  says: 
"The  race  problem  is  to  find  its  solution  in  Christian 
education.  In  this  is  the  defense  of  the  rights  of  the 
manhood  of  the  uneducated  whites  and  the  emancipated 
blacks.  Their  intelligence  will  disarm  prejudice,  and  com- 
mend them  to  the  respectful  attention  of  all  fair  minded 
men.  The  preacher  and  the  teacher  will  make  the  new 
South  a  glorious  realization." 

Bishop  Andrews  says:  "The  poor  white  man  and  the 
colored  man  are  here  to  stay  and  to  increase.  If  permitted 
to  remain  ignorant,  they  will  prove  the  blind  Samsons  to 
pull  down  the  pillars  of  our  temple,  and  involve  all  clashes 
in  a  common  destruction." 

Dr.  J.  C.  Ilai  tzell  indoi*ses  the  same  idea,  in  an  address 
before  a  white  conference  of  North  Tennessee.  He  offered 
as  a  solution  of  the  race  problem  the  education  of  the  whites 
and  blacks. 

Summing  up  the  whole  matter  as  to  the  white  man's  view 
of  our  race,  we  think  it  safe  to  say  that  it  is,  in  the  main,  of  a 
commendable  and  sympathizing  nature.     Great  work  is  being 


THE  ANGLO-SAXON  PRESS. 


513 


done  in  the  North  for  us,  while  the  South  does  not  forget  its 
duty.  Virginia,  alone,  appropriates  $300,000  a  year  to  our 
common  school  education,  beside  $30,000  for  our  higher 
education. 

Let  us  remember  that  we  are  not  to  win  the  victory  on 
flowery  beds  of  ease,  or  be  swift  in  running  the  race.  Let  us 
be  patient  until  we  shall  en  masse  win  the  prize  of  education, 
morality,  complete  fi*eedom,  and  citizenship. 


/   •/  # 


CHAPTER  XXV. 

RECOGNITION  OF  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  AS  A  CON- 
TRIBUTOR TO  ANGLO-SAXON  JOURNALS. 


HAVING  noticed  the  relation  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  and 
Afro- American  newspapers,  and  the  views  of  the  differ- 
ent classes  of  Anglo-Saxon  editors  and  individuals,  wo 
shall  be  pleased  if  the  reader  will  go  with  us  while  we  briefly 
consider  the  recognition  which  we  receive  at  the  hands  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  press  as  contributors  and  reporters.  The  recog- 
nition which  is  paid  the  Afro- American  by  the  leading  journals 
goes  far  to  show  what  estimate  is  placed  upon  our  ability  as 
journalists.  The  white  papera,  as  a  general  thing,  will  accept 
a  contribution  showing  any  thought,  or  that  is  an  interesting 
item  of  news,  provided  the  consent  of  the  editor  is  diligently 
sought  for  on  the  part  of  the  contributor.  This  surely  can  not 
be  considered  a  recognition  of  the  writer's  ability,  in  a  broad 
sense.  Technically,  it  is,  for  the  matter  would  not  be  pub- 
lished if  it  were  not  good ;  and  so,  in  a  measure,  it  is  a  recog- 
nition of  the  writer's  ability.  In  this  instance  the  old  adage 
relating  to  the  "  cart  before  the  mule,'*  is  very  applicable ; 
the  effort  seeks  the  newspaper,  instead  of  the  newspaper 
seeking  the  effort.  The  seeking  of  our  efforts  by  newspapers 
is  the  recognition  we  desire  to  bring  to  notice. 


RECOGNITION  AS  OONTRIBUTORS.  515 

"The  greatest  characteristic  of  a  true-born  journalist," 
says  a  writer,  "  is  the  aptness  with  which  he  can  distinguish 
news,  and  the  ability  to  clothe  that  news  into  appropriate 
and  readable  language."  It  need  not  be  adorned  with  flowers 
and  rhetorical  flourishes,  but  the  facts  sliould  be  presented 
in  a  clear,  easy  style,  so  that  there  can  be  no  danger  of  a 
misunderstanding  on  the  part  of  any  reader.  It  is  our 
impression  that  we  have  many  able  to  do  this  among  our 
Afro- American  people;  yes,  many  endowed  with  that  jour- 
nalistic power,  which,  if  cultivated  by  continual  use  and 
strengthened  by  constant  reading  and  studying,  will  make 
them  members  of  one  of  the  greatest  professions  we  have 
knowledge  of. 

In  newspaper  work,  the  Afro-American  may  regard  it  an 
honor  to  have  any  of  his  productions  published  in  a  white 
journal ;  he  may  regard  it  a  favor,  a  compliment  to  himself 
and  to  his  race ;  but  how  much  more  credit  it  would  be  to 
the  race  and  to  himself,  were  he  employed  upon  the  editorial 
staff  of  a  metropolitan  daily,  or  as  a  reporter  for  a  large 
and  widely-circulated  white  journal ;  or  to  be  held  in  such 
estimate  as  to  be  asked  by  the  leading  magazines  and  dailies 
of  the  country  for  a  letter,  or  a  contribution  on  some  stated 
subject.  This  we  conceive  to  be  the  recognition  which  the 
ability  of  many  of  our  journalists  demands,  but  which  only  a 
few  have  received. 

In  what  section  of  our  country  this  recognition  is  accorded 
us,  the  reader  will  readily  conjecture.  There  can  be  no 
dispute  as  to  whether  it  comes  from  the  North  or  the  South, 
since  it  is  so  apparent  it  is  from  the  North.  We  do  not, 
however,  receive  full  recognition  in  the  North;  for  many 
young  men,  educated  at  Harvard  or  Yale,  too  lazy  to  work 
and  afraid  to  come  South,  are  employes  of  the  hotels; 
whereas,  in  the  South,  if  we  are  educated,  we  can  get,  at 
least,  a  country  school  to  teach. 


516  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  FBE8& 

The  fact  that  we  are  not  accorded  proportional  reoognitioa 
mav  be  due  to  the  relative  difference  in  numbeiB  and  to  ao 
much  uunipetiiiou.  This,  however,  is  not  the  iasae  confronting 
us.  Gi-aiit  that  there  is  a  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the 
proportional  recognition,  we  have  the  conaciouaneaB  of 
knowing  that  we  are  recognized  as  joumaliatB,  and  as 
contributors  to  Northern  magazines,  dailies,  and  weeklies. 
We  have  no  such  recognition  in  the  South. 

We  have  made  an  assertion  which  it  becomes  us  to 
support.  The  reader  of  this  volume  has  already  learned 
that  Mr.  T.  T.  Fortune  was  upon  the  editorial  staff  of  I%e 
New  York  Sun.  He  has  furnished  articles  to  the  various 
metropolitan  journals.  In  fact,  he  is  accorded  a  place 
among  the  first  journalists  of  New  York.  John  S.  Durham, 
lately  appointed  consul-general  to  the  Republic  of  San 
Domingo,  was  associate  editor  of  T/ie  Philadelphia  Evening 
Bulktin,  Robert  Teamoli  is  on  the  editorial  staff  of  The 
Boston  GIi)bi\  J.  Gordon  Street  and  Miss  Lillian  Lewis  are 
on  IVie  Boston  Herald.  Prof.  W.  S.  Scarborough  has  time 
and  aguiu  contributed  to  llie  Foi-^um^  Harpers  Magazine, 
etc. 

The  American  Baptist  Publication  Society  has  made  a 
step  in  advance  by  recognizing  the  Afro-American  Baptists 
as  editorial  writers  upon  The  Teacher.  Rev.  W.  J.  Simmons, 
D.  D.,  Rev.  Walter  H.  Brooks,  D.  D.,  and  Rev.  E.  K.  Love, 
are  among  those  thus  complimented.  The  Methodist  Book 
Concern  has  also  recognized  Afro- American  ability  upon  ITie 
Journal.  Rev.  A.  E.  P.  Albert,  D.  D.,  is  one  thus  recognized. 
The  press  clubs  and  associations  in  the  North  have  admitted 
Afro-Americans  to  membership.  The  white  journals  from 
the  Ma-son-and-Dixon  line  to  the  far  North,  are  cognizant  of 
the  Afro- American's  talent,  in  this  direction. 

In  the  South,  some  of  the  white  journals  have  had  Afro- 
American   reportei*s.     This  has  been  the  case  with  some  of 


RECOGNITION  AS  CONTRIBUTORS.  517 

the  papers  of  Baltimore,  which  have  given  us  positions  as 
space  writers.  Other  cities  have  done  likewise,  among  them 
Lynchburg  and  Petersburg.  But  none  of  the  large,  influential 
Southern  papers,  such  as  The  ConstitiUion  and  2'he  News  and 
OowieTf  have  as  yet  accepted  us  as  contributors.  It  is  true, 
that  news  items  relating  to  some  demonstration,  such  as  a 
commencement,  etc.,  are  received  occasionally. 

It  is  for  this  reason,  as  much  as  any  other,  that  the  white 
man  in  the  South  does  not  really  understand  our  true 
development.  He  does  not  read  our  race  papers,  and  thus 
learn  of  our  advancement,  nor  does  he  get  the  information 
from  his  own  papers.  He  never  goes  into  an  Afro- American 
church  or  attends  our  literary  entertainments,  nor  does  he 
witness  our  home-life ;  therefore,  he  is  left  to  conclude  that  all 
black  people  are  like  those  he  sees  frequently  arraigned 
before  the  magistrates  and  mayors  of  the  town. 

In  many  of  the  papers  nothing  is  seen  about  the  Afro- 
American,  save  his  record  in  some  court.  Such  is  not  the 
case  in  all  cities,  but  it  is  in  the  majority  of  them.  The 
Afro- American  certainly  knows  more  about  his  race  than  any 
one  else,  and  for  the  more  conservative  Southern  papers  to 
give  them  recognition  would  go  a  long  way  in  producing  a 
just  and  fair  opinion  of  us  as  a  race. 

After  discussing  the  position  of  the  white  press,  both  as  to 
section  and  its  attitude  toward  the  Afro- American  press  and 
people,  it  seems  as  though  it  must  be  very  generally  admitted 
that  the  greatness  of  America,  and  her  continued  development 
depend  upon  the  unity  of  the  press  and  the  pulpit.  In  this 
fight,  the  cardinal  points  must  certainly  be  unity  of  purpose 
and  design.  Our  prejudiced  friends  should  remember  that 
the  Afro-American  is  surely  an  important  part  of  the  nation, 
and  that  so  long  as  the  desire  to  keep  him  back  gets  the 
better  of  their  desire  for  the  country's  }>rogress,  so  long  will 
the  country,  especially  the  South,  be  kept  back.     "  In  union 


6ia         The  apro-american  press. 

there  is  Rtrengtii ;"  therefore,  a  concerted  action  of  the  wholfl 
press  is  bound  to  bring  progress,  as  well  as  "liberty  and 
union,  now  and  forever,  one  and  inseparable." 


CHAPTER  XXVI. 


THE  FREEDOM  OF  THE  PRESS. 


NATURALLY,  with  all  people,  the  freedom  of  speech  and 
thought  are  cardinal  principles  to  be  devoutly  wished 
for,  and  sought.  Whether  this  freedom  of  thought  is 
expressed  through  the  instrumentality  of  the  press,  or  by  our 
vocal  organs  on  the  stump,  pulpit  or  rostrum,  it  is  nevertheless 
a  dear  and  precious  privilege  that  we  cannot  afford  to  abuse, 
but  one  that  we  should  use  in  the  maintenance  of  good  and 
wise  principles. 

To  no  country  is  the  freedom  of  expression  by  means  of 
printed  characters,  or  what  is  popularly  known  as  the  freedom 
of  the  press,  more  fully  guaranteed  and  protected  by  the 
powers  that  be,  than  in  our  own  United  States  and  in 
England. 

However,  before  discussing  it  in  this  wise  we  may  be 
profited  by  a  proper  understanding  of  what  we  mean  by  the 
freedom  of  the  press.  Chambers'  Encyclopedia  defines  it  as  the 
absence  of  any  authorized  official  restraint  on  publication. 

In  other  words,  there  is  no  law  defining  the  direction  of  the 
press,  or  any  expression  of  its  opinion,  so  long  as  it  conforms 
to  right.     The  Britannica   Encyclopedia  on   the  freedom  of 


520  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PRESa 

the  press  gives  this  definition :  **  The  firee  ocwnwintiication  of 
thoaghts  and  opinions  is  one  of  the  inTalnable  rights  of 
every  man ;  and  every  citizen  may  freely  speak,  vrite,  and 
print  on  any  subject,  being  responsible  for  the  abase  of  Hiat 
Uberty." 

It  may  be  of  interest  here  for  na  to  still  for&er  oondder 
the  opinions  on  the  freedom  of  the  press.  Lord  Wynford 
says :  "  My  opinion  on  the  liberty  of  the  press  is,  that  every 
man  may  fearlessly  advance  any  new  doctrine,  providing  he 
does  so  with  proper  respect  to  religion  and  the  government 
of  the  country,  that  he  may  point  out  errors  in  the  measaree 
of  public  men ;  but  he  must  not  impute  conduct  to  thenL 
The  liberty  of  the  press  can  not  be  carried  to  this  extent 
without  violating  another  equally  sacred  right,  the  right  of 
character.  This  right  can  only  be  attacked  in  a  court  of 
justice,  where  the  party  assailed  has  a  fair  opportunity  of 
defending  himself.  Where  vituperation  begins,  the  liberty 
of  the  people  ends." 

To  the  thoughtful  reader,  the  entire  measure  of  the  freedom 
of  the  press  can  be  readily  comprehended  from  these  opinions ; 
but  if  not  yet  clearly  understood,  a  consultation  of  the  views 
of  our  martyred  President,  James  A.  Garfield,  will  probably 
serve  the  purpose.  It  was  on  account  of  this  freedom  that 
the  Earl  of  Beaconsfield  was  proud  of  his  identity  with  the 
press. 

We  have  fully  considered  the  freedom  of  this  force ;  we 
may  now  observe  the  official  protection  the  various  countries 
offer  it  and  whether  the  same  liberty  exists  in  all  countries 
alike. 

Long  before  the  discovery  of  America  the  press  was  in 
operation;  not,  however,  as  a  free  and  equal  privilege  of 
every  one  who  wished  to  express  himself  through  this 
medium.  Certain  authorities  took  hold  of  this  way  of 
expressing  thought  freely  and  held  it  within  their  grasp,  and 


THE  FREEDOM  OF  THE  PRESS.  521 

no  one  was  allowed  to  publish  or  print  on  paper,  without 
their  consent.  It  also  soon  became  subject  to  the  censorship 
of  the  religion  of  England,  especially  on  matters  pertaining 
to  Christianity. 

After  this  the  press  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  crown, 
by  mutual  consent  upon  the  part  of  the  religious  and  secular 
powers  who  were  the  censors.  There  was  a  certain  license 
to  be  paid  for  the  publication  of  papers  now,  and  only  certain 
people  were  allowed  to  publish  them.  Those  who  did  so 
unlawfully,  were  punishable  by  law.  If  caught,  the  presses 
were  levied  upon  by  an  officer,  who  was  known  as  "press 
messenger."  In  1693  the  censorship  of  the  English  press 
ceased  to  exist,  and  there  has  been  perfect  freedom  of  the 
press,  with  certain  restrictions  on  publishers  of  libelous  or 
criminal  matter.  That  this  freedom,  in  all  respects,  is  the 
same  as  in  the  United  States,  the  author  is  unprepared  to 
assert. 

The  freedom  of  the  press  in  our  country  is  guaranteed  by 
the  Constitution,  with  a  few  restrictions,  as  every  one 
conversant  with  our  laws  is  aware.  Article  I  of  the 
amended  Constitution  says:  "Congress  shall  make  no  law 
abridging  the  freedom  of  speech  or  of  the  press."  The 
restrictions  that  are  imposed  upon  persons,  matter,  etc.,  in  the 
various  phases  of  law,  such  as  libel,  copyright,  and  rights  of 
a  private  character,  are  presumably  imposed  for  the  public 
good. 

It  is  safe  for  us  to  say  that  in  our  own  country  the  press 
has  unlimited  freedom.  The  restrictions  put  upon  it  do  not 
limit  its  freedom,  since  they  are  imposed  principally  to 
suppress  censure  and  abuse,  and,  as  Lord  Wynford  says: 
"  Where  vituperation  begins,  the  liberty  of*  the  press  ends." 

It  goes  without  saying,  that  since  tlie  press  is  allowed 
perfect  freedom  in  its  expression  of  opinion,  and  since  the 
Constitution  licenses  it  by  asserting  that  no  law  shall  abridge 


622  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRSsS. 

its  freedom,  aud  since  its  editors  have  often  large  abilit; 
the  greftteut  power  imaginable  attends  its  utterances. 

Tlie  increased  popularity  of  the  English  press,  and  it«  1 
retention  within  the  grasp  of  a  few  men  for  so  long  a  time,  i 
waa  due  to  the  discovery  of  its  power  as  a  political  etiginfl  I 
ttud  in  various  other  directions. 

A  high  authority  defines  the  power  of  the  press  in  thia  , 
language :  "  The  press  is  an  instrument  well  adapted  for  i 
disturbing  the  functions  of  government,  and  committiog  , 
injuries  against  reputation.'* 

In  the  creation  of  sentiment  there  is  not  a  force  in  all  the 
land  with  sufficient  power  to  array  itself  aa  an  equal  of  the 
press.  This  ia  the  whole  power  of  the  press  in  a  nutshell. 
In  what  direction,  for  what  cause,  for  and  against  whom  is 
this  sentiment  created,  are  the  various  phases  of  its  power. 
The  press  can  elect  a  president  of  the  United  States;  it 
can  sink  a  public  measure  into  oblivion;  it  can  create  wars; 
it  can  cause  the  destruction  of  a  nation  by  creating  public 
sentiment. 

The  ability  and  fitness  of  the  press  is  the  measure  of  a 
country's  progress  and  of  its  power.  It  cause.s  the  country 
to  develop,  by  publishing  its  resources.  A  unanimous 
suggestion  of  tlie  press  is  followed  by  an  equally  unanimous 
action  of  the  people.  It  can  rear  up  and  pull  down ;  it  mw 
create  and  it  caii  destroy.  In  fact,  there  is  no  speech  or 
language  in  which  we  may  express  ourselves  forcibly  enough, 
to  depict  accurately  the  Herculean  power  of  the  press.  It  is 
a  nation's  great  stronghold  and  defense.  It  ia  the  popular 
teacher  of  every  individual.  In  some  way,  it  reaches  into 
every  household. 

These  last  thoughts,  coupled  with  the  opinion  of  Lord 
Wynford  on  the  liberty  of  the  press,  call  to  mind  the  fact 
that  in  our  country,  where  all  men  are  recognized  as  one 
people,  the  cannon  mouth  of  the  press,  in  many  instances,  is 


THE  t'llEfiDOM  OF  TEtE  PRESS.  628 

turned  as  a  formidable  enemy  against  a  certain  portion  of 
this  people.  Remember  the  opinion  of  Lord  Wynford,  an 
Englishman  of  high  culture,  with  much  wealth  and  of  royal 
blood,  an  editorial  sire.  Again,  remember  that  principles  and 
doctrines  may  be  advocated,  so  long  as  there  is  proper  respect 
for  the  government  and  religion.  The  inference  is,  that 
outside  of  this,  there  is  no  freedom  of  the  press,  but  an  abuse 
of  the  right  extended  to  it. 

Notice  again  that  a  creation  of  sentiment  against  the  right 
of  character  is  another  abuse  of  its  freedom  and  power,  and 
that  where  censure,  abuse,  creation  of  strife,  and  the  indorse- 
ment of  unlawful  measures  begin,  there  the  liberty  of  the 
press  ends.  Are  all  of  our  newspapers  free  from  this  abuse 
of  their  liberty?  In  the  light  of  Lord  Wynford's  opinion,  is 
any  part  of  the  press  of  our  country  responsible  for  the 
maltreatment  of  one  people  by  the  other,  and  a  continued 
existence  of  prejudice?  If  "where  vituperation  begins,  the 
liberty  of  the  press  ends,"  is  there  more  vituperation  than 
liberty  exercised  by  a  part  of  our  press?  Is  the  press 
accountable  for  any  disregard  of  the  law?  Is  it  in  its  power 
to  cause  peace  in  every  nook  of  our  commonwealth?  These 
questions,  with  many  others  that  will  naturally  arise  in  one's 
mind,  are  presented  for  consideration. 

Milton  in  his  Areopagitica  gives  the  true  scope  of  the  press, 
80  far  as  every  individual  is  concerned,  when  he  said: 
"  Give  me  the  liberty  to  know,  to  utter,  and  to  argue  freely 
according  to  conscience,  above  all  other  liberties." 

The  press  standing  as  one  of  the  great  safeguards  of  the 
nation  should  carry  out  the  mission  which  the  following  lines 
so  plainly  portray : 

"  Here  shall  the  press  the  people^s  rights  maintain, 
Unawed  by  Influence,  and  unbribed  by  gain. 
Here  patriot  truth  her  glorious  precepts  draw, 
Pledged  to  religion,  liberty  and  law." 


CHAPTER  XXVII. 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUR 


THE  condition  of  the  Afro- American  in  the  Union,  particu- 
larly in  the  South,  as  to  protection  of  life  and  property, 
the  lack  of  enjoyment  of  equal  rights  and  privileges  in 
every  instance  previous  to  and  since  1887,  made  the  demand 
for  an  organized  eflfort  of  some  character  upon  the  part  of  the 
Afro-American  to  maintain  and  defend  his  rights  a  necessity. 
"What  shall  we  do  to  save  ourselves,  and  our  people?'*  was  a 
question  of  pressing  ini2)ortance  to  every  one  of  the  emanci- 
pated freedmen.  The  decision  of  Chief  Justice  Taney,  which 
is  remembered  by  the  blacks  with  regret,  and  by  many  of  the 
whites  with  pleasure,  and  the  Southern  policy  of  President 
Hayes,  with  the  repeated  declarations  of  Chief  Executives 
and  Congress  to  Afro-American  delegations  that  they  could 
not  interfere  with  State  rights,  hence  could  do  them  no  good, 
made  the  demand  for  race  concentration  greater  and  greater 
every  day.  The  race  leaders  were  put  to  their  wits'  end  to 
devise  some  means  which  would  lead  to  the  accomplishment 
of  their  desire.  From  the  first  sitting  of  an  Afro- American 
convention  in  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  October  4th,  1864,  to  tho 
present  day,  these  grave  questions  confronting  the  race  have 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUE.  525 

been  soberly  and  wisely  cousidered.  The  question  assumed 
prominence  in  the  Syracuse  convention  by  the  attacks  and 
jeers  of  some  evil  designing  white  men.  It  was  in  this 
convention  that  Hon.  Frederick  Douglass  answered  with 
telling  effect  some  whites,  who,  after  noticing  the  Afro- 
Americans  passing  to  and  from  the  hall,  sarcastically  asked — 
"Where  are  those  d— -d  niggers  going?" 

At  this  convention  the  business  committee,  through  its 
chairman,  Rev.  Henry  Highland  Garnett,  D.  D.,  reported 
**  A  Declaration  of  Wrongs  and  Rights;"  these  were  nothing 
more  than  a  parcel  of  resolutions  introduced  and  passed. 
This  precedent,  once  established,  was  devoutly  clung  to  until 
1887,  when  something  tangible  was  laid  before  the  Afro- 
Americans  all  over  the  country  for  their  consideration  and 
sanction. 

Heretofore,  resolutions  had  been  introduced  in  convention 
after  convention,  and  passed  several  national  and  state 
conventions,  setting  forth  our  needs,  etc.  These  resolutions 
introduced  and  passed  were  delivered  by  delegation  to  the 
president  and  members  of  Congress,  who  gave  them  the 
following  words  of  assurance :  *'  Gentlemen,  we  appreciate 
your  position ;  your  case  shall  have  proper  consideration." 
This  said,  we  heard  no  more. 

This  state  of  aflfairs  the  black  newspaper  fraternity  decided 
could  not  longer  exist;  accordingly  they  began  to  think 
profoundly,  and  soon  one  of  the  number,  Editor  T.  Thomas 
Fortune,  aroused  from  his  revery  and  brought  from  its 
depths  the  Afro-American  League. 

In  Tfie  New  York  Freeman  of  August  and  September, 
1887,  Mr.  Fortune  published  a  series  of  articles,  stating  the 
cause  for  organization,  the  manner  of  organization,  and  the 
results  sure  to  attend  its  efforts,  if  properly  managed.  These 
articles  were  considered  the  ablest  treatise  on  the  condition 
and  remedy  for  race  recognition  ever  published  by  a  black 


626  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

man.  The  issae  of  September  10,  1887,  contained  the  plan 
of  organization.^  Several  leagues  were  immediately  organised, 
the  first  being  that  of  Richmond,  Va. 

The  author,  having  been  forcibly  impressed  with  the 
expediency  of  such  an  organization,  read  a  paper  in  its 
interest  (August  15,  1887,)  before  the  New  Era  Literary 
society  of  Lynchburg,  Va.  The  Afro-American  citizens  of 
the  Union,  though  under  oppression  and  desirous  of  relief, 
did  not  take  to  the  organization,  presumably  on  account  of 
the  lack  of  proper  knowledge  of  it,  as  succeeding  action 
proved.  Thus  it  was  not  until  Mr.  William  E.  Matthews, 
LL.  B.,  a  prominent  Afro- American  banker  of  Washington, 
having  been  deeply  impressed  with  the  courtesy  extended 
him  while  on  a  trip  to  Europe,  and  noticing  the  lack  of  such 
courtesies  and  the  race  restriction  and  discrimination  on  his 
return  to  America,  addressed  a  letter  to  Hon.  John  M. 
Langston,  M.  C,  in  which  he  urged  the  organization  of  the 
Afro- American  league;  hence,  the  credit  for  the  revival  of 
the  same  belongs  to  Mr.  Matthews,  and  accordingly  The 
Plaindealer  pays  him  the  following  tribute :  "  When  the 
concentrated  eflforts  of  the  whole  race,  acting  through  the 
agency  of  the  Afro-American  league,  shall  have  secured  to 
every  man  and  woman  of  African  descent  the  protection  and 
justice  enjoyed  by  all  other  classes  of  citizens,  the  name  of 
William  E.  Matthews  will  be  intimately  associated  with  the 
history  of  this  great  movement." 

The  institution  of  the  league  was  at  once  taken  hold  of 
with  renewed  strength  by  individuals  of  .the  race  and  by  all 
of  the  Afro- American  journalists,  with  a  vim  and  a  power 
known  only  to  the  newspaper  man  of  firm  and  unflinching 
convictions.  Every  Afro-American  editor,  with  quill  in 
hand,  took  a  decided  stand  for  the  league,  proclaiming  to  the 
world — "Upon  this  rock  I  stand;  all  other  is  sinking  sand," 

The  New  Yoik  Age  began  a  lively  crusade,  while  The 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUE.  627 

Plaindealer  of  Detroit,  Mich.,  issued  a  circular  to  the  leading 
men,  calling  on  them  for  aid.  The  response  from  these 
circulars  was  both  satisfactory  and  encouraging.  ITie 
Plaindealer  publishes  them  under  the  caption — "Let  ua 
reason  together." 

Judge  A.  W.  Tourgee,  in  his  answer  to  27ie  Plaindealer, 
said:  '*If  Irishmen  may  organize,  to  aid  in  improving  the 
condition  of  Ireland ;  or  other  nationalities  among  our  citizen- 
ship, to  perpetuate  the  tradition  of  the  land  of  their  nativity, 
I  can  not  see  why  it  is  not  only  the  privilege  but  the  bounden 
duty  of  the  only  class  of  our  citizens  whom  any  one  has 
ever  proposed  to  deprive  of  the  rights  so  readily  conferred 
upon  the  alien,  to  organize  for  consultation  and  harmony  of 
action  in  the  maintenance  of  their  lawful  rights,  in  a  lawful 
manner/' 

Prof.  B.  T.  Washington  said:  **An  organization  of  this 
kind,  I  am  sure,  can  be  made  to  serve  a  good  end,  if  it  can, 
in  some  way,  be  made  to  reach  the  masses  of  the  colored 
people.  Most  of  our  conferences,  conventions,  etc.,  have 
reached  only  the  mountain  peaks,  leaving  the  great  Alpine 
range  of  humanity  and  activity  below." 

Other  views  were  received  from  Hons.  John  R.  Lynch, 
J.  M.  Townsend,  Rev.  J.  C.  Price,  D.  D.,  and  a  host  of  others. 
Suffice  to  say,  the  consensus  of  opinion  was  so  satisfactory 
to  l^he  Plaindealer,  it  was  led,  editorially,  to  ask  for  a  call, 
as  follows:  The  success  of  the  proposed  national  Afro- 
American  League  is  almost  assured ;  there  remains  but  one 
preliminary  arrangement  to  be  perfected,  and  that  is  the 
call  with  the  number  of  delegates  to  which  each  state  is 
entitled.  This  should  be  made  before  new  state  organizations 
are  effected,  to  save  the  expense  of  two  state  conventions. 
The  consensus  of  opinion,  as  gathered  from  27ie  Plaindealer 
from  those  in  a  position  to  represent  the  sentiment  of  their 
localities,   is  almost  unanimous  as  to  the  need  of  such  an 


528  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

organization  to  exhaust  every  legal  remedy  to  secure  rigbts 
which  the  Constitution  guarantees.  There  is  no  question 
that  if  the  league  be  non-political,  that  we  shall  have 
thousands  of  white  men  who  will  aid  us  in  every  material 
way.  The  sense  of  justice,  both  North  and  Bouth,  among  the 
intelligent  people  is  greater  than  a  casual  observer  would 
suppose.  The  agitation  pushed  so  far  has  been  productive  of 
rich,  yet  unexpected  fruit  already." 

Hie  New  York  Age  said :  "  Interest  in  the  Afro- American 
league  constantly  augments.  From  all  sections  of  the 
country  letters  are  received,  asking  for  information  upon 
which  the  league  .should  be  organized.  Leagues  are  springing 
up  at  points  so  far  apart  as  to  indicate  unmistakably  how 
extensively  dilfused  and  deep  rooted  the  idea  has  become  in 
the  minds  of  the  people. 

•  •••••«••• 

Let  us  have  a  national  meeting.  We  submit  in  another 
column  the  plan  of  organization  publisliod  by  us  September 
10,  1887,  for  the  guidance  of  those  who  desire  now  to  move 
in  the  matter  of  organization,  and  we  do  so  because  the 
correspondence  from  all  parts  of  the  country  for  information 
as  to  plan  of  organization  has  grown  so  enormous  as  to  be  a 
drain  upon  our  time." 

The  following  constitution  was  then  offered  bv  Mr.  Fortune: 

Sec.  1.     Any  person  of  the  age  of  eighteen  and  upward 

(without  regard  to  race,  color  or  sex)  can  become  a  member 

of  thi's  league  by  subscribing  to  its  constitution  and  by-laws, 

and    by    the    payment   of    the    entrance    fee   and    monthly 

assessment  of . 

Sec.  2.  The  objects  of  this  league  are  to  protest  against 
taxation  without  representation;  to  secure  a  more  equitable 
distribution  of  school  funds;  to  insist  upon  fair  and  impartial 
trial  by  judge  and  jury  of  peers,  in  all  cases  at  law  wherein 
we   may  be   a  party;  to  resist  by  all  legal  and  reasonable 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUE.  529 

means  mob  and  lynch  law,  whereof  we  are  made  the  victims, 
and  to  insist  upon  the  arrest  and  punishment  of  all  such 
offenders  against  our  legal  rights;  to  resist  the  tyrannical 
usage  of  railroad  and  steamboat  and  other  corporations,  and 
the  violent  and  insulting  conduct  of  their  employes  in  all 
instances  where  we  are  concerned,  by  prosecution  of  such 
corporations  and  tlieir  employes  in  state  and  federal  courts; 
to  labor  for  the  reformation  of  our  penal  institutions,  where 
barbarous,  cruel,  and  unchristian  treatment  of  convicts  is 
practiced,  and  to  insist  on  healthy  emigration  from  terror- 
ridden  sections  to  other  and  more  law-abiding  sections. 

Sec.  3.  A  general  tax  of  $1.  per  annum  on  all  members  of 
this  branch  league  shall  be  levied  and  conserved  by  the 
treasurer  into  the  treasury  of  the  national  league,  to  carry 
out  the  objects  set  forth  in  Section  2, 

Sec.  4.  The  objects  of  this  league  shall  be  conserved  by 
the  creation  of  a  healthy  public  opi?iion,  through  the  medium 
of  public  meetings  and  addresses,  and  by  ap2)ealing  to  the 
courts  of  law  for  redress  of  all  denial  of  legal  and  constitu- 
tional rights;  the  purpose  of  this  league  being  to  secure  the 
ends  desired  by  peaceable  and  lawful  methods. 

Sec.  5.  This  league  is  in  no  sense  a  partisan  body,  and  no 
man  shall  be  debarred  from  membership  therein  because  of 
his  political  opinions. 

BY-LAWS. 

1.  The  name  of  this  organization  shall  be  the  Afro- 
American  League  of — No. — 

2.  The  officers  of  this  league  shall  be  one  president,  two 
vice-presidents,  one  secretary  and  two  assistant  secretaries, 
one  treasurer,  two  chaplains,  two  serjeants-at-arms,  and  an 
executive  committee  of  five,  the  officers  to  be  elected  (as  the 
league  shall  determine.) 

3.  This  branch  league  shall  meet  at — the  first  Tuesday 
in  each  month  (or  oftener,  at  the  discretion  of  the  league,)  at 

34 


530  THE  AFKO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 


8  o'clock  p.  m.,  witk  open  or  secret  meetings  at  the  dinn^on 
of  lUe  league. 

4.  Tills  branch  league  shall  be  subject  to  the  laws 
hereafter  made  by  the  uational  Afro-American  league. 

With  this  published,  aud  the  rapid  foriflation  of  branch 
leagues  ia  many  atat?;^,  the  desire  for  a  uational  call  grew 
greater  and  greater.  The  newspapers  were  loud  in  tbeii- 
demands,  in  response  to  which  the  Ibllowiug  call  was  issued 
November  4,  1890: 

To  the  Colored  Citizens  of  the  Jirpublic:  Bebg  convinced 
that  the  time  is  ripe  for  the  organization  of  tlie  Natioiiul 
Afro-American  League,  proposed  by  me  two  years  ago.  to 
successfully  combat  the  denial  of  our  Constitutiotial  and 
inherent  rights,  so  generally  denied  or  abridged  thronghout 
the  Republic,  and  being  urged  to  do  so  by  members  of  branch 
leagues  all  over  the  country,  I,  by  these  presents,  issue  a 
call  to  all  the  branches  of  the  A  fro- American  League,  and 
invite  all  clubs  and  societies  organized  to  secure  the  rights 
of  the  race,  to  meet  by  their  representatives  in  National 
Convention  at  Chicago,  III.,  Wednesday,  January  15,  1890, 
for  the  purpose  of  organizing  a  National  Afro-American 
League ;  Ihe  bam  of  Beprescntation  to  be  four  delegates  for  every 
one  hundred  members,  or  one  delegate  far  every  twerdy-five 
members,  constituting  the  branch  league,  club  or  society, 
desiiing  to  co-operate  in  the  movement  for  National  organi- 
zation. 

Correspondence  from  all  organizatdona  desiring  to  join  in 
this  movement  is  requested. 

Very  respectfully, 

T.  Thomas  Foeiuks. 
New  York,  November  4,  1S89. 
Concurring  in  this  call : 
Alexander  WiLTEiia  of  New  York, 
J.  Go&DON  Street  of  Massachusetta, 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUE.  531 

W.  A.  Pledger  of  Georgia, 

Robert  Pelham,  Jr.,  of  Micliigan, 

Edward  E.  Cooper  of  Indiana, 

H.  C.  Smith  of  Ohio, 

John  Mitchell,  Jr.,  of  Virginia, 

Magnus  L.  Robinson  of  Virginia, 

J.  C.  Price  of  North  Carolina, 

John  C.  Dancy  of  North  Carolina, 

Thomas  T.  Symmons  of  the  District  of  Columbia, 

F.  L.  Barnett  of  Illinois, 

Z.  T.  Cline  of  New  Jersey, 

Van  N.  Williams  of  Alabama, 

B.  Prillerman  of  West  Virginia, 

William  H.  Heard  of  Pennsylvania, 

R.  K.  Sampson  of  Tennessee, 

H.  M.  Morris  of  South  Carolina, 

James  G.  McPherson  of  Mississippi, 
and  others. 

The  reader  will  notice  that  this  call  is  signed,  in  the  main, 
by  the  young  and  progressive  newspaper  element. 

The  local  leagues  having  been  organized  in  various  sections, 
delegates  were  elected  to  the  national  convention  according 
to  the  direction  of  the  call.  The  call  for  the  convention 
was  indorsed  by  The  A.  M.  E.  Church  Review^  in  the 
following  forcible  language:  "The  interest  and  enthusiasm 
with  which  the  call  for  a  meeting  of  the  Afro- American 
leagues  in  the  several  states  to  convene  at  Chicago,  January 
15,  1890,  for  the  purpose  of  eflfecting  a  national  organization, 
has  been  received  by  the  race  in  every  section  of  the  country, 
is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  and  significant  manifestations 
of  awakened  manhood  shown  by  the  race  since  or  before  the 
war.  The  unanimity  with  which  the  people  have  responded 
to  the  call  for  national  organization  eflfectually  disposes  of  the 
belief,  long  current  and  firmly  rooted,  that  the  Afro- American 


532    .  THE  AFRO- AMERICAN  PRESS. 

was  constitutionally  inc«apable  of  grasping  the  potentiali- 
ties of  co-operation  and  of  turning  them  to  advantage.  To 
be  sure,  the  great  work  to  be  done  by  the  league  remains 
to  be  subjected  to  the  crucial  test  of  practical  demonstration ; 
but,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  victory  is  more  than  half  assured 
in  al4  such  efforts  when  large  masses  of  men,  widely  separated 
and  differently  circumstanced,  begin  to  think  in  a  given 
groove,  and  to  declare  their  readiness  to  move  together  as 
one  man,  to  accomplish  a  given  result.  That  the  race  lias 
reached  this  point  to-day,  and  will  meet  in  convention  to 
perfect  a  permanent  organization  which  shall  put  to  the  test 
ita  capacity  for  intelligent  and  uncompromising  contention  tor 
absolute  ju.stice  under  the  Constitution,  marks  a  tremendous 
advance  in  all  the  elements  of  strong,  resourceful  and 
aggressive  manhood." 

In  acc'or«lance  with  the  call,  the  league  convened  in 
Chicago,  January  15,  1890,  and  was  an  enthusiastic  gathering. 
There  were  twenty-one  states  represented  by  a  convention  of 
one  hundred  iind  forty-one  delegates.  A  national  organization 
was  eti'ected,  with  Rev.  J.  C.  Price,  D.  D.,  of  Livingstone 
College,  president;  T.  Thomiis  Fortune,  Esq.,  editor  iVcu» 
York  ylyr,  secretary ;  Lawyer  E.  11.  Morris,  Chicago,  attorney; 
and  George  H.  Jackson,  Esq.,  treasurer. 

The  object  of  the  meeting  was  clearly  and  forcibly  made 
known  when  Mr.  Fortune  said :  '*  We  have  met  here  to-dav 
as  representatives  of  8,000,000  freemen,  who  know  cmr 
rights  and  have  the  courage  to  defend  them.  We  have  nu*t 
here  to-day  to  impress  the  fact  upon  men  who  have  used  us 
for  selfish  and  unholy  purposes,  who  have  murdered  and 
robbed  and  outraged  us,  that  our  past  condition  of  dependence 
and  helplessness  no  longer  exists."  Thus  the  key-note  was 
sounded  which  united  the  clansmen. 

The  work  of  the  league  organization  is  a  very  thorough 
and  matured  plan.     It  is  divided  into  three  sections,  national 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUE.  583 

state  and  local.  The  state  organizations  are  subordinate  to 
the  national,  and  the  local  leagues  are  subordinate  to  the 
state.  The  object  of  the  national  league  is  the  same  as  that 
of  local  and  state  leagues,  only  the  national  is  pledged  to 
support  the  local  and  state  leagues  in  any  way  whetever  in 
the  carrying  out  of  the  principles  set  forth  in  Article  II  of 
the  constitution  for  local  leagues  heretofore  quoted.  The 
means  for  accomplishing  the  ends  of  Article  II  is  sufficiently 
provided  for  in  Section  3  of  the  constitution. 

The  great  and  pleasing  feature  of  the  whole  league  is 
expressed  in  Sections  4  and  6.  "A  peaceable  and  lawful 
method"  is  to  be  pursued  in  contending  for  the  objects 
outlined.  It  was  argued  by  many  that  the  league  would  be 
construed  as  an  organized  effort  among  the  Afro- Americans 
for  physical  warfare.  This  idea  is  completely  obliterated  in 
the  light  of  Section  4, — so  much  so,  that  the  evil-designing 
papers  which  are  always  ready  to  question  any  thing  planned 
for  the  good  of  the  Afro- American,  have  not  dared  to  raise 
such  an  issue.  It  was  also  argued  by  many  that  the  purpose 
was  to  strengthen  this  or  the  other  political  power.  This, 
Section  5  of  the  Constitution  clearly  settles. 

Again,  this  section  is  strongly  supported  by  the  constitution 
of  the  national  league,  Article  XIV,  Sections  1,  2,  and  3, 
which  read  thus:  "This  league  is  a  !ion-partisan  body,  and 
any  officer  or  member  of  the  executive  board  attempting  to 
use  the  league  for  individual  purposes  shall  be  expelled." 

"  Any  officer  or  member  of  the  league  being  elected  to  any 
political  office,  or  appointed  to  the  same,  shall  resign  the 
office  held  by  him  in  the  league." 

'•  The  work  of  the  convention  was  strongly  indorsed  by 
all  of  the  white  papers  of  Chicago,  save  TJie  li'ibune,  also 
The  New  York  Sun  and  Rochester  Democrat  and  Chronicle, 
By  the  Afro-American  press  the  league  was  indorsed 
UTianimously.     We  append  a  few  of  the  comments ; 


684  THE  AFRO-AMEBIOAN  PBESS. 

The  national  Afro- American  league  called  at  Chicago,  HI., 
last  week,  was  well  attended  and  laid  the  foundation  for 
local  leagues  for  the  advancement  of  the  rights  and  interest 
of  the  colored  people  throughout  the  country. — Sofuihwedem 
ChrisUan  Advocate. 

It  is  a  good  time  for  our  people  to  occasionally  formulate 
their  grievances  and  appeal  to  the  judgment  and  &ir  play 
of  the  American  people.  If  it  is  possible  at  this  stage  of 
our  advancement  for  our  people  to  keep  up  a  national 
organization,  we  are  disposed  to  feel  that  the  league  has 
secured  the  best  men  we  have  for  that  purpose. — Auffuda 
(Ga.)  Sentinel 

The  earnestness,  unity  and  good  will  which  pervaded  the 
action  of  the  conveution,  showed  that  all  had  come  to  the 
conclusion  to  take  united  steps  in  the  direction  of  banding 
the  race  together  for  the  purpose  of  working  its  own  destiny. 
— PUlsburg  Spokesman, 

One  of  the  grandest  and  most  important  organizations 
ever  effected  for  colored  people  was  completed  and  sent  forth 
for  the  ratification  of  8,000,000  of  America's  most  industrious, 
yet  most  abused  and  misrepresented  citizens. — Lexingixm 
(Ky.)  Soldier, 

The  young  men  who  assembled  at  Chicago  went  there  to 
do  their  duty  by  the  race.  They  succeeded  admirably, 
displaying  the  nicest  discrimination  in  the  adoption  of 
resolutions  and  exercising  the  most  intelligent  care  in  the 
selection  of  leaders. — Philadelphia  Tribune. 

The  meeting  was  a  representative  body  of  the  colored 
people  of  the  country ;  and  more  than  that,  it  was  a  coming 
to  the  front  of  an  entirely  new  element,  with  new  ideas, 
larger  aims,  and  higher  and  nobler  aspirations. — Philadelphia 
Sentinel. 

These  comments  cannot  fail  to  impress  the  reader  that  the 
league  is  meeting  with  popular  favor. 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUE.  535 

Enthusiastic  state  organizations  have  been  effected  in  New 
York,  Ohio,  and  other  states,  while  local  leagues  are  being 
set  up  daily.  In  Ohio,  state  organizers  have  been  commis- 
sioned by  the  state  league  to  organize  every  township  and 
city  into  a  league. 

Upon  a  recent  meeting  of  the  New  York  state  league  at 
Rochester,  Tfie  Democrat  and  Chronicle  said,  editorially,  the 
following  words  of  commendation : 

"  The  delegates  from  Afro-American  leagues  of  New  York 
state  who  have  assembled  in  convention  in  this  city  for  the 
purpose  of  forming  a  state  orgatiization,  are  a  fine-looking, 
representative  set  of  men,  and  their  proceedings  are  marked 
by  evidence  of  intelligent  thought  and  an  earnest  desire  to 
improve  the  opportunities  which  are  offered  in  the  commercial 
and  intellectual  world.  The  object  of  this  league,  as  we 
understand  it,  is  self-development  and  the  creation  of  relations 
which  shall  be  eventually  beneficial  to  the  members  in  the 
various  enterprises  in  'which  they  may  engage.  Necessarily, 
the  beginning  must  be  small ;  but  it  is  a  step  in  the  right 
direction,  which  will  have  a  strong  tendency  to  stimulate 
self-respect  and  honorable  ambition." 

The  national  league  has  already  begun  its  humanitarian 
work.  In  the  case  of  Fortune  vs.  Train  or  for  ejection  from 
the  Trainer  hotel  of  New  York  and  false  imprisonmetit,  the 
league  has  indorsed  Mr.  Fortune  in  the  suit  for  $10,000 
damages,  instituted  in  the  courts  of  New  York.  The  fol low- 
eminent  counsel  have  been  retained  by  the  league,  through 
Mr.  Fortune:  Hon.  J.  M.  Langston,  M.  C,  T.  McCauts 
Stewart,  attorney  for  New  York  state  league,  Jacob  Simms, 
Esq.,  New  York  City,  and  E.  H.  Morris,  Esq.,  of  Chicago, 
attorney  for  the  national  league.  These  able  and  efficient 
lawyers  will  defend  Mr.  Fortune's  rights,  which,  in  a  measure, 
involve  the  right  of  every  other  Afro-American  leaguer. 

This  unity  of  the  race  promises  to  be  the  best  means  yet 


536  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

£or  securing  the  legitimate  rights  of  the  black  man.  It  means 
to  back  resolutions  and  assertions  with  financial  substance 
and  intellectual  power.  The  eflfort  has  been  briefly  referred 
to  in  this  volume  to  prove  to  the  reader  that  something  is 
being  done  for  the  race  by  the  Afro- American  press.  Is 
there  one  who  will  gainsay  that  the  Afro- American  press  is 
not  forging  us  to  the  front? 

Contending  for  what  he  knows  to  be  right  and  for  what 
he  believes  to  be  the  race's  salvation,  the  Afro-American 
editor  has  thus  far  gained  the  merited  "Well  done."  There 
is  no  one  who  can  dare  say  that,  with  thorough  aud  compact 
organization,  with  trusted  leaders,  this  scheme  may  not  prove 
the  salvation  and  redemption  of  the  black  man.  The  unan- 
imity with  which  our  Afro-American  editors  took  hold  of  the 
scheme  means  more  than  the  average  man  suspects.  The 
author's  impression  is,  that  these  editors,  with  their  pens  of 
warfare,  mean  to  press  every  man  of  the  race  into  line  of 
battle  for  a  peaceable  and  aggressive  warfare.  These  gentle- 
men of  the  press  recognize  the  fact  that  the  public  conscience 
must  be  quickened,  in  the  light  of  human  freedom  and 
hai^piness.  We  are  supported  in  this  assertion  by  the  words 
of  one  of  our  ablest  and  most  experienced  editors,  probably 
the  oldest  man  of  our  race  now  editing  a  newspaper,  namely, 
Rev.  Mr.  White  of  2^he  Georgia  Baptist.     Says  he : 

"  The  time  has  now  come  for  the  colored  man  to  organize 
effectively  in  the  South  for  his  own  protection.  Our  hope  in 
this  respect  must  be  in  the  creation  of  a  public  sentiment  by 
which  the  better  element  of  white  people  in  the  South  shall 
combine  to  put  down  lawless  treatment  of  colored  people. 
Still,  we  have  not  a  word  to  say  against  any  movement  that 
tends  to  impress  the  colored  men  of  the  country  with  the 
necessity  of  combined  effort  for  bettering  the  present  condition 
of  the  race." 

Another  one  of  our  ablest  contemporaries,  TTie  IiHlianapolis 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  LEAGUE. 


587 


Freeman^  gives  some  pertinent  thoughts  just  on  this  point: 
"The  organized  protest  of  the  representatives  of  nine 
"millions  of  people  against  flagrant,  unprovoked  bloodshed  and 
wrong  must  attract  attention  and  arouse  the  intelligent, 
humane  pulse  and  conscience  of  the  nation  and  civilized 
world.  That  once  aroused,  light  will  begin  to  break  upon 
the  dense  wilderness  of  hate  and  persecution  by  which  the 
Afro-American  is  enveloped,  and  a  way  will  be  blazed  for 
him,  which,  followed,  must  laud  him  at  the  summit  of 
complete  American  citizenship." 

It  seems  the  intention  of  the  press  to  lay  before  every 
Afro-American  this  effort,  which,  in  their  judgment,  is  the 
best  road  to  the  goal.  It  is  their  intention  that  not  an  Afro- 
American  shall  be  ignorant  of  the  league  and  its  purposes. 
It  shall  be  so  simple  and  plain,  that "  a  way-faring  man,  though 
a  fool,  shall  not  err  therein."  This  aggressive,  yet  peaceable 
manner  of  agitating  is  a  commendable  step,  for  the  best  senti- 
ments of  the  people  may  be  relied  on  to  take  the  side  of  the 
right;  and  since  the  side  of  the  right  is  the*  complete 
emancipation  of  the  race  from  social,  moral  and  political 
injustice,  it  is  safe  to  say  that  the  Anglo-Saxon,  with  whom 
we  live  and  move,  will  some  day,  en  masse,  get  on  that  side. 

Then  it  is  the  business  of  the  Afro-American  to  contend, 
to  agitata ;  and  it  can  be  done  in  no  more  effectual  way  than 
through  the  league  system.  The  press  is  determined ;  let  the 
people  rally. 


CHAPTER  XXVni. 

THE    ASSOCIATED    CORRESPONDENTS    OP    RACE 

NEWSPAPERS. 


IT  is  a  fact  not  to  be  denied,  that  since  the  Afro-Americaus 
compose  a  portion  of  the  nation  inhabiting  the  United 
States,  and  since  what  is  done  to  the  uttermost  of  one 
part  affects  the  well-being  of  the  other  part,  proper    and 
reliable  information   from  the  nation's  capital  is  desired  by 
the  Afro- American  journals,  as  well  as  by  any  other. 

Nearly  all  of  the  Afro-American  journals  prefer  the  most 
accurate  information  from  Washington,  and  so  the  leading 
ones  have  enlisted  the  services  of  some  very  able  correspondents. 
These  organized  themselves  April  23,  1890,  under  the  name 
of  the  '*  Associated  Correspondents  of  Race  Newspapen*,"  for 
the  purpose  of  furnishing  data  for  papers,  and  to  establish  a 
better  medium  of  communication  from  the  capital  with  all 
Afro-American  journals.  The  article  of  organization  reads 
very  significantly.  It  says :  **  The  object  of  this  Association 
is  to  form  a  more  perfect  union  of  the  correspondents  at  the 
national  capital,  in  any  way  identified  with  Afro- American 
journals  or  journalists,  and  to  promote  in  every  legitimate 
way  the  best  interests  of  our  race  through  the  medium  of  the 
press." 


THE  ASSOCIATED  CORRESPONDENTS.       539 

Through  the  organized  effort  of  this  Association  the  race 
will,  no  doubt,  be  benefited  a  hundred  fold.  Already,  the 
encomiums  heaped  upon  the  Association  from  the  readers  of 
those  newspapers  containing  letters  from  its  members  are 
many.  The  Association  seeks  to  come  into  communication 
with  all  journals;  and  the  writer  takes  the  liberty  to  say, 
that  when  all  of  our  newspapers  shall  have  obtained  the 
assistance  of  the  Association,  they  will  add  a  very  important 
feature  to  their  journalistic  pretensions. 

The  membership  at  present  is  forty  ;  the  papers  represented, 
ten.  The  following  able  and  influential  gentlemen  direct  the 
affairs  of  the  Association :  Prof,  E.  L.  Thornton,  New  Ycn'k 
Age^  president;  J.  E.  Bruce,  Cleveland  Gazette,  first  vice- 
pi'esident ;  C.  Carroll  Stewart,  Indianapolis  World,  second 
vice-president;  C.  A.  Johnson,  Chicago  Appeal,  recording 
seci-etury ;  B.  C.  Whiting,  Indianapolis  Freevian,  corresponding 
secretary;  R.  J.  Raymond,  Chicago  Advance,  treasurer;  C.  E. 
Lane,  Khoxville  Negro  World,  manager. 

Edward  Loften  Thornton,  of  The  Nciv  York  Age,  the 
president  of  the  Association,  was  born  in  Fayetteville,  N.  C, 
in  1863,  his  parents  being  A.  G.  and  Elsie  Thornton,  They 
were  well-to-do  people ;  and  it  may  be  said  that  Edward 
came  of  a  worthy  and  good  parentage.  He  is  the  only  boy 
of  five  children,  and  his  life  has  been  one  of  great  credit  to 
himself  and  people. 

He  began  to  attend  school  at  the  age  of  five  years,  and  > 
graduated  from  the  state  normal  school  at  Fayetteville. 
Bishops  J.  W.  Hood  and  C.  P.  Harris  were  among  his  first 
teachers.  From  this  school  he  graduated  as  valedictorian  of 
his  class.  He  matriculated  at  Howard  University  in  the  fall 
of  1878,  and  was  assigned  to  the  junior  preparatory  class, 
and  at  once  took  the'  lead  in  his  classes.  He  graduated  from 
Howard  as  Bachelor  of  Arts  in  1885. 

Since  graduation,  he  has  been   principal   of  Edgecombe 


540  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

normal  school,  which  position  he  resigned  in  1889  to  accept 
a  position  in  the  Census  Department  at  Washington.  He 
now  holds  a  $1200  clerkship  in  the  Record  and  Pension 
Division  of  the  War  Department. 

While  an  able  editor,  he  also  ranks  high  among  the  orators 
of  North  Carolina, — that  state  of  orators.  He  has  made  a 
splendid  record  as  an  orator.  He  delivered  the  first  annual 
address  before  the  Garrison  Lyceum  of  Livingston  College. 
He  was  the  orator  at  the  fifth  annual  fair  of  the  North 
Carolina  Industrial  Association,  held  at  Raleigh,  N.  C.  He 
was  the  orator  at  the  third  annual  fair  of  the  Eastern  North 
Carolina  Stock  and  Industrial  Association,  held  at  Groldsboro, 
N.  C. 

He  was  president  of  the  Edgecombe  County  Teachers* 
Association,  and  in  1888  was  elected  president  of  the  Eastern 
North  Carolina  Stock  a!id  Industrial  Association,  and  in  this 
capacity  conducted  one  of  the  most  successful  fairs  ever  held 
in  North  Carolina. 

He  began  his  first  active  newspaper  work,  as  the  Washington 
correspondent  of  The  Charlotte  (N.  C.)  Messenger,  His 
letters  to  this  journal  attracted  the  widest  attention  throughout 
the  country,  and  were  generally  clipped.  During  the  summer 
of  1882,  he  edited  that  journal  with  signal  ability.  He  was 
universally  esteemed  by  his  fellow  collegians  while  at 
Howard  Universitv,  and  as  an  evidence  of  their  esteem  and 
a  compliment  to  his  ability  they  elected  him  editor-in-chief 
of  the  first  and  only  college  paper  organized  by  the  students. 
At  the  organization  of  the  Associated  Correspondents  of  Race 
Newspapers  at  Washington,  D.  C,  he  was  unanimouslv 
elected  president,  and  has  filled  the  office  creditably.  He  \a 
now  the  regular  Washington  correspondent  of  The  New  York 
Age,  a  leading  Afro-American  paper,  and  his  letters  from 
the  capital  are  read  with  interest  and  are  one  of  the  leading 
features  of  that  deservedly  popular  and  aggressive  journal, 


EDWARD  LOFTEN  THORNTON. 


542  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Mr.  Thornton  is  quite  a  young  man,  and  stands  high  in  the 
estimation  of  the  journalistic  profession  as  a  writer  and 
thinker. 

Charles  A.  Johnson,  of  The  Chicago  Appeal^  the  recording 
secretaiy  of  the  Association,  was  born  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  April 
4,  1865.  His  parents  moved  to  Ironton,  Ohio,  when  he  was 
only  seven  years  old,  presumably  for  the  benefit  of  better 
school  facilities.  He  attended  school  regularly  and  graduated 
in  1882  from  the  high  school  of  Ironton.  After  this  he 
taught  school  in  Ironton,  It  will  be  interesting  to  note  that 
the  admission  of  young  Johnson  into  the  high  school  of 
Ironton  was  the  first  opening  of  that  school  to  Afro- American 
students. 

While  teaching  school  he  learned  the  printer's  trade,  in 
the  office  of  a  white  paper,  llie  Ironton  Busy  Bee,  and  during 
vacation  was  city  editor,  and  in  winter,  during  the  scliool 
term,  he  had  control  of  the  educational  column  of  that  paper. 
For  two  years  he  was  local  correspondent  of  The  Cohnnbus 
(Ohio)  Evening  Dispatch,  and  at  other  times  the  correspondent 
of  TJie  Sentinel  and  Afro-Amencan  of  Cincinnati  and  of  Hie 
Ohbe  at  Cleveland,  Ohio. 

In  1886,  in  company  with  Calvin  W.  Reynolds,  since 
engrossing  clerk  of  the  House  of  Re])resentatives  of  Ohio,  he 
started  llie  Spokesman,  an  Afro-American  journal  at  Ironton ; 
but  like  a  rose  blighted  by  frost  from  too  early  betting  out 
the  attempt  tailed,  and  The  Spokesman  became  a  thing  of  the 
past. 

Going  to  Missouri  in  1886,  he  taught  school  in  Webster 
Groves  until  1889,  and  while  there  was  local  correspondent 
for  TJie  St.  Louis  Otohe-Dcnxocrai,  and  for  Tlie  Clayton 
Waichman,  both  white  papers,  his  work  being  devoted  not 
to  race  news  alone  but  to  the  public.  He  is  now  the 
correspondent  of  Tlie  Chicago  Appeal,  from  Washington, 
where  he  is  a  clerk  in  the  War  Department. 


644  THE  AFBO-AMEBIOAN  PRBS& 

diaries  Carroll  Stewart,  of  l%e  Jncfiofupofit  (Ind.)  Warld, 
second  vice-president  of  the  Araodation,  was  bom  at  Annap- 
olis, Maryland,  February  28,  1859.  In  1862  he  moved  with 
his  parents,  who  were  free-bom,  to  Washington,  where  his 
father,  Mr.  Judson  Stewart,  engaged  in  bosinesB.  He  is  a 
descendant  of  one  of  the  best  Afro-American  CEonilies  of 
Maryland.  His  grandmother  was  a  Bishop,  while  his  grand- 
fiEither  was  a  Jackson.  These  fiunilies  are  well  known 
throughout  Maryland  and  in  Washington  as  large  owners  of 
real  estate. 

Mr.  Stewart  was  educated  in  the  public  and  private  schoob 
of  Washington,  and  there  studied  dentistry  for  several  years. 
When  but  sixteen  years  old  he  had  a  desire  to  see  more  of  the 
world,  and  in  1874  an  opportunity  to  do  so  presented  itself  to 
him.  He  accepted  a  position  with  a  party  of  surveyoi-s  that 
were  to  go  to  Panama  to  survey  and  lay  out  the  plan  for  cut- 
ting the  Panama  canal.  During  this  trip  he  visited  Central 
America  and  the  Southern  seaport  towns  of  the  United  States. 

On  his  return,  he  was  apprenticed  at  ship-building  by  Hon. 
George  M.  Robeson,  then  Secretary  of  the  Navy.     Serving  at 
this  over  a  year,  he  resigned.      Since  then  he  has  traveled 
extensively  in  the  United  States,  Europe,  and  some  parts  of 
Africa  and  Asia.     In  1876  he  was  with  the  relief  party  that 
went  to  Custer's  aid,  at  the  time  he  was  killed  in  the  Black 
Hills.-   During  the  time  intervening  since  his  travels  abroad, 
he  has  held  several  government  positions  at  Washington,  D.  C. 
In  1882  lie  began  his  work  in  journalism  as  Ixislness  man- 
ager and  publis!u*r  of  ITie  Washington  (D.  C.)  Bee,  which, 
under    his    astute    management,    ruse    to  popularity.      He 
severed  his  connection  with  llie  Bee  in  1884,  to  take  the 
position   of    Washington    correspondent  of    The    Baltimore 
Vnidwator, 

In   March,  1884,  he  organized  a  national  news  bureau, 
which  was  composed  of  representatives  of  the  Afro- American 


CHARIES  C\RB()II  STF\\AET. 


k 


646  THS  A7B0-AMEBICAN  PBBB8. 

press  from  nearly  every  state  in  the  Union.  He  was  made 
president  at  its  organization,  and  sacceeded  himself  twice, 
despite  repeated  declinations.  He  has  since  corresponded 
for  ne  Hichnumd  (Va.)  Flanei,  Cleveland  (Ohio)  OaxeUe, 
The  Arhanaaa  Sun,  IndiomapoUB  World,  and  other  papers. 
His  writings  are  often  quoted  by  leading  white  and  black 
journals.  As  a  writer,  he  stands  well  among  the  first;  as  a 
politician,  he  is  a  shrewd  and  tireless  worker. 

He  was  the  only  Afro-American  representative  of  the 
press  invited  to  the  dedicatory  exercises  of  the  Washington 
monument,  in  1885.  Great  courtesy  was  shown  him  in  the 
reporter  s  gallery  of  the  House,  on  that  occasion,  as  well  as 
at  the  exercises  at  the  base  of  the  monument,  over  which 
President  Arthur  presided.  He  is  at  present  an  employee  at 
the  government  printing  office,  and  has  many  warm  and  per- 
sonal friends  among  the  leading  white  and  black  Republicans. 

In  April,  1890,  he  was  elected  second  vice-president  of  the 
National  Associated  Correspondents  of  Race  Newspapers, 
which  ^Ir.  Stewart  aims,  as  far  as  he  is  concerned,  to  make  a 
powerful  combination. 

Benjamin  C.  Whiting,  of  the  Indianapolis  FrceinaiXj  corre- 
sponding secretary  of  the  Association,  was  born  at  Frederick 
City,  ^Id.,  and  received  a  common  school  education.  He  was 
em})loyed  upon  a  farm,  at  intervals,  until  the  age  of  ten. 
Although  too  young  to  assist  in  the  late  civil  war,  it  so  filled 
him  with  patrotism  that,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  enlisted  in 
Company  ^I,  10th  United  States  cavalry  and  was  sent  to  Fort 
Still,  Indian  Territory.  The  Company  commander, Capt.  S.I. 
Norwood,  paid  great  attention  to  young  Whiting,  and  it  was 
here  that  he  got  a  fair  knowledge  of  book-keeping,  under 
Captain  Norwood's  instructions.  During  the  first  year,  he  was 
reappointed  corporal ;  and  afterwards  he  became  quarter- 
master sergeant  to  the  regiment,  during  the  campaign  of  1876 
asjainst  the  Comanche  Indians,  and  was  engaged  in  several 


548  THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

battles.     He  was    personally  mentioned   in   the   company's 
orders  for  his  gallantry  at  the  battle  of  Cheyenne. 

In  1879,  at  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  service  (five  years) 
he  retnrned  East  and  entered  the  grocery  business.  Later, 
he  accepted  a  position  as  restaurateur,  in  connection  with  the 
United  States  senate.  After  three  years*  service  he  wa^ 
a[)pointed  to  a  position  in  the  treasury  department.  A  few 
vears  later,  he  entered  the  service  of  the  Pullman  Palace  Car 
company  and  remained  in  their  service  until  receiving  an 
appointment  in  the  United  States  repair  shop,  po.st-office 
department,  at  Washington. 

He  has  always  been  prominent  in  the  organizations  for  the 
benefit  of  his  race ;  also,  in  the  order  of  Odd  Fellows.  He 
represented  his  lodge  at  several  general  conventions.  He  is 
a  member  of  P.  G.  M.  Council,  No.  44,  Patriarch  No.  42,  and 
chairman  of  the  Hall  building  committee,  an  advocate  for  his 
lodge,  a  member  of  the  county  Republican  committee  of 
Washington  county,  Md.,  the  John  Sherman  Republican 
league,  the  Afro- American  league,  and  many  other  charitable 
and  benevolent  associations.  He  has  been  on  the  stafl^  of 
TJie  Washington  (D.  C.)  Bee  for  five  years. 

Mr.  Whiting  is  a  genial  gentleman  and  has  many  warm 
friends  among  both  white  and  black.  As  coi-re.spondent  for 
The  Frennan,  he  has  been  an  exceptionally  faithful  and 
successful  worker.  His  lettei's  are  newsy  and  pointed,  and 
his  efforts  have  been  the  means  of  introducing  The  Freeman 
into  many  new  quarters.  He  wa.s  recently  elected  correspond- 
ing secretary  of  the  Associated  Correspondents  of  Pu\ce 
Newspapers,  and  is  filling  the  office  very  fittingly. 

The  sketch  of  the  first  vice-president,  John  E.  Bruce,  will 
be  found  in  another  chapter  of  this  volume.  Messrs.  Ravmond 
and  C.  E.  Lane  entered  the  arena  of  journalism  as  corre- 
spondents, respectively,  of  The  Indianopolk  World,  St.  Louis 
Advance  and  Knorville  Negro  World,     They  have  filled  their 


THE  ASSOCIATED  CORRESPONDENTS.       549 

places  with  ability.  The  lettem  of  eacli  of  the  A.  C.  of  R.  N. 
are  looked  for  and  admired.  There  in  inuc-h  within  the  grasp 
of  this  Association  to  make  our  press  a  unanimoue  agitator  for 
the  rights  and  privileges  of  citizens.  The  hope  is,  that  the 
organization  will  not  lose  sight  of  its  far-reaching  possibilities, 
but  with  a  keen  perceptive  faculty  may  seize  every  oppor- 
tunity which  will  redound  to  tiie  favor  of  the  race  and  the 
perpetuity  of  our  free  institutions. 


REV.  J.  ALEXANDER  HOLMES. 

(Set    P»lrt    140.) 

(Note.    These  portrait*  Inserted  have  been  received  ti 
iDiertfon  in  connection  with  the  text  conceminf  them.) 


fci  ■Mfif  1  jiI:  I     "r 


SAMUEL  A.  RUDD. 


BISHOP  JABEZ  PITT  CAMPBELL,  D.  D.,  L.L.D. 


JOHN  M.  BKOWN,  D.  D.,  D.C.L. 


ALEXANDER  CKUMMELL. 


EEV.  BENJAMIN  F.  LEE,  D.  D.,  L.L.D. 


HON.  UIFFUN  W,  OIBBS. 


INDEX. 


AdTocatt.  the  Weekly  bcpin.  a;. 

obaneed  to  Colurrd  rtuierluan.  U. 
AMoan  KxpotibT.  1  be.  i\0. 
AMoan  *i  K.  t  but.*,  ;k 
African  Wadun  IKthIiI.  The.  S88. 
AMran  Wntont.  iii< 
Afro- American  [!ucli.'<-t.  liiM^T. 
Arro-Amerivan.  i^oiitrilutorB  to  while 

^  urn  alt.  514. 
}-ADierican  JuurnallHii.    ecneriil 
idea  of.  icr7. 
lournnllsm.  projmjBs  of.  ITO. 
juuniala.  dally.  1^. 

journals!  WHO  lo  IBftJ.'by  stntea, 

Afro-Amrrican     League.    Ita    origin, 

iUeon9Lltutlon.B28 

the  Blmera.  ssa. 

the  CIiId:um  moetfnii  of  1«».  SSB. 
Joiirnallsth'  IndoreemeiitB,  ia*. 
Its  humanllarian  work.  iX>. 
Afro-AmeridHn  MsMKinea,  118. 
newspaper,  the  HrsL  118. 


ed.  H.  W.  i'brlsUan  AdToeate,  tew. 

quallUea  as  a  writer.  SX. 
Alienated  AmerlCBii.  The.  T4. 
Allen,  Rlehard,  jKirlialt  of.  T*. 
Allen.  WllllainU..pubU^eru[Wateh- 


Amerluan  Baptist,  The.  of  New  Tork, 

AnicrlcBn  Catholla  Tribune.  The,  410. 

418. 
American  cmieii.  The,  in. 


n.  G.  V/..  usoclats  editor  New 
Boum.  W6. 
pi>nrttltof.  SOT, 
IniTurgou.  W.  H.,  editor  Detroit  PlalD- 
denler.  inS. 
n.rtralt  of.  IM. 
Anderson.  W.  H.,  D.  D.. editor Bapttot 
Waruhman.  348. 
ponrnt  of.  84' 
lnglo-A(rk-un.  Tl 


n.  The.  beEOn.  BS. 

■Hi;iiii.ii<;ler.S4. 

cbaiucBd  to  Pine  and  PsIiD,  BS. 

Hdrouaor  of  eduuallon.  87. 

contemporaries  of.  BO. 
Aniito. African  Macazlne.  Tbe,  IIS. 

Its  objects.  119. 
Aiwlo.saion  and  AfroAm,  pra*: 


M  attitudes  of  A.  S.  papm, 
r  words,  iDdlanapolii  Jour- 


Chattanooga  Tiroes,  DO 
Rulefeh  News  and  Ot* 
Mobonk  Conference,  H 
llbtaopC.n.  Fowler,  50 
Bishop  Whipple,  DOa. 
Bev,  ft,  Burnham.UA 
Unyor  Carroll.  AM, 

Hon.OcorKeH 

Hon.  Joeepli  E.  oruwn.  mi, 

Hon.  G,  J,  Orr.Boe. 

Bishop  A.  O.  naygood.  MB. 

L  H.  Blulr.  Esii  ,  tM 

Half -friendly  edltun.  SIO. 

unfriendly  editors,  GIO. 

the danirer  from  llllteraoy.Ml. 

recognition  of  Afro-Am.  by  A.  B,i 

G14. 
why  not  priipnrtiounlly  recognized 

518, 
examples  of  JoumaUsUo  loooeM. 


s,  504. 


Arknnsas  Baptist.  The,  ttO. 
Arkansas  nispntch.  The,  SO. 
Aitansas  Herald,  The,  MS. 
Armttcad,  J.  U.,  Key..  OH. 


558 


INDEX. 


Amett,  B.  W..  Rot.,  D.  D.,  opbUon  of, 
450. 
assoolated  oorrespondents,  688. 
Atkins,  S.  O.,  Prof.,  editor  of  South- 

land.  1S4. 
Atlanta  Repablioan,  The,  219. 
Atlanta  University,  219. 
Author's  introduction  to  oiiinioiis  of 
eminent  men,  4A 
circular    addreaMd    to   eminent 

men.  430. 
introduction  to  editor*8  miaslon, 
478. 
Avery  fund.  The,  66. 


Bailey,  J.  T.,  Prof.,  editor  Uttle  Rock 
Sun,  MO. 

portrait  of,  S41. 

as  scholar  and  teacher.  242. 

as  a  lawyer,  248. 

as  a  newspaper  man,  244. 
Baltimore  Baptist,  The,  424. 
Baltimore  Vindicator,  The,  140. 
Bamfleld,  8.  J.,  managing  editor  New 

South,  206. 
Banner,  The,  141, 182. 
Banner  Enterprise,  The,  182 
Baptist  Companion,  The.  1<)6.  236,  253. 

829 
Baptist  Headlight,  The.  388. 
Baptist  Herald.  The,  2\3.  888. 
Baptist  Journal,  The,  878. 
Baptist  Leader,  The.  80«»,  »i6. 
Baptist  Messenger.  The.  23^.  234,  426. 
Baptist  Monitor.  The,  208. 
Baptist  Pilot  The,  306. 
Baptist  Signal,  The.  144,  ZU. 
Baptist  Standard.  The,  212 
Baptist  Vanguard,  The,  25.S 
Baptist  Watohover,  The,  24.5. 
Barbadoes.  F.  G.,  Hon.,  work  in  Cali- 
fornia, 98. 
Barnett,  Mr.,  editor  Conservator,  262. 
Bassett,  E.  D.,  Prof.,  156. 
Beclcloy,  R.    D.,    business   manager 

People's  Advocate,  166. 
Bee  and  Leader,  The,  346. 
Bell  P.  A.,  publisher  Advocate.  32. 

character  and  ability.  33. 

associate  editor,  Pacific  Appeal,  91. 

portrait  of.  93. 

publl"»her  of  Elevator.  94. 

tribute  of  Gate  City  Press,  95. 

tribute  of  New  York  Age,  96. 
Benjamin,  R.  C.  O.,  editor  San  Fran- 
cisco Sentinel,  820. 

portrait  of,  821. 

newspaper  testimonials,  828. 

his  published  books,  824. 

rell^ous  and  political  connections, 
824. 
Bentley,  D.  S.,  Rev.,  president  Spokes- 
man Company,  160. 

portrait  of,  151. 
Birmingham.  Eva,  267. 
"  Black  andA\Tilte,"  isa 


Bliflk  Hanr,  81. 

Black  phalanx.  The.  179. 

Blair,  L  H..  Esq,,  fHendly  words,  606. 

Blocker.  John  L.,  S21. 

Booker.  J  A.,  Rev.,  editor  BapdH  Van- 

gnard,96& 
portrait  of,  961. 
Boothe    Mr.,  associate  editor  Cc.^ 

servator.  282. 
Boston  Advocate,  The,  829,  861,  «:<; 

38S. 
Boston  Beacon,  The,  864, 864. 
Boston  Courant  The,  866. 
Boston  Evening  Record,  The,  864. 
Boston  Globe,  The.  861. 
Boston  Herald,  The,  862. 
Boston  Leader,  The,  860. 
Bowling  Green  Democrat,  The,  268. 
Bowling  Green  Watchman,  The,  268. 
Bowser,  J.  D.,  editor  Gate  City  Press, 

280. 
qualities  as  a  writer.  281. 
Bragg,  Caroline  W.,  Miss  426. 
Brltton.  Mary  B..  Miss,  416w 

portrait  of.  417. 
Brooklyn  Sentinel,  The.  298: 
Brookljrn  Union,  The,  292. 
Brooks.  William  F.,  Rev.,  treasurer 

Spokesman  Company,  150. 
Broussard,  Augustus,  366. 
Brown,  Benjamin,  Rev.,  258. 
Brown.   C.   S.,  Rev.,   editor  Baptist 

Pilot.  305. 
portrait  of,  807. 
a  self-taught  printer,  808. 
Brown,    James   E.,     Hon.,    friendly 

words,  506. 
Brown.  Jere  A.,  Hon.,  opinion,  467. 

portrait  of,  469 
Brown,  John,  aid  to  the  Ram*s  Horn. 

64. 
Brown.  John  M.,  Bishop,  editor  Chris 

tian  Recorder,  79. 
Brown,  William  Welles,  opinions,  78. 

91,  111,  118. 
Bruce,  J.  Edward,  844. 
portrait  of,  345. 
'•Bruce  Grit,"  847. 
Bruce,  B.  K.,  Hon..  287. 
Bryant,  J.  B.,  publisher  Loyal  Georg- 
ian. 104. 
Bryant,  M.  B.,  Rev.,  202. 
Buford.  William,  editor  Arkansas  Dis- 
patch, 245. 
Bulletin,  The.  287. 
Burleigh,  A.  A.,  Rev.,  opinion  of,  450. 

portrait  of,  461. 
Bumham,  M.,  Rev.,  friendly  words, 

606. 

O. 

Cain,  R.  H.,  Rev.,  publisher  Charles- 
ton Leader.  106. 
portrait  of,  109. 
Cairo  Gazette,  the  first  daily,  128. 
Caldwell,  A  P.,  bosiiiess  manacvr  of 
the  Echo,  214.  — • 

portrait  of,  216. 


INDEX. 


559 


Campbell  Jabez,  Bishop,  editor  of  Be* 

oorder,  78. 
Carroll  Mayor,  friendly  words.  504. 
Carter,  D  C,  ex-editor  Virginia  Critic, 

245. 
Carter,  J  C.  editor  of  the  Enterprise, 

805. 
Carter,  William  H.,  publisher  of  Pa- 
cific Appeal  91. 
Central  Methodist,  The,  140,  881. 
Chapman,  Kate  D.,  Miss,  888. 

portrait  of.  889. 

poem  of,  890. 
Charleston  Leader,  The,  108. 
Charlotte  Messenger,  The,  272. 
Chase   W.  C ,  editor  of  Washington 
Bee,  287. 

portrait  of,  289. 

^'  the  sdng  of  the  Bee/*  290. 
Chattanooga  limes.  The,  500. 
Chicago  Conservator,  The,  846. 
Chicago  Inter  Ocean,  The.  499. 
Christian  Banner,  The,  25& 
Christian  Bra,  The.  266. 
Christian  Index.  The,  278,  846. 
Christian  Recorder,  The,  78, 150.  405. 
Christy,  Levi  B.,  editor  IndianapoUs 

World,  2^8. 
Chowan  Pilot,  The,  806. 
Chronicle.  The,  828. 
Cincinnati  Commercial.  415. 
Clair,  M.  W.,  Rev.,  editor  Methodist 

Banner.  880. 
Clair,  F.  M.  W..  Mrs.  882. 

portraits  of  both,  888. 
Clanton,  Miss,  427 
Clarion.  The,  54. 

Clark,  P.  H .  Prof.,  editor  Herald  of 
Freedom,  76. 

portrait  of  77. 

associate  editor  North  Star,  78. 
Cleveland  Gazette.  The.  280,  292. 
Cleveland  Globe.  The,  298. 
Clinton.    George    \V.,    editor  Afro- 
Amencan  Spoliesinan,  309. 

portrait  of.  811. 
Coffee.  T.  W.,  Rev., portrait  of,  265. 

editor  of  Vindicator,  2C6. 
Coleman.  Lucretia  N.,  Mrs.,  884. 
Coles,  R.  H..  Rev.,  378 
College  Journal    of  Paul  Quinn  col- 
lege. 268 
Colonization  Journal.  The.  81. 
Colored  American.  The.  of  1887,  8«. 

plan  and  scope  of.  87. 

endorsed  by  other  papers,  89. 

samples  of  editorials,  42. 
Colored  American,  The,  of  1865,  100. 

its  prospectus,  101. 

cause  or  establishment,  102. 

changed  to  Loyal  (^^eorgian  101 

contemporaries  of,  105. 
Colored  atizen.  The,  90, 110. 112,  282, 

814. 
"Colored  clause,"  defined.  61. 
Colored  Illustrated  Weekly,  The,  855. 
Colored  Man's  Journal,  72. 
Colored  Tennessean,  The,  105. 


Colored  World,  The,  888. 
Columbus  Messenger,  The,  128.  221. 
(/'ommoner.  The,  112. 
Commonwealth.  The,  846. 
Conference  Journal,  The,  255. 
Conservator.  The,  262. 
Cook,  Mary  V.,  Prof , 'portrait  of,  860L 

as  teacher,  871. 

as  public  speaker,  872. 

as  Journalfet,  878 
Cooper,  A.  G.,  Mrs  .  427. 
Cooper,  B.  E..  publisher  Indianapolis 
Freeman,  834. 

portrait  of,  835. 

eminence  as  a  journalist,  889. 
Coppin,  L.  J..  Dr.,  editor  of  A.  M.  E. 
Church  Review.  120 

connection  with  the  Echo.  216 

portrait  of,  217. 

opinion  of  Editor's  Mission,  488. 
Coppin.  F.  J  ,  Mrs.,  816,  427. 
Cornish,  Samuel,  Rev.,  editor  Jour- 
nal, 28. 

sample  of  editorials,  29. 

editor  of  Advocate,  82 

editor  Colored  American,  96. 
Correspondents  and  contributors,  840. 
Courant,  The,  415. 
Crary,  B.  F  ,  D  D  ,  255 
Crary,  M.  S  .  Mrs..  427. 
Critic,  The,  848. 
Crummell,  Boston,  28. 
Cromwell,  John  W.,  Hon.,  early  life, 
154. 

portrait  of,  155. 

editor  People's  Advocate.  ISO. 

quality  of  literary  work,  157. 


D. 

Dafly  Afro- American  journals,  127. 
Daily  Sun,  The,  323. 
Dallas  Post.  The,  201. 
Dancy,  John  C,  Hon.,  public  services, 
197. 

editor  of  Star  ot  Zion,  198. 

portrait  of,  199. 
Davis,  1>.  Webster,  editor  Toung  Man's 
Friend,  826. 

portrait  of,  827. 

honorary  positions,  828. 

as  an  orator,  329. 
Day,  W.  H.  H.,  Prof.,  editorlof  Alien- 
ated American.  74. 

subsequent  life,  76. 
Day,  W.  Howard,  editor  Zion's  Stand- 
ard. 106. 

editor  National  Progress,  110. 
De  Baptiste,  M.,  80. 
De  Baptiste,  R.,  Rev.,  ex-editor  Con- 
servator. 262. 

portrait  of,  268. 
De  Baptiste,  Georgia  M.,  886. 

portrait  of,  887. 
De  Grave.  George,  80. 
Delaney,  M.  R.,  publisher  of  Vyiterr, 

his  libel  suit,  86. 


560 


-  Jt  of.  SB. 

in.  D-.HoiL.isa. 

i«»lBdeBl-r.ThB,lM,»M.«0. 

Smnr,  W.  B  .  editor  Ool^en  Rule.  to. 
Slia.  latuLPiib'r  I'eople'i  Prrax.  K>. 
Sgn^lMrmdorick.  Hun.,  coBtrlbu- 
torloUiB  B^m-i  Horn.  88. 
edilo  of  Hortli  Star.  ST. 

.  C.  siaitb.  tat 


D,  Afto.Ainerliiui,  418. 
ecuUlibsd,  48 
U  pmwiM,  A 

»Uir,  TlM,uf  San  FnuiolKXi,  «. 

»4.»<. 
ElUott.  R  B.,  Hun.,  editor  HUHouarr 

Itccord,  IDS. 
BnterpriM,  The.  S4tl. 
ETunellst.  Tba.  M 
Evening  BuUetln.  The,  aw.  Mt 
EvetiltiK  Post.  The,  8N. 
Exodua.  The.  MT. 


pactnltal,Bi. 

MM.  idUor  of  AB|l»-ZMMa,  V. 

portcanstUi. 
polMoal  mlaH.  IM. 
Qa«.JaluilI 


QeordB  iUpt^  lli&nh 


portrait  uf .  U8. 
Golden  Kule.  The.  Ul. 
Ooldiboro  Enterprise.  The.  ISt 

Gordon.  C.   B,    W-,      ■' 

FUot,  m. 

portrait  ot.  IK. 


,   editor  Nallawl 


Fay.  C,  W.^  editor  of  People'»  Ad- 

FayattcTllleEduaator.  270. 
Flnt  Afru-AmericBa  NewBpapera,  n. 
Flak  Dnlrersltr  Herald,  110. 
FlUbutk-r.  Ueiirr.  BI4. 
portrait  of.  SIS. 


QrlffiD.  Mr.  IAS. 
Urlmcke.  Frank.  Tin.  Ol. 
Orfncke.  A.  B..  SM. 


Eiuren,  81 
■1.  The.  171 


Puralier.  J.  B.»S 

Fortone, T  T.iketchofes 
edlturi>r  the  u lobe,  l»t 


pubTlahed  worki,  18'. 
opInioD  (>r  Edltor-a  Mluion.  479. 
dwIot.  Btohop.  friendly  wordi.  908. 

-  -■"-  ■■■  "i.sr 


BaUtai  Bnterulae.  SOL 

Hall.  R.  A.,  as. 

Hamilton.    F.    H..    edlUir   ChilMUn 


Hamilton  R  B.  >H. 

portrait  of,  S8«. 
Hamilton,  Thomai,    editor   People'* 
Prea.U. 

ed,  Anslo-AMcan,  S4. 

AokIo- African  Maptlne.  lU. 


[lortralt  ot.  Sift 


eilliol 


from  artlclH,  818. 

tu:  defined.  BIS. 
-  country.  Ml. 
aeore  of  nation '■ 

(reedom,  Btt. 


BarrU,  A.  W.,  < 


ar  Simmer  Tribune. 


portrait  of,  itg. 
Hanood.  A.  O..  Mandlr  irorda,  Bm. 


INDEX. 


S6i 


HAytian  JEoiicnitioii  Mofwnent.  M. 
Hendler.  Chat ,  portrait  of,  Hk 

editor  HontSTiUe  Gazette,  S88. 
Henhawa,  Seth,  80. 
Henry,  Thomas  T.,  editor  Halifax  Sn- 

terpriae,  90ES. 
Herald-Manaion,  TheJM. 
Herald  of  Freedom,  The,  70. 
Herald-Presbyter,  The.  M8w 
Herald  of  Truth,  908. 
Hershaw,  L.  M  ,  188. 
Hill,  8.  N.,  editor  People's  AdTooate, 

141. 
Hodges,  Aoffostiis  M .,  portrait  of,  991. 

editor  wooklyn  Sentinel,  800. 
Hodices,  Willis  A.,  K.  Y.  Son.  88. 

editor  Ram*s  Horn,  08 

quality  of  writings,  04. 

portrait  of,  88. 
Holmes,  J.  A.,  editor  Central  Metho- 
dist, 140. 

portrait  of,  681. 
Horn,  Kdward  F.,  pub.  Colored  World, 


Hot  Sprlncs  Sun,  944. 

Howard.  Jas.  H.,  and  The  Negro  Amer^ 

ioan,l». 
Hub  and  Advocate,  The,  400. 
Hughes,  B.  F.,  80. 
Hughes,  Joseph,  80. 
Huntsville  Gazette,  The,  880. 


Illustrated  Afro-Am.  journalism,  881 
Imnartial  Citizen,  The,  78. 
Indianapolis   Freeman,   purpose    of 
founding,  884. 

standing  among  white  papers,  880. 

quoUtions  from  88i,  »0, 888,  948, 
804.  804.  885,  407. 
Indianapolis  Journal,  The,  496,  407. 
Indianapolis  World,  The,  888, 888. 
Industrial  Day,  The,  174. 
Industrial  Herald,  The,  804. 
**Iola."407, 
lyy.  The,  416. 

J. 

Jasper,  John,  848. 

Johnson,  A.B.,  Mrs.,  editor  of  The  Joy, 
488. 
portrait  of,  488. 
tributes  fh>m  Anglo-Saxon  papers, 

494. 
tributes  from  Anglo- Afrioan  pa- 
pers, 480. 
Johnson,  A.  R.,  981. 
Johnson,  C.  A.,  sec  associated  eocre>- 
pondents,  648. 
portrait  of,  648. 
Johnson,  H.  H.,  pub.  Western  Be- 

corder,  101. 
Johnson,  William  B.,  editor  Wayland 

Alumni  Journal,  886b 
Johnson,  Wm.  J.,  opinion  of,  480. 
portrait  of.  441. 


Jones,  J.  B.,  manner  of  education,  104. 

poitraltof,ie6. 

eminenoe  as  a  scholar,  100. 

editor  African  Missions,  107. 

oontroTersy  with  Bp.  Keane,  107. 

quality  of  writings,  107. 
Jones,  Richard  A^  editor  Clerelaad 
Globe,  888. 

portrait  of,  808. 

sodal  position,  801 
Jones,  S.  T.,  editor  Zion*s  Standard, 

108. 
Journalist,  The,  878. 
Journal  of  the  Lodge,  880. 
Joy.  The,  488L 


King,  Dr.,  888. 

King,  WuL  B  .  editor  Fair  Play, 
Knoxville  Examiner,  848. 
KnoxYllle  Negro  World,  180,  847. 


Lambert,  M.  B.  Mrs.,  487. 

Lane,  C.  B.,  mgr.  associated  oorrss- 

pondents,  648. 
Langaton,  J.  M.,  opinion  of,  481 

portrait  of.  486. 
Lawrence,  Geo.,  Jr.,  pub.  Pine  and 

Palm,  86. 
Lawson,  J.  H.,  opinion  of,  47S. 

portrait  of,  476. 
Leavenworth  Advocate,  The,  818. 
Lee,  B.  T.,  editor  Christian  Beoorder, 
80. 

portrait  of,  667. 
Lemond,  John,  80. 
Lewey,  M.  M.,  army  service,  170. 

founded  Florida  Sentinel,  171. 

courage  and  steadiness,  178. 
Lewis,  Lillian  A  ,  881. 

portrait  of,  883. 
Lewis,  8.  H.,  888. 
Lewis.  Miss,  of  Philadelphia,  487. 
Lexington  Herald,  The,  416. 418. 
Lighthouse,  The,  818. 
lipscombe.  B.  H.»  ed.  Expositor,  810. 

portrait  of,  811. 

editor  Mountain  Gleanor,  818. 
litUejohn,  B.  D.,  editor  New  Light, 


portrait  of,  980. 
Little  Rock  Sun,  9«0. 
Living  Way,  The,  407. 
Lowry,  W.  8.,  asso.  editor  Spokesman, 
148 

portrait  of,  149. 
Loyal  Georgian,  The,  101 919. 
Lynch,  Jaa.,  oontrib.  to  Colored  Amer- 
ican, 108. 
Lynch,  Jas.,  984. 
Lynch,  John  R. ,  portrait  of,   87. 

opinion  of.  488. 
LyndUnirg  Laborer,  The,  880,  800. 


portrait  of. »" 

■ample  of  ed 

llGBwen,AlloeS..u 
LMdar.SM. 

PDCtnlt  of,  tt7. 
Huldox.  oatold  B .  <ai. 
lUdUoii  VIndkwtOT.  The.  tW. 
If  VuliHa,  Afro-American.  1  Ilk. 
Hkrylaad  DtNCNor,  The,  S41 
Uuoo,  HIa,  4K. 
Uuonlo  VUtor,  The.  SM. 
MiQwira,  W.  B..  Mn,  ffrs. 

porbftH  of,  S7T. 
ll«tiUB.QociiVD,  editor  BuiDi^r'SBt 

MttnldiU  Fme  ^rnmli.  Mi 
Msnr.  H.Q^IGS. 
XOMsarer,  The,  a34. 
HKhoffiin  BuiDv,  Ths.  S30. 
■etbodM  Vlndloator.  The.  ao. 
Uiror  of  libertr.  The,  M,  lia 
Wmr  of  the  Tlmee. 'hio.  n. 

obuised  to  Poollla  Appeal.  SI. 

"alppl  Vi-p\i 


Natioanl  PUoL  T)u^,  IM. 
NaUonal  Wkiebman.  The.  sa. 
Negro  AmBTknn.  The.  aaa. 
Negni  1b  BusUkub.  157. 
Hcero  In  Polltla.  The.  136. 
Kebon    Blchkrd.  editor    naa 
Joarnal.  874. 

porIr»it  of,  sn. 

tribute*  from  white  pajMn.  I 
Now  Jersey  Trumpet,  138. 
New  Lirht.  Tlie,  i& 
Kew  OrleanB  CruBsdeT.  3K. 
Hew  Orleans  LoulaliLalan.  tilt 
Nf wBboy.  The.  porwnlt  of,  £& 
New  SoDtlt.  Tbe,  SOS. 
New  York  Alte.  90,  137.  MT,  M 

New  Tork  PrMmu,  The.  4ai,U 
New  Vork  Glohe,  ISi  aCS,  SM. 
New  York  Weekly.  8TB. 
North  Carol  ins  Oustte.  180. 
North  CBToUnAltepnbUoan,  W. 
North  Carolina  Bentbiel.  IW. 
North  Star.  Tbe,  begun.  <fl. 
changed  lo  Frederick 

contomporarie*  of,  "I. 


jpl  ohm  of  editor'! 
I>ortrait  of,  489. 
Mountain  Oleamr.  The.  KO. 
Hurray,  P.  H.,  editor  Colored  CItUen, 

Hurrell.Wm..  life  Bad  KiTlee*.  U8. 

portrait  of.  ISB. 

ed.  N.  J.  Tnunnt,  140. 
UurrelL  IxniUBDalttv.,  140. 
Hualoal  Keaetwer.  The,  40t, 
Uyvrt,  SteplHD,  pnli.  of  Uie  SleTat«r. 

pereonal  bMoiT.  40. 
portrait  of,  M. 
Mytlery,  Tbe.  M. 


Planet.  IBS. 

piHinIt  of.  ISB, 

power  as  writer  and  speaker,  IBB. 
Hlmii,  W.  B.,  editor  Dallas  Foit,  SOI. 

portrait  ot.  xa. 
Hobonk  ConfereDoe.BOl. 
MoDlgomery  Herald,  The.  KB,  BBS, 
_j.  t„i.^m  ..„  editor  dBTBland 


Obsenn',  The,  SSV. 
Ohio  FalU  XipreM,  1 

OpinloDS  of  emlsent 

OiT.  OnstKTus  J„  Mendli 
Oley  Charles  N..    '-  "  ' 


irtm,» 


I8B.  405,  406,  410. 


Paul, 

Panl, 

Payne  UoiTenlty, 


6aafcaenae  ioamal. 


lleUX.41» 

Robert,  Jr..  portrtit  of,  im 
r  Detroit  Cl^ideahr.  lai. 


People's  AdToo^  T 


Natobra  Denoorat.  Olie,  SOD, 


Pnopla's  AdTocaleL  Tba,  ot  Alena- 

dAa.  IM,  lU. 
Fnome's  JoiunaL  Tbe,  lOt,  IHi  m 
Peorte's  Pres^T^ke,  W, 


INDEX. 


563 


People's  Protector,  The,  866. 
Perrv,  Christopher  J.,  editor  Weekly 
Tribune,  146. 
portrait  of,  140. 
editorial  147. 
Perry.  R.  L..  editor  Sunbeaio,  106. 

editor  Monitor,  110. 
Philadelphia  Boho,  The,*  406. 
Philadelphia  Sentinel,  281,  886. 
Philadelphia  Tribune,  The,  146. 
PUot,  The,  288. 

PhMshbaok,  P.  B.  8.,  pub.  N.  O.  Loui»> 
ianlan,  110. 
opinion  of.  454. 
portrait  of,  466. 
Pineand  Palm,  The,  888. 
Pinn,  T.  B.,  pub.  People*8  Advocate, 

168. 
Planet,  The,  818. 
Powell,  Wm.  J.,  asio.  editor  Sieyator, 

96. 
Powell,  Hr.,  editor  Boiton  AdTocate, 

888. 
Price,  J.  C,  founder  of  Southland, 
184. 
portrait  of,  12&, 
opinion  of,  460. 
Print;  John  W.,  80. 
Progresflive  American,  The,  111,  882, 

844,868. 
PtogreasiTe  Educator,  The,  848. 
Provincial  PYeeman,  The,  487. 
Public  Educator.  The,  188b 
Public  Ledger,  Tlie,  18a 
Putnam,    Louis  H.,    editor  Colored 
Man^s  Journal,  78. 
as  a  writer,  74. 

Radical,  The,  814. 

Raines,  George,  friendly  words,  604. 
Raleigh  News,  The,  600. 
Ram*s  Horn,  The,  68. 
Ransom,  R.  C,  editor  Spokesman,  148. 
Ray,  Chas.  B.,  editor  Colored  Ameri- 
can. 86. 
reputation  as  a  journalist,  47. 
portrait  of,  07. 
Raymond,  R.  J.,  treas.  associated  cor- 
respondents, 648. 
Radpath,  James,  pub.  Anglo-African, 
86. 
Hajtian    emigration  movement, 

editor  Pine  and  Palm,  882L 
Reed  City  Clarion.  The,  848. 
Reid,  I.  R.,  asso.  editor  New  South, 
806. 

portrait  of,  807. 
Reeee,  D.  M.,  colonizationist,  60. 
Religious  Herald,  The,  107. 
Remond,  John,  71. 
Richardson,  Geo.  H.,  editor  People*s 

Advocata,167. 
Richmond  nanet.  The.  188. 
Richmond  Rankin  Insatnte,  406. 
Richmond  Star,  The,  844. 


Right  Way,  The,  178. 

RighU  of  AIL  86. 

Rinng  Sun,  The,  88, 76. 

Roberts  N.  F..  2ia 

Robinson,  Magnus  L.,  early  life,  160. 

portrait  of,  158. 

social  position,  168. 

established  Virginia  Post,  168. 

established  NaBonal  Leader,  158. 

later  honors,  154. 
Rose,  R.  W.,  portrait  of,  888. 

editor  Industrial  Day,  886. 
Rudd,  Daniel  A.,  868. 

portrait  of.  668. 
Ruggles,  David,  editor  Genius  of  Free- 
dom, 68. 

reply  to  D.  M.  Reese,  60. 

editor  Mirror  of  Liberty,  118. 
Rumor,  The,  184, 
Russell,  J.,  Jr.,  808. 

Russell,  8.  D.,  editor  Torchlight  Ap- 
peal, 267. 

portrait  of,  260. 
Russwurm,  J.  B  ,  portrait  of,  84. 

editor  Freedom's  Journal,  86. 

sent  to  Africa,  81. 
Ryder,  W.  P.,  288. 

8. 

St.  Louis  Tribune,  844. 
St  Matthew's  Lyceum  Gazette,  487. 
Samuritan  Journal,  The,  806. 
Sampson,  J.  P.,  portrait  of,  80. 

editor  Colored  Citizen,  90. 
San  Antonio  Express,  The,  500. 
San  Frandsoo  SentineL  The,  880. 
Saunders,  D.  J.,  editor  Afro- American 

Presbyterian,  890. 
Scarborough,  W.  S.,  282. 

opinion  of,  481. 

portrait  of  488. 

tribute  of  Indianapolis  Journal 
497. 
Scott,  w!  S.,  pub.  Cario  Gazette,  128. 

portrait  of,  129. 
Sears,  Robert,  pub.  Advocate,  82. 
Settle,  J.  T.,  opinion  of,  408. 

J  portrait  of,  466. 
ten,  J.  T.,pub.  Colored  American, 
102, 219. 
portrait  of,  108, 
eminence  as  a  writer,  104. 
Simmons,  Wm.  J.,  editor  Our  Women 
and  Children,  120. 
tributes  to  ability,  188. 
portrait  of,  188L 
Simpson,  Chas.  W.,  814. 
Sfanpson,  Wm.  F.,  editor  Echo,  81& 
Smitti,  B.  S.,  188. 

Smith,  H.  C,  editor  dereland  Gazette, 
880. 
portrait  of,  881. 
Smith.  H.  L.,  managing  editor  Boston 

Leader,  880. 
Smith,  James  MoCune,  editor  Ameri- 
can, 88b 
portrait  of,  86. 


star  o(  Zlon.  'nie,  18T. 
HUrkey,  Jai.  R.,  W. 
BUteCBpltsl.The.aW. 
Btepbans.  Geo.  K-,  opinion  of,  Mo. 
portnit  of.  «I, 

Btcwart.'  Austin.  90. 
Stewart.  C.  C.  ad  v,  p,  usoolaled  oor. 
AM. 

portrait  of,  MS, 
Stewart.  T.  O,.  oplolDii  of,  4TI. 

portmlt  of.  4ft. 
Stlli:  J.  T..  opinion  of ,  4M. 

portrait  of.  «6S 
Stowera.  Wni.  II. .editor  Detroit  Plaln- 


portmt  of. «. . 
Tmo  SoQthemer.  The,  174. 
Tapper.  H,  H..  SIO 
Turner.  Blahop.  editor  Suntbem  X*- 


portrait  of.  SM. 
TwligB,  W.  H..cor.  editor, 
loan  Btidicet,  181. 


mnd  Railroad.  Tbe.  4». 


Stn^,  n 


Street.  J.  Oordon.  ns. 

portrait  of,  asa. 
8taiDm.C,  C.  editor  BapUat  Monitor, 

portrait  of. »». 

career  aa  a  leitober,  SM. 

aa  pastor  and  preaohw.  SSI, 
StniiuD.  C.  C.  Hra-i  portrait  of,  tM. 

■ketch  ot  lite,  «0. 
Sumner  TribaDe.  Tbe.  lU. 


Vao  Rensselaer.    Thomaa.   maoaett 

Ram's  Horn.  M. 
Vauithn.  R..  M. 

■■  Victoria  Earle."'aTB. 
Vlndloator.  The  MT. 
Vlr^nla  Critla.  The.  MS. 
Virginia  lanoet.  The,  4S8. 
VlntlDla  Poft,  The.  IS8. 
Vlr^nla  Star.  The,  TO. 
VBie.B.  H.,  sot. 


Walker.  Dartd,  ». 


D  L.  portrait  of^ise. 


Tanner,  Bishop,  editor  A,  lI,KChiiRih 
Betiew,  ISO. 
portrait  of,  HI. 


WB^hu^n,  B.  T.,  oplolan  uf.  ML 

VMb&jlon  C^aTerenve  Jonni*].  MS. 

WMhlnxtoD  Grit.  The, »«,  

WiihlMton.  JoMpblne  T..  Mn..  Wt. 


Wk^DCtODNs 


.tonNittonal  Lcoder.  The.  IBO. 

TMUBBlon  nalDduler.  Tbe.  «8. 
Vayluu  Alumni  Juurnkl,  -JDH. 

Wkrbuni  H- 1-  «'- 
w«bb.>nncii.  so. 

WM*lr  AdTDcale.  Tlie.  as. 
Weekly  SpecUtor.  TLo.  «T<. 
WMklr  witneH.  The  lit. 
Welcome  Friend.  Tbe.  £«. 
WdlB.  lclaB..«(n. 
porlralt  cif ,  409. 


iiulltiei  u  a  writer.  M3. 
~  A.,  poitralt  of,  StS. 
mrnal  of  tbe  Lodce.  II 
J.  H-,  lerllUtIre  car 


portntt  ol 

Beiiner-El 


TbeN.  C.  GsMtte,lM 
Wilson.  J.  T.,  mllituy  leTTlDes, 

portrait  at.  ITB. 

poDtica]  lite.  177. 

pub.  The  Rtaht  Way.  178. 

founded  iDduatrial  Day.  178. 
WlUon  Nowa,  The.  Ul. 
Women  Arro-Amerlcan, 


■87. 


r.  John  a.,  portrait  oF.  MS. 
*--  ol,  m 

D.  A.. editor  NewlJ8ht.no. 


.r.,  editor  KaoxTlUe  Bl^ 

aminer.  M8 
Tat«,W.  W..BS. 
Younc  Han'i  Friend,  The,  Sn, 


Qon'i  eiandard,  lOtL 


APPENDIX. 

Hrv.  T.  J,  Smith,  Juiis  M.  CLAas.AND  A,  (J.  Dklmiv.  A.  B. 

OF  THE  "  BaOAD  AXE.  "  PnTKBITRO,  pA. 

Rov.  T.  J.  Sinitli,  UitUi'  known  ^  Bt'«ad-Ax«  Smilii,  wm 
bom  at  Sandy  Lake,  Mercer  Ooauty,  Pa.,  on  the  29ilj,  of 
Deceuibc'i',   1838.     He  entered  tlie   mtniHtiy    at    the  age  of 

wveriteen,  and  wiw  connected  witU  tlie  Undeigroiiiid  Ii:i]| 
Road.  He  embarked  on  the  aea  of  JouroaliHUi  with  twenty- 
live  oentfl  in  cash,  borrowed  money,  in  1881.  He  fii-st 
pnblished  the  "  Colored  Oitizen  "  and  as  itseemed  the  Colored 
Cilizni  had  no  rightH  which  its  subacribers  were  pecuniarly 
bound  to  reBpect.  it  went  to  tlie  bottom  of  the  sea.  Sborlly 
aftenv.iL-d  he  atarted  tlie  daily  Witsp  but  got  stung  so  badly 
tint  he  had  to  hew  it  to  death  with  a  Broad-Axe.  Tlie 
Broitd-Axe  still  lives,  hewizig  to  the  line,  letting  the  ibijB" 
fall  where  they  may. 

John  M.  Clark,  one  of  the  proptielors  and  publitiheni  of  the 
Sroad-Axe,  waa  born  at  Drummonsville,  Ontario,  May,  1850. 
He  started  life  an  a  butcher,  and  afterward  went  into  the 
horseshoeing  bu.'^ineits.  lie  Ih  now  a  contractor  and  one  d 
the  editors  of  t!ie  Bivad-Axe. 

J.  C.  Delphy,  A.  B,  was  born  in  Pittsburgh,  Tit.,  on  July 
14,  1857.  Shortly  after  graduating  from  Howai-d  University. 
Washington,  D.  C.  in  1881,  he  became  correapondent  fur  the 


THE  AFRO-AMERICAN  PRESS. 

Gleyelaad  OazetU,  In  1882,  associated  with  E.  A.  Kuox,  J. 
A.  Strickland  and  R.  Day  Jr.,  he  edited  the  Pitteburgk 
Oommoner.  Since  1884  he  has  been  associate  editor  of  the 
JBroad-Axe. 

Rev.  C.  H,  Payne,  D.  D.  of  thb  "  Pioneer."  Huntinston, 

Va. 

CijriHto])her  H.  Payne  was  born  near  the  Red  Sulphur 
Springs,  Monroe  County,  Virginia,  since  West  Virginia, 
September  7,  1848. 

His  father  was  free  born  and  mother  was  set  free  br  her 
owner.  The  subject  of  this  sketch  wuh  their  only  child.  He 
was  left  fatherless  when  about  three  years  old. 

His  mother,  having  received  the  rudiments  of  an  English 
education  from  her  master,  became  the  anxious  teacher  of  her 
little  son.  He  learned  rapidly  and  had  read  through  tlie  New 
Testament  when  he  was  but  ten  years  old. 

While  quite  young,  he  married  Miss  Ann  Hargo,  a  lady 
who  has  clung  to  him  in  adversity  as  well  as  honored  him  in 
prosperity. 

They  have  born  to  them  two  girl.s  and  four  boye,  all  of 
whom  they  are  striving  to  educate. 

They  own  a  comfortable  home  in  Hinton,  W.  V. 

Mr.  Payne's  first  lessons  in  school  were  learned  in  a  night 
school  in  CluirleHton,  W.  V. 

From  this  place,  he  returned  to  his  home  where  he  eugage<l 
in  farming.  He  often  plowed  with  his  arithmetic  between 
the  plow  handles  and  would  commit  a  rule  to  memory  while 
his  horse,  was  resting.  He  would  sometimes  walk  two  or 
three  miles  at  night,  to  get  some  one  to  solve  a  problem  for 
him. 

lu  a  short  time;  he  began  to  teach  in  the  public  schools  of 
Mereer,  Monroe  and  Summers  counties. 


CHRISTOPHER  H.  PAYNE. 

He  became  a  Christian  in  1875,  was  licensed  to  preach  ia 
1876,  and  fully  ordained  to  the  gospel  ministry  in  1877. 

In  September  of  the  same  year,  he  entered  the  Richmond 
Institute,  now  the  Richmond  Theological  Seminary. 

Here  by  dilligent  study  and  Christian  deportment,  he  won 
the  implicit  confidence  and  universal  respect  of  students  and 
teachers.     He  graduated  from  this  school  in  1883. 

He  belongs  to  the  Baptist  denomination  and  has,  more  than 
once,  been  appointed  to  address  the  national  assemblies  of 
white  Baptists  in  their  annual  meetings. 

The  church  at  Coal  Valley  of  which  he  has  been  pastor  six 
yeara  is  one  of  the  most  flourishing  in  the  State  of  W.  Va. 

In  1885,  he  established  the  West  Virginia  Enterprise,  at 
that  time  the  only  weekly  negro  journal  in  the  state. 

While  editor  of  this  paper,  he  did  much  toward  creating  a 
sentiment  in  favor  of  negro  equality  before  the  law  and  in 
arousing  in  many  an  ambition  to  buy  laud,  build  homes  and 
educate  themselves. 

He  had  been  correspondent  to  the  Virginia  Star,  the  Hich- 
mond  Planet  and  to  several  other  negio  as  well  as  to  white 
journals. 

In  1884,  he  was  alternate  to  the  national  republical  conven- 
tion tliat  met  at  Chicago,  and  in  1888,  he  represented  the 
Third  Congressional  District  of  West  Va.  in  the  convention 
that  nominated  Hon,  Benjamin  Harrison  for  President  of  the 
United  States, 

He  has  been  tendered  the  nomination  for  the  state  legisla- 
lature  and  has  been  a  member  of  the  congressional  committee 
for  six  years. 

He  exerted  such  an  influence  in  the  politics  of  W.  Va.  in 
1888,  that  Gen.  Goff"  and  other  leading  men  in  the  state, 
ciedit  him  largely  with  success  of  the  republican  party  in 
that  year. 


THE  AFBO-AMEBIGAN  PRESS. 

The  Republican  executive  committee  the  entire  state  ticket 
and  many  other  prominent  men,  in  the  state  and  out,  en- 
doreed  him  for  minister  to  Liberia  in  1889. 

In  1890,  the  State  University  of  Ky.  conferred  upon  him 
the  degree  of  D.  D." 

In  the  same  year  ha  was  appointed  deputy  collector  of 
internal  revenue,  with  his  office  in  the  custom  bouse, 
Oharleston. 

It  was  solely  thought  the  efforts  of  Dr.  Payne  and  Prof. 
Byrd  Prillerman  that,  in  1891,  tlie  legislature  of  W.  Va. 
established  the  Uechanical  and  Agricultural  College  in 
Kanawha  County  for  the  benefit  of  the  negro  yonth  of  the 
state. 

It  wafl  in  this  year  that  he  became  one  of  the  proprietor  of 
the  Pioneer,  a  weekly  journal  printed  in  Huntington  with 
Rev.  I.  V,  Bryant  editor  in  chief. 

As  a  preaclier  and  an  orator  he  is  dignified  and  eloquent. 

As  a  writer,  he  is  polemic,  his  diction  pure,  and  his  style 
grace  ful. 

He  is  unquestionably,  the  most  representative  negrt  in  the 
atate  of  W.  Va.,  both  in  religion  and  politics. 


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>i.in>rM~nuo  ntmjMt  MMhudUm  — Bilbep  B.  T.  Robertl.     I 

with  Hliifactioii  lad  [ira£t.~H.  A.  Bum,  Pm.  Dkw  Th»I.  Seminu^. 
it  tuiabroDjFbt  thvienof  ■  lifa^Lme  vtd  tht  ttadj  af  filiy  ^cAra.  — Dind 
4.  Chkaia  ChruiiBD  AdnKall,     A  woaderfal  Sloir,  umplyuidg 
Li&iruBjSpriatSElil^MuL     I^  urn  in  lull  ipoipiiihf  wiih 


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imputiiL— BHbap  Kcner.    lo'tmr  IfRbcdi 

^nici.uUc— Biahi-  " — "■ —     ' ""--   " 

Adi^nbld  cnrr 


Theenf^TATini^priiiliBcaiidbiiidiQgBTtiapiotiiv  cimnaadtubjcctr— BufaapMcTjnrc 
knteritiDiii^  iDtlntcdTt  Had  impArtiaL— BMhop  Kteaer-    In  ct*tt  If  RboditE  Umilj 

ii  .hiHiU  han  iplmon  ihc  cnicruUc— Biahop  CinnbnT.     Im. ""-- =— 

■      ilul— BhhopDur     -      ■'    ■    ■■  -        -  ■■   ■= 


.     Inpirtiil  and  candid.— L.  C  GarUad.  Chan 
id  len  ya.n  nU,  an  ddichb  ■     •  ■   ■ 
H  Pral.  in  VjBdnbillUiii' 
— Bi-hop  FitigHiid.    Lire 


lorical  compaetne**  and  illuirTaliaDL — N.  W.  C.  Adnjcata.  Thia  manrclvna  itory  ■ 
laid  wilb  Inahnaaa  ind  Tiror  and  ooodetltd  condciuaiioD. — CaaadiaD  Mabadiil  U an- 
lioa.  tlialiktiDDiklDilicianl.—BnSids  Chrndan  Adncuc.  ll  encn  aU  HetEs- 
diM  hinorT  and  biinjia  il  down  lo  iba  preaeDi  da*. — Piltaburt  Cbriatiaa  Adrocala  It 
irC(Ia*iihcqua]Iiirnnaallbrudwaa(Mtlbadum.— UetbadiMPraMaUou  Balihson. 
Ha  it  tb«  binn  nt  any  Norihern  inUkor  wa  bar*  lyn  nmL—Thc  Emaciipal  HMbodnt. 
RaJdmoTQ^  Tbia  niRBiiir«  la  pleaiiBf  1€  tba  miad  aitd  Ibc  aechaiual  etccaEion  pltaaiiv 
taIhE  tya.  HearcB  weed  it.— OiriMian  Ad*satc  M.  E.  Ch.  Soatb,  Naihnlta.  Ilatk 
ba  DKd  ID  rtit  on  whiU  sn-jliv  — AUbanu  Cbriitian  Adncuf.  tg  lU  >ha  SBt  ■ 
compact,  ima  hhiuir  at  Iha  wbola  Hclhodiu  CbunA  m  aa*  bur  Hydc'i  SleiT  <<  Malh- 
odiun.-  Soatbtrn  Cbrniiin  AdTocaic.  Knnkal  It  ia  baniiaM  mbndunaM  U  ■■■ 
InctioDi  b'  th  far  yaan  and  aged  vc  ha«  cm  teta.  ~  Tba  MalaiaD  Ildlmdial, 
WUI  bt  driinnd  fn>  in  th>  nriooa  Orlaa  of  akfanl  bindhw: 

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td  sdc*  Ga  f  StTcain  dcvfv,  tE 


'MU.V.tV  »CO„ 


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Africa  and  America 


REV.  ALEX.  CRUMMEIX,  A.  B., 
Putor  St.  Luktt'i  Churah,  Wuhinirtoii, 


i 


Author  of   "The  Future   of  Africa,"   "The   Greatneea 
of  Christ,"  etc.,  etc. 

Note  some  of  the  GoutentB  : 

Oar  National  MiBtakee  and  The  Remedy  for  Them. 
The  ReaponBibilitj  of  the  First  Fathers  of  s  Conntry 

for  its  Fntare  Life  and  Character. 
The  Regeneration  of  Africa. 
The  Black  Woman  of  the  South. 


The  Race  Problem  in  America. 


Defense  of  the  Negro  Hace  in  America. 

The  Need  of  New  Ideas  and  New  Aims  for  a  New  Era. 

The  Discipline  of  Freedom. 

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